New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro to Sociology Study Guide

by: Madison Pamfilis

Intro to Sociology Study Guide Sociology 101

Marketplace > Towson University > Sociology > Sociology 101 > Intro to Sociology Study Guide
Madison Pamfilis
GPA 3.148

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the important notes that we will be tested on, on the midterm this week. I hope they are helpful!!
Intro to Sociology
William Tsitsos
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Intro to Sociology

Popular in Sociology

This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Pamfilis on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 101 at Towson University taught by William Tsitsos in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 195 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Towson University.


Reviews for Intro to Sociology Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/06/16
Intro to Sociology Study Guide What is Sociology?   Sociology: systematic study of society and social interactions (socius= companion,  logos= the study of)  Society: a group of people in which members interact, reside in a discernable area, and  share a culture  Pioneer sociologist= C. Wright Mills  Sociological imagination: how individuals understand their own and others' pasts in  relation to history and social structure  Cultural patterns and social forces pressure individuals to make one choice versus  another, therefore sociologists believe that personal choice is non­existent, and is rather a  matter of your environment   Figuration: the process of simultaneously analyzing the behavior of individuals and the  society that shapes them The History of Sociology  During the Age of Enlightenment (18th century), philosophers developed general  principles that could be used to explain social life   Industrial Revolution (19th century)­ changed society greatly, due to increased mobility,  new employment, urbanization, etc. (caused the development of Capitalism in many  nations)  The father of sociology: Auguste Comte (reinvented the term sociology, which was  actually coined by Emmanuel­Joseph Sieyes in 1780)  o Comte believed that society could be studied by using the same methods which  were used to study the natural sciences o Believed in the potential of social to work towards the betterment of society by  discovering the laws that governed society o Positivism: the scientific study of social patterns (so named by Comte)  Karl Marx: German philosopher and economist, coauthored the Communist Manifesto o Rejected Comte's positivism, instead he believed that societies grew and changed  as a result of the struggle of the social classes over production (industrial revolution  created a wage gap between those who worked in and those who owned the factories) o Predicted that the inequalities of capitalism would become extreme, leading to the collapse of capitalism in favor of communism o Communism: economic system under which there is no private or corporate  ownership, everything is owned communally and distributed as needed  o Marx had the idea that Idea that social conflict leads to change, which is still a  major theory in modern society  Herbert Spencer: rejected much of Comte and Marx's philosophies, favoring a form of  government in which market forces were allowed to control capitalism  Emile Durkheim (1858­1917): helped to establish sociology as a formal academic  discipline  o People rise to their proper level in society based on their merit  o Believed that by studying "social facts", you could know if a society was  "healthy" (stable), or "pathological" (undergoing the breakdown of social norms)  Max Weber: prominent German sociologist, made major contribution to the methodology of sociological research (he believe that it was difficult, if not impossible, to use standard  scientific methods in order to understand the behavior of groups, as they function  differently than the natural sciences do)  Verstehen (German word): meaning "to understand deeply", or attempting to understand  the social view of an insider in the culture being studied  Antipositivism: proposed by Weber and other sociologists; the idea that sociologists  should strive for subjectivity as they worked to represent social processes, cultural norms,  and societal values (rather than objectivity as seen in studying the natural sciences) in order to gain an in­depth understanding of what was being studied  Quantitative sociology: using statistical methods (such as surveys) to analyze data and  uncover patterns of human behavior  Qualitative sociology: attempting to understand patterns in human behavior by  conducting interviews, focus groups, and analyzing different sources  Functionalism: one of the main "macro" perspectives in sociology o Functionalists argue that all social institutions serve the function of maintaining  the health of the "social organism"  Social institutions: "stable set of roles, statuses, groups, and organizations… that provide  a foundation for behavior in some major area of social life" (Newman) o Ex: education, family, politics, religion, healthcare, the economy o Anthropology vs. sociology: sociology is concerned with social institutions,  whereas anthropology is concerned with groups that were not complex enough to  form institutions o Ex: crime? "without crime there can be no society" (Durkheim)  Serves a function within society  Solidifies community of non­criminals by a moral code  Manifest vs. latent functions o Manifest functions: the intended, obvious, consequences of activities designed to  help some part of the social system o Latent functions: unintended, unrecognized, consequences of activities that help  some part of the social system o Ex: manifest and latent functions of educational institutions (MF= pursuing  education, obtaining diploma; LF= developing friendships, independent thinking)  Emile Durkheim: French sociologist  o Functionalist, studied many social institutions (crime, religion, etc.) o The main way which social institutions serve the health of the social organism is  by creating and reinforcing "social solidarity" within a society o Social solidarity: community/unity o Durkheim on religion: definition= belief and practice oriented to the sacred,  around which a community forms (social solidarity component) o Sacred (versus profane) objects or places:  Rules around use, associated with "extraordinary" times of life, awe­ inspiring, symbolic, no instrumental use (meaning their use has nothing to do  with their sacredness)  Ex: religious texts, diploma, crucifix, flag, wedding ring, trophies,  art/museums/statues, national parks, national anthem o Profane: mundane, no rules around use, ordinary times of life, have instrumental  use o Collective effervescence (CE): the experiences of "group excitement" when an  individual forgets self and becomes immersed in group affiliation (social, NOT  individual); CE is associated with sacred places/objects o Ritual: a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order o Ritual: a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order   How do rituals create or reinforce social solidarity? o Goffman’s theory of dramaturgy is a theory of interaction rituals (scripts, aligning actions) o Symbolic interactionalism (SI): micro­perspective, concerned with small group  interactions and attaching meaning to different symbols   Seeks to understand society by examining day to day interactions of  people with a focus on language, gestures, and symbols, and the meanings  they assign to situations (create social meanings; interpretations)  SI often focuses on the social forces which influence the formation of  identity and self (environment influences social aspects)  Examples: reality, identity, self  Assumptions of SI:   Reality is a “social construction” (ex: identity)  Cooley’s “Looking­glass self” (1902): humans use verbal and non­ verbal responses of others to fashion a mosaic image of who they  are   Self­fulfilling prophecy: a prediction that, purely as a result of  having been made, causes the expected result to occur, thus  confirming its own “accuracy”   Ex: if you tell a child that it is stupid consistently, they will  begin to believe it and, as a result, perform as a lower rate  in academia  o Structural vs. Individualistic expectations:   Philip Zimbardo: The Psychology of Evil (psychology professor at  Stanfordà looked into the mentality of guards/prisoners)  Stanford Prison Experiment (1971)  Adu Ghraid Prison Scandal (2003­4) à in Iraq, the prison was used  for prisoners of war (showed American guards performing sadistic  punishments on prisoners, etc.)  Structural: power of the situation is stronger than the power of the  individual (Zimbardo’s belief)  Individual: “sadistic, bad people” (Public belief) o Impression formation (IF):  Process by which we define others based upon observable cues (ex: age,  race, sex, appearance, verbal and non­verbal expressions)  This is not the same as stereotyping (although stereotypes may influence  the impressions which we form of others)  Stereotypingà everyone in a group is essentially the same  IF: combinations of observable cues and messages formed of the  individual  o Impression Management (IM):  People form impressions of others and manage impressions of themselves  at the same time  Social group membership (ex: gender, age, social class) suggests  culturally defined expectations of behavior and values   Observable characteristics (ex: appearance and clothing) verbal and non­ verbal communication are all taken into account  Ex: cosmetic surgery  Erving Goffman (1959): THE Presentation of Self in Everyday Life  IM is the process by which people attempt to present a favorable public  image   Primary goal: increase the likelihood of obtaining favorable  outcomes (ex: get a job, get a date, get a promotion)  There is still a “core self” that influences these identity portrayals  o Dramaturgy: the study of social life as a theatre (Goffman)  “performing” when in social interactions via IM  Terms have parallels in theatre   Examples:  role: image being projected (or attempted)  audience: people who observe our behavior  script: communication with others  props: objects used to present image  frontstage: where appropriate appearance is maintained  backstage: where preparation for performance is made and where  IM can be relaxed and the “core self” can emerge o Impression Mismanagement (IMM):  Spoiled identities; when we fail at IM, we follow different tactics to re­ establish order and regain our identities  Aligning action: to restore order and repair damaged identity   Ex: “I don’t want to sound____, but ___” or “no offense _____” o Socialization: process through which one learns how to act accordingly to the  rules and expectations of a particular culture  o Structure vs. Agency: (similar to structural vs. individualistic)  Social structures and forces influence and constrain our behaviors, as well  as our life outcomes  “agency”: our ability to influence our own life outcomes, much like the  philosophical concept of “free will”  Status: named social position that people can occupy (ex: mother,  student…)  Can be ascribed or achieved   Ascribed status: acquired at birth or taken on involuntarily  Achieved status: social position entered based on personal  accomplishments  o Role: set of rights, obligations, behaviors, duties, etc. associated with a particular  status  Role conflict: the frustration that people feel when the role demands of  one status that they are expected to fill clash with the demands of another  status   This forces us to prioritize and makes our different statuses particularly  salient (relevant to a particular situation)  o Agents of Socialization:   Family: primary source of personal socialization  Social class: similar experiences of power, prestige, wealth, etc.  Lead to similar ways of perceiving life and social structure   Peers: peers can strongly influence beliefs and behaviors  Media: transmit messages about the type of people we “should” be; subtle  and not so subtle messages  Education: transmission of knowledge, Also latent functions which are  forms of socialization  o Socialization of Gender:  Sex: biological maleness or femaleness  Gender: psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness or  femaleness (masculinity/femininity= role)  Ex: Elizabeth Lambert (how does this demonstrate the concept of role  conflict?)  Athlete (seen in common society as inherently “male”) vs. woman  (socially constructed roles associated with femininity)  Environmental factors  Adult behavior often differs with children labeled as “boys” or  “girls”  Greater encouragement of motor activity with boys  More interpersonal stimulation and vocalization and nurturing with girls  Gender specific terms of endearment (sweetie, cutie, princess vs.  slugger, tough guy…etc.)  Gender specific toys (domestic vs. mechanical)  Encourage creativity, nurturance, and physical attractiveness in  girls  Encourage education, science, war, invention, exploration,  competition, and aggression in boys Sex and Gender  Sex and gender are not the same!  Sex: biological maleness or femaleness  Gender: “psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness o Sociologists often speak of “doing or performing gender”  Social construction of sex: not the same arguments as for the social construction of race; the two category (M/F) system is a social construction that does not reflect the variety of human sexual diversity o By this argument sex should be viewed as a spectrum o Babies   born   of   “indeterminate   sex”   (“intersex”,   hermaphrodite,   sexual dimorphism)  Social construction of gender: femininity/masculinity is enforced by social forces (media, parents, other agents) and traits do not reflect genetic dispositions  Gender inequality:  o In the media: portrayal of women as inconsistent (perfect wife/mother/career woman); sexualization of female athletes and reporters; “catch 22” of gender in media and pop culture (ex: women who care too much about their appearance are shallow, but if they do not care enough their sexuality is questioned) o In families: much of the inequalities that women face today are centered around their traditional family role; working women essentially work two jobs (work and family) seen as a “second shift” o Economy: gender segregation (about half of all US workers are female, this increases in male dominated fields); women still make up the majority of traditionally “female” jobs [administration, childcare, teaching]  The Gender Wage Gap: o Full time working women earn 77% of their male counterparts o The wage gap is wider for women of color (intersectionality of race and gender) Relevant Links:  William Julius Wilson (See interview clip) Why Are White Death Rates Rising?  School & residential segregation in the US: individualistic vs. structural explanations What is the general size of the gender wage gap  “digital divide” What challenges does lack of broadband access pose? Sherry Turkle: Alone Together: Goffman’s front & back stages Women’s Economic Opportunity Index: How common are laws mandating paid maternity leave? What is “  ape culture?” How does socialization influence the creation of this type of culture? The “ Bechdel  test”: Does this illustrate institutional sexism (similar to insitit. racism) in film? Phillips book: Be prepared for an essay question asking you to discuss how two concepts (excluding symbolic interactionist concepts, including Goffman) that we have covered this semester are illustrated in the book. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.