EXAM 1 study guide
EXAM 1 study guide Biol360
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Biology of Human Sex
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monique Magpayo on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol360 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Maryanne Menvielle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Biology of Human Sex in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
Reviews for EXAM 1 study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/06/16
Nicole dreams of having a family one day. After learning that the egg is only viable for 1.___24 hrs__ after ovulation she is determined to be able to predict the days of her peak fertility. After completing this week’s lesson, she concludes that since she as a regular 30day cycle, she most likely ovulates on day 2.__14___ . Nicole also realizes that there are other signs for her to interpret her fertility level. Knowing that just prior to ovulation the mucous discharged from her 3._______cervix_______ is expected to thin due to a 4._____high________ level of 5.____estrogen________ in her bloodstream. Nicole has learned that in order for her to become pregnant, her 6.______Hypothalamus_____ must release 7._________hormones__________ to communicate with her pituitary to secrete the gonadotropins 8.______FSH______ and 9._______LH_______. 10._________FSH_______ will promote the growth of follicles in her 11._____ovaries______ during the 12._______follicular______ phase of the ovarian cycle. The growth of the follicle will produce 13.________estrogen_______ which will cause the lining of the uterus, or 14.________endometrium________, to grow during the 15._______proliferative________ phase of the uterine cycle. Just prior to ovulation, the regulation of estrogen levels switches to a 16.______stimulaton____________ feedback loop, instead of 17._______inhibition_________ feedback like the other times of the cycle. The switch will cause a surge of 18._______LH_________ to be released by the 19._______pituitary_________. Once ovulation has occurred the 20._________secretory__________ phase of the uterine cycle and the 21.______luteal________ phase of the ovarian cycle have begun. After the egg has been released it will travel to the 22.________oviduct___________ where fertilization most often occurs. The follicle that ruptured to release the egg will become the 23.____corpus luteum______ and produce 24.________progesterone________ which will be used to maintain the 25._________endometrium________ in case a fertilized egg becomes implanted. Nicole cannot wait for the day that a fertilized egg will produce 26. ______hCG_______ to signal the 27.________corpus luteum_______ in her ovary to continue its production of 28_______progesterone______________. If she does not get pregnant this month, the 29.______corpus luteum___________ will degenerate causing the levels of 30.___estrogen ______ and 31._________prgesterone__________ to drop. This drop in hormones will cause the 32. _______endometrium__________ to shed and 33.________menstruation________ will begin, thus starting the cycle over again. Nicole is thankful that she has a very regular cycle and does not suffer from 34.__________olgiomenorrhea_________ which allows her to always be prepared for the beginning of her period. Though they are regular, she has experienced severe cramps since she began menstruating and has been diagnosed with 35.________dysmenorrhea____________. MENSTRUAL CYCLE Each month an egg is released from an ovary in a process called OVULATION At the same time the lining of the uterus thickens, ready for pregnancy. IF FERTILIZATION DOES NOT TAKE PLACE the lining of the uterus is shed in menstrual bleeding and the cycle starts over An OVARY contains hundreds of thousands of OOCYTE (immature eggs: or ova) Each OOCYTE enclosed in a structure called a FOLLICLE The menstrual cycle is under control of hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND and the OVARIES The PITUITARY GLAND is under control of the HYPOTHALAMUS The HYPOTHALAMUS produces the hormone GnRH (Gonadotropinreleasing hormone) GnRH stimulates the interior lobe of the pituitary to secrete FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) FSH travels in the blood stream to the ovaries and stimulates a group of follicles to grow into PRIMARY FOLLICLES and SECONDARY FOLLICLES These produce a hormone called ESTROGEN which acts to stimulate the growth of the ENDOMETRIUM (the inner lining of the uterus) The SECONDARY FOLLICLES compete with each other with only one surviving into a MATURE FOLLICLE, the rest atrophe and die. The increasing level of ESTROGEN also acts on the HYPOTHALAMUS and the INTERIOR PITUITARY to increase the level of GnRH and induce the production of another hormone: LH (Luteinizing hormone) A surge in LH secretion triggers OVULATIONThe release of the egg from the follicle and the ovary The egg is then swept up from the FIMBRE and taken into the UTERUN TUBE FERTILIZATION by SPERM, when it occurs, usually takes place in the AMPULA (the widest section of the fallopian tube The fertilized egg immediately begins the process of development while traveling towards the uterus After 6 days, it becomes a BLASTOCYST and in implanted in the endometrium Meanwhile, the leftover of the ruptured follicle has become a CORPUS LUTEUM which secretes PROGESTERONE (which further stimulates uterine development making it a nutritious bed for the embryo in the event of pregnancy In the absence of pregnancy the CORPUS LUTEUM atrophies and PROGESTERONE LEVELS FALL which leads to the break down of the endometrium , menstruation begins and the cycle starts over SCORM PACKAGE male anatomy and physiology AIDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF GAMETES Testicle Epididymis Seminiferous tubules Interstitial cells AIDS IN THE DELIVERY OF GAMETES Urethra (transporting semen) Vas deferens Bulbourethral gland Seminal vesicles Ejaculatory duct Prostate FACILITATES COPULATION4 Corpus spongiosum Corpora cavernosa Genital end bulbs OTHER FUNCTION Urethra (transporting urine) \ ORDER the pathway of SPERM 1. Seminiferous tubules 2. Epididymis 3. Vas deferens 4. Ejaculatory duct 5. Urethra 6. Urethral meatus SCORM FEMALE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY AIDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF GAMETES ovary AIDS IN THE MOVEMENT OF GAMETES Fimbria Cilia Cervical mucous Oviducts FACILITATES COPULATION Vestibular bulbs Clitoris SUPPORTS DEVELOPMENT, LABOR, AND DELIVERY Fibro elastic layer of the vagina Endometrium Myometrium Pubococcygeus (PC) muscle OTHER FUNCTION urethral meatus SCORM PACKAGE MALE ENDOCRINOLGY MALES high levels of testosterone anti mullerian hormone FEMALES high levels of progesterone high levels of estrogen BOTH FSH LH GnRH HORMONE PRODUCTION AND TARGETS HYPOTHALAMUS Production site of GnRH PITUITARY Production site of LH Target site of inhibin Production site of FSH Target site of GnRH GONADS Production site of testosterone Target site of FSH Production site of anti mullerian hormone Production site of inhibin Target site of gonadotropins Production site of estrogen Target site of LH Production site of progesterone NONE OF THE ABOVE Target site of anti mullerian hormone REGULATING THE LEVELS OF HORMONES 1. High levels of hormones from the gonads 2. Decrease in the output from the hypothalamus 3. Decrease in the output from the pituitary 4. Decrease in the output from the gonads 5. Low levels of hormones from the gonads in blood 6. Increase the output form the hypothalamus 7. Increase in the output from the pituitary 8. Increase in the output of the gonads SCORM MENSTRUAL CYCLE DAY 1 a female begins her period follicle begins to develop in the ovary DAY 10 high levels of estrogen cause the cervical mucous to thin follicular phase of the ovarian cycle peak in estrogen production endometrium is building up to prepare for implantation DAY 14 ovulation occurs peak in LH production basal body temperature drops DAY 21 peak in progesterone production endometrium secreting substances to nourish a fertilized egg cervical mucous thickens due to the effects of progesterone corpus luteum produces progesterone DAY 26 corpus luteum almost completely degenerated drop in progesterone production luteual phase of the ovarian cycle coming to an end
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'