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by: Alexia Acebo


Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7
Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Dr. Jason Pienaar

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About this Document

This study guide includes EVERYTHING that will be covered in Exam 2! Clicker questions are also included!
Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Dr. Jason Pienaar
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology I in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
HISTOLOGY lthe study of the normal structures of tissues ces embedded in an extracellular matrix of ground substance and brous proteins FOUR CLASSES I IKE u r 5 tifr If 1 7 L U r n v A v u r at J A gr Eipi tlhialial Yinin ag like i slag aidarmial lag aartilagaji Warming Muscular lag naurnil Eng alaalatal rnuaalajl 1 Epithelial sheets of tightly packed cells a Little visible extracellular matrix b Covering and linings or glands 2 Connective loosely scattered cells a ECM most prominent structural component b Bind support protect and connect parts of the body 3 Muscular Long cylindrical or spindle shaped cells a Little visible extracellular matrix b Contractile cells that generate force 4 Nervous cells exhibit numerous processes a Mostly uid ECM b Cells that process and transmit info Tissue Celllls Extracellular matrix Selle eeerete mailintalin Giro d on S extremelluler v I g g I v lmetrilx substance proteins Extracellular fluid C llaen fiitrere gel er eelid 2 was reeiet teneicin Water iene nutrients 3t imejer Ellleetile fibers lm ll lm lEEUlESE exhibit elleetileilty Gliyeeeeimilneglyeene Preteeglyeene 3 A lFietieulller fibere Gllyeepreteine emellller eellegenlilke Fiihrere nrmriirlie ell mnan ECM Ground Substance Charged attract water molecules Bottle brush like structures Slow pathogens connect ECM to cell membranes Bind plasma membranes to extracellular collagen and proteoglycans Fibrous proteins Tough resist stretching Spongelike frameworks for spleen and lymphnodes Ability to recoil I 31 l aJ V r i is ivquot 7 g 1 Disco id pink v Columnar Sheruoidai Fibrus Cell junctions all cells except blood are anchored to each other or their matrix by intercellularjunctions 1 Tight junctions Integral membrane proteins of adjacent cells lock togethrform an fiermeable seal A v 7 1 PE 2 Desmosomes Integral membrane proteins of adjacent cells interweave between cells and to intermediate laments within cells Resist mechanical stress ii New I i 3 Gap junctions Interlinked protein pores that allow substances to pass between cells 2 Broad Types of epithelial tissue 0 Coverings and linings o Glands General Characteristics Polarity Avascular lnnervated Specialized Contacts Supported by connective tissue Regenerative GP39IDWNH i u j a39iia39quotq 1 u 339 9 l 4 l l a Number of layers Serb slid pe Squamous Cubolal ifEBlumnar Simple Epithelia FOUR TYPES 1 Simple Squamous 0 Single layer tight junctions 0 Rapid diffusion o Lungs kidneys endothelium serosa o Secretes lubricating uid 0 Simple Cuboidal 0 Single layer of square or round cells 0 Absorption and secretion 0 Ciliated in lungs 0 Liver thyroid mammary salivary kidney tubules and bronchioles 0 Simple Columnar 0 Single row of tall narrow cells 0 Microvilli goblet cells 0 Absorption and secretion Cell sha 0 GI tract lining uterus kidneys uterine tubules o Pseudostrati ed columnar o All cells touch basement membrane 0 Cilia and goblet cells 0 Secretes and propels mucous 0 Upper respiratory tract and portions of male urethra GOBLET CELLS Strati ed Epithelia 220 layers only deepest layer contacts basal membrane FOUR KINDS o Strati ed squamous 0 Most abundant epithelia in body 0 Deepest layers continuous mitosis o 2 kinds keratinized epidermis palms and soles and non tongue oral mucosa esophagus vagina o Strati ed cuboidal o 2 or more cell layers 0 secretes sweat sperm production ampovarian hormone production 0 sweat gland ducts ovarian follicles and seminiferous tubules o Strati ed columnar rare 0 Transitional epithelium o Multilayered and change shape 0 Ureter and bladder Boundary Interactions 1 Protection Secretion Excretion Absorption Filtration l39lExocrine glands maintain contact with body surfaces via ducts l Endocrine glands no ducts secrete products into blood stream TYPES of Exocrine aoihar alveolar 1 Fir39lrrmmgs 5334er Eir iafu Pi i39IJr Elii39IDIEITuLIiLL itlt i ag Gilal ds in eg Glands large ilnteatine in Urethra F g 7 j n 1 agi Mammary glands g 39T feaan rm a 939 argm git139 39 smallmm a 391 F331 mmm gar f i am Emumad mammals w 39 mm ma a l 39 l l ul l iigal tulgir Emirmm m 16 er iii393 I 1 V H 7V byfheglarrd quot 23quot I E39g39 Kldl eys ExiClllll le Emcrena Gland Endgame Gland 3 ESTES aincreaa artisan o Merocrine eccrine 0 Products released as vesicles during exocytosis tear glands pancreas gastric glands sweat 0 Apocrine 0 Similar to merocrine but part of sytoplasm broken off along with vesicles from apical portion mammary glands o Holocrine 0 Cells accumulate product then rupture to release it sebaceous glands on scalp HISTOLOGY II General functions and properties of connective tissues Bind organs together 0 Tendons muscle to bone 0 Ligaments bind bones to bone 0 Adipose holds eyes and kidneys together Support 0 Bones support body 0 Cartilage support nose ears larynx o Fibrous tissues form cardiac skeleton and framework 0 Physical Protection 0 Cranium rib cage and adipose tissue Immune Protection o Leukocytes are immune cells 0 Loose connective tissue forms a battleground of matrix 0 Movement 0 Bones provide levers o Cartilages move vocal chords 0 Storage 0 Adipose tissue is major energy reserve 0 Bones Major calcium and phosphorus reserves 0 Heat Production 0 Brown fat catabolism Transport 0 Blood transports nutrients gases hormones and wastes i7 n N r39 39wEilii39iETiii a u h Ill l m i a Specialized connective tissue tissue proper Connective Tissue Proper o Fibroblasts Produce and maintain bers and ground substance 0 Adipocytes Fat cells store triglycerides in large inclusion bodies 0 Mast Cells lmmune cells granule contents stimulate in ammatory responses 0 Phagocytes Immune cells macrophages and neutrophils ingest and destroy foreign cells and damaged host cells Cartilage o Produced by chondroblasts Secrete matrix become trapped in lacunae become chondrocytes 0 Little innervation and vascularization Relies on perichondrium 0Bone 0 Similar cartilage to ECM but more collagen o Osteoblasts secrete matrix some become trapped in lacunae as osteocytes others remain associated with the periosteum 0 Matrix deposited in layers lamellae o Canaliculidelicate channels that connect lacunae o Osteoclasts dissolve bone tissue in remodeling Blood 0 Only liquid connective tissue 0 Ground substance plasma 0 Cells erythrocytes amp leukocytes e nlng Characteristics Derived from E lmml origin ECMI plllaye an extensive role in function identified by cellular enrnpdei tilbn and ECM tlSSlUlE ll39fllTi39iElr connective tissue lLtJdee connective tissue recrllar Cartil E Dense eunnee tive tieeue Erma dllP aE Ellldbd lFietIeular Types of connective tissue Areolar o All 5 cell types 0 All 3 ber types 0 Abundant vascularized amp supplies epithelia with blood provides space for immune cells to patrol Dense Regular 0 Closely packed parallel collagen bers resist predictable tension 0 Tendons and ligaments 0 Few blood vessels Dense Irregular o Dense closely packed collagen random directions resists unpredictable tensions o Dermis tough protective capsules around organs brous sheath around bones nerves and cartilages Dense Elastic o Closely packed parallel elastic bers randomly oriented collagen bers 0 Linings of large blood vessels certain ligaments heart stomach Adipose o Adipocytes 0 Single large central globule of triglycerides 0 Highly vascularized 0 WHITE fat accumulates subcutaneously adults 0 BROWN fat infants heat only Reticular o Fibroblasts reticular bers 0 Sponglikel stroma and spleen o Cartilage o Hyalin most abundant collagen few chondrocytes epiphyseal plates 0 Elastic elastin ear pinnae o Fibro collagen resist compression intervertebral discs knee MUSCLE and NERVOUS tissue MUSCLE o Cellsmyocytes muscle bers Excitable Cytoplasm lled with myo lament myo bril proteins Endomesium 39 ji swam i A Farm 7 r quotwtH quot I l q Samoanme Munro Skeletal Smooth Long oylinarloal oslls Branoning oalls FUsiforrn oalls 1M ultinuolaatso IErnyoblast origins uni or bi nuolaatso U ninuolsatso Dosiou s striations Dbtrious striations No striations N ERVOUS o 2 cell types 1 Neurons cell body dendrites axon 2 Neuroglia support neurons 0 ECM mostly ground substance Organ 2 or more tissues that combine for a common structure and funcUon True membranes Serous amp Synovial SEROUS Line pleural pericardial and peritoneal cavities SYNOVIAL line cavities surrounding moveable joints Memrane Like Structures mucous and cutaneous MUCOUS line all body inners that go out CUTANEOUS the skin Tissue repair Wear 8 tear er injuryr requires eelllllls te be replaeed Regeneration Fibrosis Gemiplete replaeement Damaged eelllls replllaeed e li damaged eells by edllagen Tissue regains Fibreblllas ts divide and lullllll turueJitienalllitgir preduee edllagen te make dense irregular sear tissue Epithelllial tissues Midst eenneetitre tissues Gardiae 8i Sikellle talll musele Smeeth musele All Nerueus tissue Same PNS nerves BONE TISSUE l 1 Osseus tissue 2 Dense regular irregular and cartilage 3 Bone Marrow tissue FUNCTIONS Support 0 Protection 0 Movement 0 Mineral Storage and Homeostasis o AcidBase Balance Adipose Tissue Storage yellow bone marrow 0 Blood Cell Formation 206 Bones in average adult TYPES Long bones lengthgtWidth Short bones lengthwidth 0 Flat bones thin and broad o Irregular bones don t t into other categories Sesamoid bones within tendons o Wormian sutural bones rtivaullar sartilags lhyallilnsj Csasrs suriaass that isrrn jsints alsn with lusrisating f lulrzl alltrrar sass sf msssrrilsnt 1quot E39 l h 515 lPllP illquot Pslriiuatsum D utsr dsnss irrsgular ssllagsnsus lay sr innsr sstssgsnis laysr Csllagsrl lilaer sslsnd ints bansrnatris as psa fslratilng Sharpsyls I lfiltlslrs 39 Nutrient inramina Minuts hslsa in bans tissus that allsw biased vssssls ts psnstrats Diapll39iyrsis Endlnatsluim Fistisular ssnnsstiss tissus linss rnarrsw savitiss s ssvsrs trabssular Msdullary suriasss sf spangy sans wiw Elpiilplnyssal plate I lliilns quot Hyalins sartilas saris sf sans slsnatisn j A Epiphys s Compact bone dense osseus tissue encloses medullary cavity 0 STRUCTURE o Osteon structural unit Cylinder of concentric lamella rings Collagen bers in adjacent lamella twist in opp Directions Osteoblasts secrete collagen become osteoclasts trapped on borders between lamella Spongy cancellous bone win ends of long bones amp inner portion of short at bones contain bone marrow always surrounded by compact bony strutstra beculae Structure 0 No osteons 0 Blood supply from compact blood vessels Suture 7 1 Perieeteum Duter enee irregular eellegenaua layer inner nateegenie layer Ballagen filaera extend 39 inta bane rnatrix ea iperlferaiiiing Sharpeye I iiilhers Diplx e Layer uni enngy bane 73 eandwienecl between 2 f earnpaet bane la yera 5 Treheeullae lined with r entdeeteum nauae bane i r quotal J rnarrew i39 39 I Inner enimipaet Dene Severed with periaateurn layer RED marrow produce blood cells YELLOW marrow store triglycerides in adults a sseo u tls Celllls Extracellular matrix stengenlilccells I undifferentiated stem GENE Inlmgl nilc matrix a 65pflEGlM 532 lHydroxyalpatite crystals Ca a F quot Bicarbonate Mg Nla stew as 7 7 u that maintain the lECM 35 of lEClM tastedlid Gollllagenl fibers prateoglycans SEOEIEEEE glyeaproteins dissolve bone ECMI FOUR major types of bone cell Embryonic mesenchymal BONE BUILDING 1 Osteogenichighly mitotically active found in periosteum and endosteuml some differentiate into osteoblasts 2 Osteoblasts Don t undergo cell division secrete collagen bers that form bone matrix Fibers become encrusted with minerals like calcium trapped in hardening matrix become osteocytes 3 Osteocytes mature bone cells trapped in Lacunae maintain matrix and signals Embryonic Monocytes BONE DISSOLVING 4 Osteoclasts BONE TISSUE Ossification Osteogenesis formation of bone l 2 WAYS 1 lntramembranous a Flat bones of skull and clavicle i Starting material membrane of embryonic connective tissue 2 Endochondral a Rest of skeleton i Starting material hyaline cartilage model Bone formation Memlrane of embryonic connective tissue 1 l Hyalin cartilage model lntramemlbranous Endochondral oeeificaiton ossificlaiton Primary woven bone Primary woven bone llvlature secondary lamellllar bone 0 Primary woven bone 0 Irregular arrangement of collagen bers 0 Abundant osteocytes little inorganic matrix 0 Present during embryonic or fracture repair 0 Absorbed by osteoclats and replaced with secondary Secondary Lamellar bone 0 Higher of inorganic matrix 0 Fully formed lamella PROCESSES INTRAMEMBRANOUS 1 Mesenchyme cells condense into soft tissue permeated with blood vessels 2 Mesenchyme differsntiates into osteogenic cells line up along blood vessels and become osteoblasts secreting collagen in primary ossi cation centers 3 Osteocytes become trapped in matrix deposited by osteoblasts hardened by mineral deposition 4 Osteoblasts continue to deposit ossues tissue Spongy bone formed by continuous trabeculae formation More mesenchyme adjacent to spongy condenses into periosteum Nl 3 Osteoblasts beneath periosteum condense into a layer of compact bone on either side of the developing spongy ENDOCHONDRAL 1 Hyalin cartilage model formed by chondroblasts 2 Chondro s differentiate into osteoblasts and deposit a bone collar around the shaft that grows toward the plates perichondrium becomes periosteum 3 Internal chondrocytes in ate and die in primary ossi cation center 4 Osteoclasts arrive in the blood digest inexternal calci ed tissue to create the marrow cavity Osteoblasts arrive and deposit Both follow wave of wave of chondrocyte death 5 Secondary ossi cation center develops in epiphysis creating second marrow cavity After birth epiphysis cavity spongy bone Hyalin cartilage limited to epiphyseal plate lines later Osteoclasts continue to hollow out diaphysis we1 0 Longitudinal Growth 0 Chondrocyte division in epiphyseal plate Longitudinal g v lZene efeeei eetienl L351 Dgtg magtg dep eill bone tieeue a Beeerne entrapped USIEGGWES i f 39 I39ll V Zeine ef cell eeleillieetien 1 Deed eeleified ehendreeytee Heeewe ehendrebleete L 9 53 mea Appositional Growth 0 Osteoblasts underneath periosteum deposit new compact bone Hormone chemicals secreted into the blood by endocrine glands etc Growth Hormone Increase Mitosis of chondrocytes in epiphyseal plates Testosterone Increase rate of appositional growth Accelerates closure of epiphyseal plates Estrogen Increase rate of longitudinal growth Potently accelerates closure of plate BONES CONTINUOUSLY REMODEL Ca ion homeostasis Bone repair 0 Replacement of primary with secondary Adaptation MUSCLE TISSUE o Skeletal long multinucleated innervated Cardiac shorter bi or uninucleated branched involuntary connected by gaps 0 Smooth short spindle shaped uninucleated gaps l ECM endomysium CHARACTERISTICS Contractility o Excitability Conductivity o Extensibility o Elasticity Smccth endoplasmic reticulum Sailrcnplasmic reticulum g 5 39 39 iquot w quot 7 Tm e Gwoplasim Nucleus quot Myuifihril quotg 39 Mitcchcnricn anden Muscle Feeeiele Epimy erium Surreunde r mueele amp eenti nuee lee tenden Nucleus EDEITK Lighi A hand I ham Muscle flber Sereoplesmio reticulum Myo bms ermri39rral cistemae Trensvereetubule 39 Therriad Terminal ci eternee Myefllamente Sarcrolemrna Mitochondria Sarcoplasrn I irlj r le39s Tuhurleeurf eerunrpltaemle reticulum a 39 rerl Channels Tenrrrminal cisterna 7 e1 lil39le eereepleemle reticulum MMsnle lter iFWament pru ieiims ati39n My sin Ti ti r1 Trupnmasin Trnp nin Mirminquot lamenm ThwijEE filament L Elastic llamam 39I39i ifl fi amemta HEI EIEH HEI Ei aarc rnere Samamare Flunlctiiam mntractiile Lill it n 2 Zeqdiiisas 3quot Thi k filamem Thin filarnsnt j quot Ibamd Aha39nd Juanaquot MEMBRANE POTENTIAL Electrical gradient separation of charged particles electrolyte pairs across the plasma membrane sarcolemma Electrical Potential potential energy due to barrier sarcolemma maintaining gradient 0 Voltage Difference in electrical potential between 2 points Membrane Potential E potential difference either side of the cell membrane Sodium Potassium pumps help generate resting membrane potentials Sarcolemmas are more permeable to Potassium than Sodium MUSCLE TISSUE Action Potential Quick local temporary change in membrane potential epolarizaiimn Hepfiarizaiiun Firtn 39iLI39egLE L39 grmnr W39i 39ia ii memen h m iil E Paw5 H a l Tmntm m manna Fagin Mille resting membrane potential VOLTAGE GATED CHANNEL PROTEINS 1 Resting Phase a Gated channels are closed i NaK gradients maintained by pumps and K leaks 2 Depolarization Phase a Na channels open in response to a depolarizing stimulus i Na enters the cell down its gradient and further depolarizes the membrane 3 Repolarization Phase a Na channels close i K channels open k exits the cell down its gradient and repolarizes the membrane 4 NAK pump restores resting potential PROPAGATION SUb SQCILJent voltage gale channels are stimulated 3 Kli Ha KiIl 39 lK Neurons stimulates initial muscle aetin potentaii Ttulaullla Motor neurons stimulate all muscles to contract lALL skeletal muscle bers are innervated Neuromuscular Junctions Axon branches of motor neurons synapse with muscle bers at neuromuscularjunctions Synaptic vesicles at end of axons contain acetylcholine a neurotransmitter Acetylcholine is secreted into the synaptic cleft and interacts with acetylcholine receptors ligand gated sodium channels on the motor end plate of the sarcolemma ExcitationContraction thI i U39l AP from neuronl Acetylcholine secretion Ligand gated Na channels in sarcolemma open AP t tubules T tubule depolarization results in Ca channels in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca interacts with troponin trleases tropomyosin and allows myosin heads to interact with actin sarcomere contraction Muscle relaxes when Acetylcholine no longer present and Ca returns to normal Ca2 binds te troponin causing tropomyosin to faii off the actin exposing the active sites At rest tropomyosin twists arcLind actin blocking its active sites Actin fiiamenti disc x gi u39 d 1 3 395 39g lfun Tropomyesin Myosin filament M USCLE RELAXATION 1n Ail39F hydrolysis seeks the myesin heads a 2 Myesin heads bind to eetin aetiue sites eresshriegej Myesiin releases AD and P5 pewer 4 Binding of a new ATP breaks W stlreilte pulls aetiln quotinwards M lliine eiresshritlge Acetylcholinesterase degrades acetylcholine in synaptic cleft Sarcolemma returns to resting potential and calcium channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum close 3 Calcium ion pumps return calcium to sarcoplasmic reticulum 4 Troponin and Tropomyosin block active sites on actin Nl Energy Sources 1 Immediate Anaemic Aembic sources is Ell18089 glucose eatabelisrn 1 rn eaiabelisrn Birestiine phesphste CF Glyeelysis amine Kireibs eyele 7 ages 5 GP 1 are In cystseal Glum e Fatty Kinase 39 CPaDP raTPmreanne quot I Di usen 1r Myeglsein 2 syruuate v Hiigih exygen39 Lew ssygen 39H leetie asicl NERVOUS TISSUE Organ System a collection of organs working together for a common funcUon Nervous system Brain 0 Spinal cord Nerves Nerve Bundle of axons Blood vessels Surrounded by oonlrielotive tissue M1300 billion rIIuros 39 W V g g 12 pairs mil U million insurons 3 1 pairs ENE filters Eli integrates sensory inpuL coordinates appropriate rasponsas signals Sympa hotio Parasy39mpatnstio division division CNS fllterg 8i mammal signais 8i epexrdinates app rep riate response Sends an Afferent signal E e rent signal sent tp to the CNS via spinal nerves Somatic sensery Division I I Sikeietai muscle in hands NEWE Emmg m eexntraet ta paii finger away frern heat finger detects heat 39 Emma 39 THE Neuron iEenclrites I Cell Body Nucleus and cytoplasm Produces all proteins for signaling 0 Numerous mitochondria o Nissl bodies 0 GOLGI No centrioles Dendrites Numerous short highly branched Generate local potentials NOT action potentials Axons Slow amnall Only 1 Generate and conduct AP s AP s turned into chemical signals synaptic knobs Axon plasma membrane axolemma surrounds axoplasm Myelin sheath Fast axonall transport transport mutian Anter grade Retrograde intarogracla only rm quota 13 mm l day 5 g 200 40 mm ll clay C DSkEIEi l 39 i Vealeles maintaining UllhEl proteins l a E H E Stubstanges E eagle cetyloholine membrane bound orgainel lea Slow lbeoause it is quotstop Si gin Mural r l 391 Hinton LAESEFEM39IEIH Etruc39mrall Elias li lui ipular Neurons Bipolar Neurons iFieudu39unipnlar Neumns Etrugmrasll the aim1 with 131 Ul rice Lie nail tea Int133g llfl iquot391ji liigl39ly Line ax g39i 35113 Eingle grim mm that will Features L39lilquotll39l iEl3939l tlel39mi iir le39s lef39i l ulna ir39Ll39J rm 33i 1fl lilt titr39rulifgajl Emirates r Dendrites Dendrites a Dendrite 392 Piece 1in f I II E I mp I l i a endings P H i J 1 r V 7 v ll I i if 39 1 Peripheral l amn i Ell Cell lmd39 hm 3 Cell iiimmI EEI IIrEII Axon anionquot hr in 3 I quot k w a E Friallsensm J bplnal mater Pyramidal F39urltlinjjE 39p 39 h u l n39 quoti39 f i l al i l l 39fp39 neuron sell all neuron Typical FallIjijul ifF i39 ii realigns il IlFlfiik Llilifl i he39llself I fall39ereiiji 59mm i l f lrll ineliltzns Fungtiunal r39mLirrJm Elias Location Elliott glt ri a 1hr C li im rm IEJ39GT an the M a 515115 ID 59 55339339 tbr V Tl N5 assoc ated minim1 pain ran tritium ion SE tailor5 twFHim 3511 EPI na 1 The cell bodies of neurons in common signaling pathwaysl group together CNS nuclei PNS Ganglia The axons of neurons in common signaling pathwaysl group together CNS tracts PNS nerves NEUROGLIA Holcl neurons together maintain extraoelliuillar fluidl assist neural function 1 reair damageCl tissue EtVPes CNiS 4 Wipes F39le 21 tylpe3 Astrocyles I 39 H Oligodendrooytes Sicgliw m Cells Mieroglial cells Satellite cells Ependymal cells CNS I n r rquot F in r f 3 A l r H s 39 a ll 139 K E Bell type Asimeyrbes ilrllielfoglia Epemdymal Ila llgn emdmc es 7 i hnnllmr nelijmne E hld vessels ill li plane Hammad and magmas lm quothe Line Helm venmelee FMMMI39H39quot Mlalniaiin e raeellular enl renlmeni mile39ii 3mm mere hagee Predrjeecerebrnepiinall Assisi iiln Headbrain barrier furmarinr mum mm quot5 an Iin Glimmqu fluid V Simulate eerebresp nal Repair damage tissue mm with lm PNS eg Psemdeumipelar remen Central tam Gellll mm Sammm Ila Salelllhe lls u Wrap ar und ecume l I a Fume lmn amns m farm myelm Surruncl a super t eell bale5 Sheath Myelin Sheaths o Schwann cells wrap around part of single axon o Wraps from inside out 0 Outer layer forms neurolemma o Begins in early fetal o Oligodendrocytes 0 Outside in o No neurolemma 0 After birth Nervous tissue regeneration CNS Astrocytes form scar tissue PNS axon regeneration is possible myelinated axon is present 1 Wallerian dlegeineratien Phagddytes digest edrnpdnents distal td severance pdnt 2 Gr th ipireeesses term Several rdsirnal sell extensidns sprdut frdrn aadn ednnested to sell buddy CLICKER QUESTIONS as long as cell body and part of l 3 Hegelneiratien tube terms Sdhwann sells and basal lamina term a regeneratidn tube x4 Hegeaneratien tiulhe dilireets gre39wtlh math predess in tube stimulated td dentinue drawing rdwth tasters released by tube 5Cenineetien With target cell reestalblllished Ssnwann sells tdr rnyelin sheaths rnusele atrdpny halted


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