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EXAM 1 study guide

by: Monique Magpayo

EXAM 1 study guide Biol360

Monique Magpayo
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.52

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About this Document

this combined with my previous notes would answer all the questions of the exam
Biology of Human Sex
Maryanne Menvielle
Study Guide
biology study guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monique Magpayo on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol360 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Maryanne Menvielle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Biology of Human Sex in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
Nicole dreams of having a family one day.  After learning that the egg is only viable for 1.___24 hrs__  after ovulation she is determined to be able to predict the days of her peak fertility.  After completing this  week’s lesson, she concludes that since she as a regular 30­day cycle, she most likely ovulates on day  2.__14___ .  Nicole also realizes that there are other signs for her to interpret her fertility level.  Knowing  that just prior to ovulation the mucous discharged from her 3._______cervix_______ is expected to thin  due to a 4._____high________ level of 5.____estrogen________ in her bloodstream. Nicole has learned that in order for her to become pregnant, her 6.______Hypothalamus_____ must  release 7._________hormones__________ to communicate with her pituitary to secrete the  gonadotropins 8.______FSH______ and 9._______LH_______.  10._________FSH_______ will  promote the growth of follicles in her 11._____ovaries______ during the 12._______follicular______  phase of the ovarian cycle.  The growth of the follicle will produce 13.________estrogen_______ which  will cause the lining of the uterus, or 14.________endometrium________, to grow during the  15._______proliferative________ phase of the uterine cycle.  Just prior to ovulation, the regulation of  estrogen levels switches to a 16.______stimulaton____________ feedback loop, instead of  17._______inhibition_________ feedback like the other times of the cycle.  The switch will cause a surge of 18._______LH_________ to be released by the 19._______pituitary_________.  Once ovulation has  occurred the 20._________secretory__________ phase of the uterine cycle and the  21.______luteal________ phase of the ovarian cycle have begun.  After the egg has been released it will  travel to the 22.________oviduct___________ where fertilization most often occurs.  The follicle that  ruptured to release the egg will become the 23.____corpus luteum______ and produce  24.________progesterone________ which will be used to maintain the  25._________endometrium________ in case a fertilized egg becomes implanted.  Nicole cannot wait for  the day that a fertilized egg will produce 26. ______hCG_______ to signal the 27.________corpus  luteum_______ in her ovary to continue its production of 28_______progesterone______________.  If  she does not get pregnant this month, the 29.______corpus luteum___________ will degenerate causing  the levels of 30.___estrogen ______ and 31._________prgesterone__________ to drop.  This drop in  hormones will cause the 32. _______endometrium__________ to shed and  33.________menstruation________ will begin, thus starting the cycle over again. Nicole is thankful that she has a very regular cycle and does not suffer from  34.__________olgiomenorrhea_________ which allows her to always be prepared for the beginning of  her period.  Though they are regular, she has experienced severe cramps since she began menstruating  and has been diagnosed with 35.________dysmenorrhea____________.    MENSTRUAL CYCLE  Each month an egg is released from an ovary in a process called OVULATION  At the same time the lining of the uterus thickens, ready for pregnancy.  IF FERTILIZATION DOES NOT TAKE PLACE the lining of the uterus is shed in menstrual  bleeding and the cycle starts over  An OVARY contains hundreds of thousands of OOCYTE (immature eggs: or ova)  Each OOCYTE enclosed in a structure called a FOLLICLE  The menstrual cycle is under control of hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND and the  OVARIES  The PITUITARY GLAND is under control of the HYPOTHALAMUS  The HYPOTHALAMUS produces the hormone GnRH (Gonadotropin­releasing hormone)  GnRH stimulates the interior lobe of the pituitary to secrete FSH (Follicle­ stimulating hormone)  FSH travels in the blood stream to the ovaries and stimulates a group of follicles to grow into  PRIMARY FOLLICLES and SECONDARY FOLLICLES  These produce a hormone called ESTROGEN which acts to stimulate the growth of the  ENDOMETRIUM (the inner lining of the uterus)  The SECONDARY FOLLICLES compete with each other with only one surviving into a  MATURE FOLLICLE, the rest atrophe and die.  The increasing level of ESTROGEN also acts on the HYPOTHALAMUS and the INTERIOR  PITUITARY to increase the level of GnRH and induce the production of another hormone: LH  (Luteinizing hormone)  A surge in LH secretion triggers OVULATION­The release of the egg from the follicle and the  ovary  The egg is then swept up from the FIMBRE and taken into the UTERUN TUBE  FERTILIZATION by SPERM, when it occurs, usually takes place in the AMPULA (the widest  section of the fallopian tube  The fertilized egg immediately begins the process of development while traveling towards the  uterus  After 6 days, it becomes a BLASTOCYST and in implanted in the endometrium   Meanwhile, the leftover of the ruptured follicle has become a CORPUS LUTEUM which secretes PROGESTERONE (which further stimulates uterine development making it a nutritious bed for  the embryo in the event of pregnancy  In the absence of pregnancy the CORPUS LUTEUM atrophies and PROGESTERONE LEVELS  FALL which leads to the break down of the endometrium , menstruation begins and the cycle  starts over SCORM PACKAGE male anatomy and physiology  AIDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF GAMETES  Testicle  Epididymis   Seminiferous tubules  Interstitial cells  AIDS IN THE DELIVERY OF GAMETES  Urethra (transporting semen)  Vas deferens   Bulbourethral gland  Seminal vesicles   Ejaculatory duct   Prostate FACILITATES COPULATION4  Corpus spongiosum  Corpora cavernosa  Genital end bulbs OTHER FUNCTION  Urethra (transporting urine) \ ORDER the pathway of SPERM 1. Seminiferous tubules 2. Epididymis 3. Vas deferens 4. Ejaculatory duct 5. Urethra 6. Urethral meatus SCORM FEMALE ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY   AIDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF GAMETES  ovary AIDS IN THE MOVEMENT OF GAMETES  Fimbria  Cilia  Cervical mucous  Oviducts  FACILITATES COPULATION  Vestibular bulbs  Clitoris  SUPPORTS DEVELOPMENT, LABOR, AND DELIVERY  Fibro elastic layer of the vagina  Endometrium  Myometrium   Pubococcygeus (PC) muscle OTHER FUNCTION  urethral meatus SCORM PACKAGE MALE ENDOCRINOLGY  MALES   high levels of testosterone  anti mullerian hormone FEMALES   high levels of progesterone   high levels of estrogen BOTH   FSH  LH  GnRH HORMONE PRODUCTION AND TARGETS  HYPOTHALAMUS   Production site of GnRH PITUITARY  Production site of LH  Target site of inhibin  Production site of FSH  Target site of GnRH GONADS  Production site of testosterone   Target site of FSH  Production site of anti mullerian hormone   Production site of inhibin  Target site of gonadotropins   Production site of estrogen  Target site of LH  Production site of progesterone  NONE OF THE ABOVE  Target site of anti mullerian hormone REGULATING THE LEVELS OF HORMONES 1. High levels of hormones from the gonads 2. Decrease in the output from the hypothalamus  3. Decrease in the output from the pituitary  4. Decrease in the output from the gonads 5. Low levels of hormones from the gonads in blood 6. Increase the output form the hypothalamus  7. Increase in the output from the pituitary  8. Increase in the output of the gonads SCORM MENSTRUAL CYCLE  DAY 1 ­a female begins her period  ­follicle begins to develop in the ovary DAY 10 ­high levels of estrogen cause the cervical mucous to thin ­follicular phase of the ovarian cycle  ­peak in estrogen production  ­endometrium is building up to prepare for implantation DAY 14 ­ovulation occurs ­peak in LH production ­basal body temperature drops DAY 21 ­peak in progesterone production  ­endometrium secreting substances to nourish a fertilized egg ­cervical mucous thickens due to the effects of progesterone  ­corpus luteum produces progesterone DAY 26 ­corpus luteum almost completely degenerated ­drop in progesterone production  ­luteual phase of the ovarian cycle coming to an end


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