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psych 1001

by: Hannah Zikria

psych 1001 1001-11

Hannah Zikria

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abnormal psychology therapy
General Psychology
Benbassat, D
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah Zikria on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1001-11 at George Washington University taught by Benbassat, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Psych. Ch. 15 Vocab. 1. Biomed therapy=psych disorder treatment which alters brain functioning with chemical and physical interventions like drug therapy, surgery or electroconvulsive therapy 2. Psychotherapy=any member of a group of therapies used to treat psych disorders which try to change faulty thoughts, behaviors, perceptions and emotions associated with disorders 3. Clinical social worker=mental health professional whose specialization prepares them to look at social context of peoples’ problems 4. Pastoral counselor=member of a religious order who treats psychological disorders; by combining spirituality with practical problem solving 5. Clinical psychologist=individual who has earned a doctorate in psychology and has trained in the assessment and treatment of psych problems 6. Counseling psychologist=provides guidance in areas such as vocational selections, school problems, drug abuse and marital conflict 7. Psychiatrist=MD and completed post-doctorate specialty training; prescribes meds 8. Psychoanalyst=PhD or MD and post grad training in Freudian approach to understanding and treating mental disorders 9. Patient=the one taking biomed approach to treatment being treated for their problems 10. Client=used by clinicians who think psych disorders problems of living, not mental illness 11. Deinstitutionalization=movement (helped by Dorthea Dix) to treat people with psych disorders in the community rather than in psychiatric hospitals 12. Psychoanalysis=developed by Freud, intensive prolonged technique for exploring unconscious motivations and conflicts in neurotic, anxiety-ridden people 13. Insight therapy=technique by which the therapist guides the patient towards self-discovering present symptoms and past origins 14. Free association=therapeutic method in which patient gives a running account of thoughts, wishes, physical sensations, and mental images as they occur 15. Catharsis=expressing strongly felt but usually repressed emotions 16. Resistance=inability to discuss certain ideas, desires, or experiences 17. Dream analysis=psychoanalytic interpretations of dreams used to gain insight into one’s unconscious motives/conflicts 18. Transference=when a person in psychoanalysis attaches formerly held toward some significant person who figured into past emotional conflict to a therapist 19. Countertransference=when psychoanalyst develops personal feelings about a client because they perceive similarity to significant people in the therapists’ life 20. Behavior therapy->behavior modification=systematic use of learning principles to increase frequency of problem behaviors 21. Counterconditioning=technique used to substitute a new response for a maladaptive one by conditioning procedures 22. Exposure therapy=behavioral technique where clients are exposed to objects or situations that cause them anxiety 23. Systematic desensitization=behavioral therapy technique in which a client is taught to prevent anxiety arousal by confronting feared stimuli while relaxed; for one cannot be both relaxed and stressed at the same time. 24. Participant modeling=therapeutic technique where a therapist demonstrates desired behavior and client is aided, through supportive encouragement to imitate model behavior 25. Aversion therapy=type of behavioral therapy used to treat people attracted to harmful stimuli; attractive stimuli are paired with noxious stimuli to elicit negative reaction 26. Contingency management=general treatment strategy involving changing behavior by modifying consequences 27. Cognitive therapy=type of psychotherapeutic treatment that tries to change feelings and behaviors by changing how clients think about significant life experiences 28. RET=comprehensive system of personality change based on changing irrational beliefs that cause undesirable, highly charged emotional reactions, like severe anxiety 29. CBT=therapeutic approach that combines emphasis on thoughts and attitudes with the behavioral emphasis on changing performance 30. Human-potential movement=therapy movement that encompasses practices and methods that release the potential of the average human for greater performance/experiences 31. Client-centered therapy=humanistic approach that focuses on healthy psych growth based on assumption that all humans want to self-actualize 32. Gestalt therapy=focuses on ways to unite the mind and body to make a person whole 33. Psychopharmacology=branch of psych that investigates effects of drugs on behavior 34. Psychosurgery=procedure performed on brain tissue to alleviate a psych disorder 35. Prefrontal lobotomy=operation that severs the nerve fiber connecting frontal lobes with diencephalon, especially in the thalamic and hypothalamic areas; best known form 36. ECT=using electric shocks as an effective treatment for severe depression 37. Spontaneous-remission effect=improvement of some mental patients/clients without professional intervention; baseline against which some therapies must be assessed 38. Placebo therapy=therapy without any specific clinical procedures that result in client improvement 39. Meta-analysis=stat. technique for evaluating hypotheses by providing formal mechanism for finding general conclusions found in data from different experiments 40. Common factors=components that psychotherapies share that contribute to therapeutic effectiveness Major goals of therapies 1. Reach a diagnosis about what is wrong, possibly to find correct DSM-IV- TR label and classification 2. Finding possible/probable etiology and functions that the functions serve 3. Making a prognosis of the course the problem will take w/ and w/o treatment 4. Prescribing and carrying out a form of treatment, designed to minimize or eliminate troublesome symptoms and their sources Psychodynamic approach; symptoms as consequence of inner, unresolved traumas and conflicts Behavior therapy; treats certain behaviors as disturbances that need to be modified Cognitive therapy; restructures the way one thinks by changing their self-statements Humanistic tradition; focuses on the patient’s values Harry Stack Sullivan: thought Freudian theory didn’t put importance of social relationships and a patient’s needs for acceptance, respect and love. He said mental disorders involve traumatic intra-psychic processes and troubled interpersonal relationships and strong societal pressures. Anxiety starts because of insecurities in relationships. Therapy should focus on patient’s feelings and therapist’s attitude. Melanie Klein: thought against Freud’s emphasis on Oedipus conflict. ->death instinct preceded sexual awareness and led to innate aggression. Love unites and aggression separates. Conscious love is connected to remorse over destructive hate and aggression to loved ones. Love and hate are our own personal heaven and hells that one can make for themselves [cannot be separated from one another]  Importance of person’s resistance and effect of past experiences on current reality Behavior therapy-focuses on behavior modification Counterconditioning- for anxiety Mary Cover Jones: showed fear could be unlearned through conditioning Exposure therapy also works to decondition Joseph Wolpe: nervous system cannot be both calm and relaxed at the same time; central to theory of reciprocal inhibition Systematic desensitization: confronting feared stimuli while relaxed in a graduated sequence-> after ranking stimuli in order of increasing order from weakest to strongest Positive reinforcement strategies: when a response is immediately followed by reward  techniques must be able to be practiced regularly, not just stay in therapist’s office changing false personal beliefs about oneself and false notions in general -but how to have a positive (optimistic), yet realistic outlook on life 4 tactics:  challenge client’s basic assumptions about their functioning  evaluate evidence client has for an against the accuracy of automatic thinking  reattributing blame to situational factors rather then intrinsic blame on the individual  talk about alternative solutions to complex tasks which could lead to failure Albert Ellis: first came up with RET; personality change to transform irrational thought patterns CBT: combines changing false beliefs with performance modification Self-efficacy->must develop realistic strategies to attain unattainable goals HUMANISTIC: with freedom of choice comes the burden of responsibility  client-centered therapy is nondirective


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