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Psychology chapter 7 midterm study guide

by: Hannah Zikria

Psychology chapter 7 midterm study guide PSYC 1001

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 1001 > Psychology chapter 7 midterm study guide
Hannah Zikria

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About this Document

Vocabulary and notes for the midterm exam on chapter 7
General Psychology
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Zikria on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Benbassat in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Ch. 7 Exam~MIDTERM~ MEMORY AND ITS USES IN LEARNING  VOCAB. to know: 1. memory=mental capacity to encode, store and retrieve information 2. explicit use of memory=conscious effort to encode/recover info thru memory processes 3. implicit use of memory=availability of info through memory processes w/o conscious  effort to encode or recover info 4.  declarative memory  =for information such as facts and events 5. procedural memory =how things get done; how perceptual, cognitive and motor skills are acquired, retained and used 6. encoding=process by which a mental representation is formed in memory  7. storage=the retention of encoded material/info over time 8. retrieval=the recovery of stored information from memory  9. iconic memory=memory system in the visual domain that allows large amounts of  information to be stored for very brief durations 10. short­term memory=memory processes assoc. w/ preservation of recent experiences &  retrieval of info from LTM; it’s of limited capacity and stores info for only a short length of  time w/o rehearsal  11. chunking=recoding single items of info by similarity or another organizing principle 12. working memory=memory resource used to accomplish tasks such as  reasoning&language comprehension; consisting of phonologic logic, visuospatial  sketchpad & central executive 13. long­term memory=memory processes assoc. w/ preservation of info for retrieval at any  later time 14. retrievalcurve=internal/external generated stimulus available help w/ retrieval of memory  15. recal(l=retrieval method) where individual is required to reproduce info presented before 16. recognition(=”)=> where ind. is required to identify stimuli that’s been experienced before 17. episodic memory=LTM for an autobiographical event and the context in which it  occurred  18. semantic memory=generic/categorical memory, such as the meaning of words&concepts 19. encoding specificity=(principle) subsequent retrieval of info enhanced if cues received at  recall time are consistent with those at the time of encoding  20. serial position effect=characteristic of memory retrieval where recall of beginning and  end items on a list is usually more accurate than items in the middle 21. primacy effect = improved memory of/for items at the start of a list  22. recency effect =improved memory of/for items at the end of a list  23. temporal distinctiveness=extent to which particular item are diff. from other items in time 24. transfer­appropriate processing perspective=memory is best when type of processing  carried out at encoding matches those at retrieval  25. levels­of­processing theory=theory; the deeper the level at which info was processes,  the most likely it is to be retained in memory  26. priming= In assessment of implicit memory, advantage conferred by previous exposure  to a word/situation 27. proactive interference =circumstances in which past memories make it harder to encode  and retrieve new info  28. retroactive interference =circumstances in which formation of new memories makes it  harder to recover older memories  29. elaborative rehearsal =technique for improving memory by enriching info encoding  30. mnemonic=strategy/device that uses familiar info to enhance info access in memory 31. metamemory =implicit/explicit knowledge about memory abilities & effective memory  strategies; cognition about memory  32. concepts=mental representations of a kind or category of items and ideas  33. basic level=level of categorization retrieved from memory most quickly and efficiently  34. schema=gen. conceptual framework (cluster of knowledge) regarding objects, people,  and situations;knowledge package that encodes generalizations about the env. structure 1. filled w/ specific scripts which include all the details of the situation in framework b. prototype=the most representative example of a category  c. exemplar=member of a category that people have encountered  d. reconstructive memory=process of putting info together based on gen. types of stored  knowledge in absence of specific memory representation e. flashbulb memory=peoples’ vivid/richly detailed memory in response to personal or  public events w/ great emotional significance  f. amnesia=memory failure caused by physical injury, disease, drug use or psych. trauma g. anterograde amnesia=inability to form explicit memories for events that occur after the  time of physical damage  h. retrograde amnesia=inability to retrieve memories from the time before physical damage  Memory=a type of information processing  explicit­involve conscious effort implicit­unconscious memories  declarative­for facts  procedural­for how to perform skills/set of skills  From Deadpool video:  memories are not stored in any specific physical area because they are chemical signals [which leads to chain reaction] that are transmitted through neurons (which have  physical locations that can be pinpointed in the brain) o each specific memory has a specific pattern it takes in the brain   the more you reinforce recall, you strengthen the signal pattern o sensory, STM and LTM  STM; memory use  iconic­large capacity but short duration  STM­limited capacity and brief duration w/o rehearsal  maintenance rehearsal­>extends information presence indefinitely  chunking (unrelated items into groups)­inc. STM capacity  working memory: made up 4 components that give resources for  moment­to­moment experiences and broader concept of which  includes STM  LTM; encoding and retrieval   total [storehouse of] knowledge of you and world­>very nearly  unlimited in capacity   match between circumstances of encoding and retrieval  determines ability to remember  retrieval cues­>allow access into LTM   Episodic memory=events that have been personally experienced  Semantic memory=for the basic meaning of words and concepts   serial position curve­>through distinctiveness in concepts  deeper processing­>typically allows better memory   implicit memory­important for similar encoding and retrieval  Ebbinghaus: studied time course of forgetting (~7+­2 objects and STM ~30 sec. duration)  Interference­when retrieval cues don’t lead to specific memories   memory performance improvement shown through  elaborative rehearsal and mnemonics   feelings­of­knowing: accurately predict info availability  * LTM structures:   Concepts­>memory building blocks of thinking formed when memory processes gather  classes of objects/ideas with commonalities {concepts are organized in hierarchies  [general to basic to specific]}  Schemas­>cognitive clusters with more complexity  o memory structure used for expectations & concepts for new info interpretation o remembering is a whole constructive process  ***RECONSTRUCTIVE memory: through recall study of War of Ghosts story (Bartlett)  levelling: simplifying the story [during recall]  sharpening: highlighting & overemphasizing certain details over others   Assimilating: changing/altering details to better fit participant’s own schemas  (=background, knowledge and ideas)  flashbulb memories­>in response to events of more emotional significance but may not always be more accurate than everyday memories (Loftus,et al)[car crash­ loftus&palmer] o new postevent info/input can bias recall making eyewitness testimony unreliable  * BIOLOGICAL BASIS:   different brain structures can be involved in different types of memories o Hippocampus; declarative memory of facts, dates, names & for consolidation of  spatial memories  o amygdala; critical for formation & retrieval of memories w/ emotional significance o cerebellum; procedural memory, memories acquired by repetition, & classically  conditioned responses  o striatum;complex, likely basis for habit forming & stimulus response connections o cerebral cortex; sensory memories and associations between sensations  *how different memories are acquired and represented in the brain discovered through  experiments with individuals with brain damage/memory disorders  imaging (such as PET scans) extend knowledge about brain basis memories


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