BIOL 304 Exam 2 Study Guide
BIOL 304 Exam 2 Study Guide BIO 304
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Casey on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 304 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Garrie Landry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Economic Botany in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
1. Origin of Agriculture: When, where, how, why When – Agriculture can only date back to about 10,000 years ago. Within 2 thousand year span, everyone was practicing agriculture (8,000 years ago) Where – began at the Fertile Crescent How - Anderson’s Hypothesis: Dump Heap Hypothesis (threw remaining food in a pile and one day saw new growth happen) Why - Carl Sauer The reason behind the transition to agriculture was based on: population pressure and seasonal changes It wasn’t one specific thing, it was a series of things Something had to cause us to start cultivating plants 2. Domesticaion – to adapt (a plant) so as to be cultivated by and beneficial to humanbeings 3. Fertile cresent– the cradle of agriculture 10,000 years ago today it is the Iraq area, Middle East/Northern Africa 4. Pollen grains- microscopic particles composed of pollen; they have a tough coat that has the characteristics of the plant producing it. They are completely indestructible. 5. Edgar Anderson - Anderson’s Hypothesis: Dump Heap Hypothesis i. While being hunter/ gathers, the people would bring back what that got to their living areas. Whatever they did not consume they would throw in a waste pile (aka Dump Heap) after a period of time the people observed the very things they ate beginning to grow/create new plants 6. Carl Sauer – the man who came up with the reason “why” for the origin of agriculture 7. Origin of cultivated plants- the location where a plant originated from, the region where the ancestory began 8. Alfonse De Candolle- decided to start researching the origin of cultivated plants. We were beginning to lose track of where plants came from because they had spread and continue to spread so rapidly. 9. Nicolay Vavilov- A Russian botanist who came up with a solution to figuring out where plants originated without written history, etc. Genetic Diversity 10.Gene centers – Vavilov seperated the world into 8 regions/centers, providing the sources of genetic diversity 1. Chinese Gave us: tea, oranges, soy beans, hemp, peaches 2. Indochina Gave us: black peppers, bananas, mango, coconut, rice, sugarcane, and lots of spices 3. Central Asian Old Gave us: apples, pears, grapes, peas, onions World 4. Near Eastern Gave us: wheat, rye, oats (3 important grains) 5. Mediterranean Gave us: olives, beats, mustards (mustard family), lettuce 6. Abyssinian Gave us: coffee, barley, melons, okra, sorghum 7. Mexican/Central America Gave us: chocolate, corn, cotton, red pepper, avocado, bean New 8. Central Andean World Gave us: squash, pineapples, sweet potatoes, Irish potato, peanuts, tomatoes, tobacco 11.Temperate vs tropical – 2 factors that affect 2 factors that temperate regions: affect tropical Temperature and regions: Photoperiods Wet and Dry 12.Rosaceae - family of roses; this is the most important family- provides the most of our edible fruits such as apples, pears, etc. a. Malus = apples b. Pyrus = pears c. Prunus= prunes, cherries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, almonds d. Rubus = raspberries and blackberries 13.Cling vs Freestone A. Freestone peaches= when a peach is opened the seed comes out freely B. Cling, exact opposite, the seed does not come out freely 14.Olea europea - Oleaceae Family = (Olea Europea) =Olives a. Sodium hydroxide – what is used to make olives edible and to get rid of the bitter taste of olives 15.Nut bearing trees – walnut, pecan, beach nut, chestnut, acrons, hazelnut 16.Rutaceae (Citrus family) – produces 2 most important crop, oranges 17.Limey – this is the nickname given to the Biritsh sailors who prevented scruvy, the viatamin definicency sailor experienced on long trips over see, cured/prevented by eating citus/ limes 18.Grafting - Take seed and plant it/grow it 1. Then cut off top of another plant (same type of plant) and jam the cutting into the new grown stem 2. Do this to ensure the uniformity: attach a desirable plant to a healthier plant (the plant seeds grew strong healthy roots= hearty source for desirable plant) 19.Hesperidium - A berry having a thickened leathery rind and juicy pulp divided into segments a. Grapefruit - Originated exactly on the island of Barbados about 300 years ago; most citrus derive from South East Asia b. Navel oranges – one of three prominent commerical types of ornages; it has no seeds/ sterile, triploid, 3N plant, cultivated from cuttings 20.Cucurbitaceae (melon family) - Mostly melon (old world fruit) and squash (new world fruit) family; the cucumber is part of this family (look at name of family) 21.Pepo- an indehiscent fleshy one-celled many-seeded berry (as a pumpkin, squash, melon, or cucumber) that has a hard rind and is the characteristic fruit of the gourd family 22.Melons vs Squash: 1. Squash The seeds are editable, the fruit is not very sweet Gourds Squash only produces one seed The name of this squash varies, but here in Lafayette, we call it Mirliton The English name for this squash is vegetable pear 2. Melons Very sweet and filled with lots of water Has many, many seeds 23.Monoecious vines - vines produce male and female flowers; female flowers produce fruit, male flowers pollenate and fall off (male flowers can be eaten) 24.Gourds dried squash, if you leave a squash on its vine it becomes no longer edible and dries up 25.Solanaceae (night shade family) - Many members of the night shade family are deadly/toxic Non-toxic memebers include: a. Tomato b. Red Pepper – historically all peppers were hot (due to oil and seeds), now many varieties available c. Eggplant 26.Musaceae- (banana family) origin in South East Asia a. Plantain – Member of the banana family that is a starchy, low in sugar variety that is cooked before serving as it is unsuitable raw 27.United Fruit Company – first company in 1920s in Boston that figured out a method for receiving green bananas and then turning them ripe within 24-48 hours by exposes the fruit to ethylene gas 28.Ethylene Gas – the gas naturally produced by bananas to ripen the fruit 29.Banana republic – the name given to the countries that were under the control of the United Fruit Company 30.Anacardiaceae Family – originates in Soth East Asia a. Poison Ivy Family i. 2 other varieties: poison oak and posion sumac b. Mango – mangos have a low toxicity, beware of mango mouth (irritation of the lips due to eating too many mangos or eating the skin of wild mangos) c. Pistachio – the fleshy part of the fruit is not considered edible, the shell is the pit of the drupe d. Cashew – only one seed per fruit, seeds are toxic (that is the reason why we roasted the seed in order to eat it) 31.Breadfruit tree – part of the fig family (Moraceae) 32.Mutiny on the Bounty – the movie based on the hunt for breafruit trees in order to feed a population 33.Bromeliaceae – otherwise known as the Bromeliad family (pineapple family) a. Pineapples – Christopher Columbus named this fruit because he thought it looked like a pine cone and tasted like an apple 34.Lauraceae – family name for below fruits a. Persea – Persea americaine = avacodo; persea palustris= red bay b. Sassafras – gave us filé and the original root beer c. Avocado – persea americaine 35.Chinese Goose berry/ Kiwi - Native to China, but popular in New Zealand. New Zealand changed the name of the fruit (who really wants to eat goodeberries?); they did this as a national campaign to bring more popularity to the fruit. A clever guy said the fruit looked like a kiwi (the brown, fuzzy bird) and thus the name stuck. 36.Passion Flower & Fruit - cultivated in Hawaii commercially for its juice; Local name: May Pop vine/fruit 37.Palmae / Arecaceae – the palm family st a. Coconut palm – origin= Phillippines; Phillipine islands are also ranked 1 in cocnut production; Islands of the Pacific would have never been colonized by man if it wasn’t for the presence of coconuts on the land b. Phoenix /Date Palm - All palm trees in Sierra desert are phoenix palms; Produces the fruit – dates c. Brazil nut - Every Brazil nut you will consume is from South America wild, NOT A FARM 38.Okra / Gumbo – part of the Hibiscus family and thrives under extreme heat 39.Poaceae / Graminae = Grains / Grasses 40.Tillers – individual stem of each grain Old World memebers of the grain family: a. Hordeum = Barley – considered to be the frist grain ever cultivated by man b. Triticum = Wheat – became a favorite, repaced barley as the most important grain to us 1. Gluten – was the reason why wheat became so popular; wheat naturally had gluten in it making the dough more elastic, easier to work with, and made the bread rise c. Secale = Rye – =poor man’s wheat; grows with what- thought originally as a weed; is hearty in comparison to wheat d. Avena = Oats – seconadary crop, not a main one e. Oryza sativa = rice – the staff of life for Eastern Asia i. Staff of life – meaning basic staple food, necessary part of a region/country’s diet 1. Fertility symbol - Rice was so important/sacred to people of South East Asia- they threw it at weddings as a symbol of fertility 2. Upland rice – rice produced in Brazil rainforests; use the land cleared of timber for rice fields 3. Paddy rice – rice patties= flooded fields, rice thrives in very wet places f. Sorghum – Very popular in dry areas – it has a unique ability for leaves to curl to reduce water loss during drought spells 1. Grain sorghum – natural plant fibers are used to make natural broom bristles 2. Sweet Sorghum – popular for consumption in Africa, can use sorghum to make things similar to popcorn, molasses, etc. 3. Sorghum is one of two grains easily used to make flat breads (not pita breads. A true example: corn bread) g. Millet – typically feed to birds because it is very difficult to eat due to the kernal around each seed; the edible millet that has kernals completely removed from it is called Hullel Millet Longest shelf life : Has the longest shelf life of any grain grown by man! o Grains have natural expiration dates; most grains have finite storage abilities due to their oil content o Millet, does not have an oil content and can lasts up to ten years Members of the grain family originating in the New World 41. Zizania aquatica wild rice – aquatica = water, wild rice is grown in water 42.Zea Mays = corn – only known through cultivation, not grown in the wild/nature 43.As said multiple times, the bean plant is the faithful wife of corn. This is not only due to the fact the bean plant wrap itself around the corn plant, but also because corn crops produce better whenver it is planted next to a bean plant. This is because beans are very high in protien and have nitrogen fixing bacteria in roots (Nitrogen fixation). The nitrogen in the bean plant gives it its protien, but there is so much nitrogen that it releases the excess nitrogen in the ground, providing nutrients to surrounding plants. 44.Crop rotation – due to beans excess nitrogen it has become a common practice to rotate the fields; rotating a bean field with a corn field, that way the corn can receive the excess nitrogen Rosaceae Ericaceae Heath Juglandaceae (Rose Family) Family (Nut bearing *Malus= Apples *Azalea (not edible) family) *Pyrus= Pears *Vaccinium *Walnuts *Cydnia Quince Blueberry * Pecan *Prunus= Prune family Cherry Huckleberry *Fagaea Temperate fruits Cranberry Beach Nut Peaches Chestnut Nectarine Oleaceae Acron Apricot (Olive Family) *Hazelnut Almond *Rubus *Olives Raspberries Blackberries *Fragaria Strawberry Tropical Fruits Rutaceae (Citrus Family) Moraceae *Oranges Anacardiaceae Navel Solanaceae (Night (Nut bearing (Fig Family) Blood Shade Family) *Breadfruit Valencia *Potato & Tobacco family) *Lime (not fruits) *Cashew Bromeliaceae/ *Tomato *Mango Bromeliad Family *Lemon *Red Pepper *Pistachio *Pineapple *Grapefruit *Poison Ivy *Eggplant Cucurbutaceae (Melon and Poison Oak Lauraceae Squash family) Musaceae Poison Sumac Family *Squash (Banana Family) *Sassafras Gourd *Avacado *Banana Palmae/ Arecaceae *Red Bay *Melons (Palm Family) Watermelon, etc. Passifloraceae *Coconut *Phoenix Malvaceae Chinese Gooseberry Family (Hibiscus Family) *Kiwi *Passion fruit *Brazil Nut *Okra Old World Grains: *Barley New World Graminae *Wheat (Grain Family) Grains: *Rye *Wild Rice *Oats *Zea Mays (Corn) *Rice *Sorghum *Millet
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