Exam on Chapters 9-10: Study Guide
Exam on Chapters 9-10: Study Guide PSYC 1001
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PSYC 1001 Dr. Ramezan Dowlati Exam Study Guide: Chapters 9 and 10 CHAPTER 9 Vocabulary: Cognition = all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Concept = a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people Prototype = a mental image or best example of a category Algorithm = a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem Heuristic = a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently Insight = a sudden realization of a problem’s solution Confirmation bias = a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence Mental set = a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past Intuition = an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or though, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning Availability heuristic = estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory Overconfidence = the tendency to be more confident than correct, or to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments Belief perseverance = clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited Framing = the way an issue is posed; can significantly affect decisions and judgments Creativity = the ability to produce new and valuable ideas Convergent thinking = narrowing the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution Divergent thinking = expanding the number of possible problem solutions; creative thinking that diverges in different directions Language = our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning Phoneme = in a language, the smallest distinctive unit of sound Morpheme = in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix) Grammar = in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with an understand others; semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences Babbling stage = beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language One-word stage = the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words Two-word stage = beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements Telegraphic speech = early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram -- “go car” – using mostly nouns and verbs Aphasia = impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area Broca’s area = controls language expression – an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech Wernicke’s area = controls language reception – a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression, usually in the left temporal lobe Linguistic determinism = Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think Practice Questions 1. How do concepts simplify our thinking? 2. The more closely something matches the ________, the more readily we recognize it as an example of the concept. 3. When Anna sees a wolf for the first time, she learns that it is a canine and therefore integrates it into her concept of “dog”. Later, when asked to draw the wolf, she draws the ears floppier and the eyes rounder than it actually looked. She remembers the wolf more like a pet dog because her memory has a natural tendency to shift toward a concept’s _________. 4. It is (easier/harder) to recognize things that are more different from our prototypes. 5. What are three problem solving strategies and an example of each? 6. What are two obstacles to problem solving and an example of each? 7. Decisions and judgments are sometimes made with conscious time and effort, but most are done using ______ instead. 8. What are the four factors that can influence our decisions and judgments? 9. Casinos celebrate even small wins with attention-grabbing bells and lights, but they keep losses invisible to observers. In this way, the influence people’s decisions and judgments about whether or not to gamble by exploiting ________. 10. Why do people generally fear plane crashes more than car accidents, even though car accidents are much more common and likely to happen? 11. When it comes to decision making, the availability heuristic occurs because we (overthink/underthink) and (overfeel/underfeel). 12. Jane estimates that it will take her 1 hour to complete her psychology homework, but it actually takes her 3 hours. This “planning fallacy” is an example of _____________. 13. Why is overconfidence adaptive? 14. You show pro- and anti-capital punishment groups the same evidence, some supporting one side and some supporting the other. Based on belief perseverance, the disagreement between the two groups will (increase/decrease). 15. Ignoring evidence that undermines or opposes your beliefs is ___________. 16. College students are more likely to buy condoms if they are advertised as having a “95% success rate” instead of a “5% failure rate” in preventing HIV. This shows the effects of _______. 17. What are 3 ways in which intuition can be a good thing? 18. Intelligence tests, which demand one correct answer, require (divergent/convergent) thinking. Creativity tests require (divergent/convergent) thinking. 19. Intelligence tests measure _______, or ability to learn. 20. What are the 5 components of creativity proposed by Robert Sternberg? 21. Developing your expertise, allowing time for incubation, setting aside time for the mind to roam freely, and experiencing other cultures and ways of thinking are 4 ways to do what? 22. Do other animal species share our cognitive skills? If so, which skills do they share? 23. Pigeons may peck a key that represents “chairs” when shown an unfamiliar image of a chair, demonstrating their ability to form ______. 24. Do animals display insight? 25. Chimpanzees have local customs for using rocks or sticks to obtain food; one group may remove extra leaves and bark off of a stick and use it to extract termites from a termite mound. This demonstrates animal’s ability to __________. 26. What are the three building blocks of language? 27. How many morphemes are in the word “untouchable”? 28. What are the two parts of grammar? 29. Receptive language is _______ and productive language is ________. 30. By 4 months of age, babies enter the _______ stage, which is the spontaneous utterance of sounds unrelated to the household language. 31. By 10 months of age, babies’ babbling resembles _________ and they lose their ability to hear and produce _______ sounds. 32. By 12 months of age, children reach the _________ stage, which is the beginning of communicating meaning. 33. By 24 months of age, children reach the _________ stage, characterized by “telegraphic speech” that follows the rules of syntax. 34. After 24 months of age, a child’s development of language into complete sentences is (slow/rapid). 35. Noam Chomsky proposed that all languages share basic elements, called _____________. 36. No matter what language they speak, babies start speaking with mostly what part of speech? 37. Babies exhibit _____________ of human speech, so they can recognize which syllables most often go together and start identifying word breaks. 38. There is a ___________ for mastering certain aspects of language before the language-learning window closes, and it ends around age __. 39. Do deaf people have language? 40. Who will better learn sign language? a) deaf children born to hearing, non-signing parents that are not exposed to sign language until they are 10 years old. b) hearing, English-speaking children who become deaf after age 9 and then learn sign language. 41. What is the National Association of the Deaf’s objection to cochlear implants for infants? 42. Why can deafness also be considered “vision enhancement”? 43. What are the challenges of being deaf for children? For adults? 44. True or false: aphasia results only from damage to one specific area of the brain? 45. _________ is the part of the brain that, if damaged, might impair your ability to speak words. Damage to ___________ might impair your ability to understand language. 46. Broca’s area is to _______ language as Wernicke’s area is to _________ language. 47. Washoe the chimpanzee used over 245 signs to communicate with humans and other chimpanzees in sign language; she also taught it to her adopted son Loulis. Does this mean that chimpanzees have language? 48. If your dog barks at a stranger at the front door, does this qualify as language? What if the dog yips in a telltale way to let you know she needs to go out? 49. Whorf’s ___________ hypothesis proposes that language determines thinking. 50. Benjamin Lee Whorf hypothesized that words __________ thinking; however, most psychologists today agree that words ____________ thinking. 51. How are self-descriptions of bilingual students influenced by language? 52. How do words and language influence our thinking? 53. To expand language is to expand the ability to _______. 54. What is the explanation of the bilingual advantage? 55. Why does mental rehearsal improve performance in athletic or academic performance? 56. Which type of mental rehearsal words better: outcome simulation or process simulation? CHAPTER 10 Vocabulary: Intelligence = the mental potential to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations General intelligence (g) = a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test Savant syndrome = a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing Emotional intelligence = the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions Intelligence test = a method for assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores Achievement test = a test designed to assess what a person has learned Aptitude test = a test designed to predict a person’s future performance or the capacity to learn Mental age = a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance Standford-Binet = the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test Intelligence quotient (IQ) = defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100; on contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) = the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests Standardization = defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group Normal curve = the bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes; most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes Reliability = the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternative forms of the test, or on retesting Validity = the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to Content validity = the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest Predictive validity = the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior Cohort = a group of people sharing a common characteristic, such as from a given time period Crystallized intelligence = our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age Fluid intelligence = our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood Intellectual disability = a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence test score of 70 or below and difficult adapting to the demands of life Down syndrome = a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 Heritability = the proportion of variation among individuals that can be attributed to genes Stereotype threat = a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Practice Questions: 1. People assign the term _________ to qualities that enable success in their own time and culture. 2. What is the evidence for Charles Spearmans’ theory of general intelligence? 3. Satoshi Kanazawa proposed that general intelligence evolved to help people solve ________ problems, but _______ problems require a different sort of intelligence that is not correlated. 4. Which of the following are included in Kanazawa’s idea of general intelligence: finding a mate, finding food in a drought, reuniting separated family members, and navigating without a map. 5. Emily has a very high aptitude for music, but struggles every day in her math class. The psychologist Howard Gardner would say that this is because _______________. 6. The late Kim Peek had an “island of brilliance” in reading and remembering, but he had little capacity for abstract concepts. Peek had a condition that is known as _____________. 7. What are the three intelligences proposed by Robert Sternberg and an example of each? 8. Adding questions that measure creativity and practical thinking to the SAT is an application of which theory of intelligence? 9. If there are multiple intelligences, does general intelligence matter? 10. Success is a combination of ________ and ____; it requires a certain intelligence level but also about ___ years of practice. 11. What are the four components of emotional intelligence? 12. Connor received straight A’s throughout his entire college career, but he finds himself much less successful in the domain of marriage and interpersonal relationships. He has high ________ intelligence, but low ________ intelligence. 13. Before the school year, a teacher might use an ________ test to determine in what groups different kids belong so they can learn at a speed appropriate for them. At the end of the school year, they might use an _________ test to evaluate what the students have learned. 14. Francis Galton’s belief in _______________ later provided part of the foundation for the eugenics movement. 15. The premise of Alfred Binet’s intelligence test for predicting school achievement was that all children follow the same course of development, some just develop __________. 16. What was the intention of the Stanford-Binet and intelligence test and the intelligence quotient? Was it in line with Binet’s original idea for his intelligence test? 17. What is the IQ of a 10-year-old with a mental age of 8? 18. The _________, the most widely used intelligence test today, includes 15 subtests including similarities and letter-number sequencing to indicate cognitive strengths and weaknesses. 19. A psychological test must meet what three criteria to be widely accepted? 20. The Flynn effect is the worldwide phenomenon of intelligence (declining/improving). What is its cause? 21. What are two ways to test the reliability of an intelligence test? 22. The predictive validity of aptitude tests ___________ as students move up the educational ladder because of the ________ range of aptitude scores represented in the student population of higher education levels. 23. The strongest correlation possible has a correlation coefficient of ______ and the weakest correlation possible has a correlation coefficient of ______. 24. What were the three phases of research about aging and intelligence and the major finding of each? 25. Who is more likely to maintain or even increase their intelligence as they age into their forties and fifties, mathematicians and scientists or philosophers and authors? 26. Based on Ian Deary’s longitudinal studies in Scotland, is a child who scores high on an intelligence test at age 11 more likely to score high or low on an intelligence test at age 80? 27. What are the 4 possible explanations for the positive correlation between lifespan and intelligence? 28. What are the traits of those at the low intelligence extreme? 29. What are the traits of those at the high intelligence extreme? 30. What are the social implications of restandardization of intelligence tests for people at the low intelligence extreme? 31. What are the criticisms of “gifted child” programs? 32. Based on twin and adoption studies, estimates of the heritability of intelligence range from _____ percent. 33. True or false: researchers have pinpointed a single gene that influences intelligence. 34. As they get older, the intelligence of an adopted child becomes more similar to their (adoptive/biological) parents. 35. What three types of severe conditions are cited as impeding normal brain development and intelligence? 36. Believing that intelligence is changeable can lead to learning, growing, and happily flourishing; this is called a _________. 37. In mental ability test scores, boy outperform girls in ___________ and girls outperform boys in _____________. This difference can be explained by ____________. 38. Does a racial gap in mental ability exist? Why? 39. What are the two types of bias in intelligence tests and an example of each? 40. When a woman is given a test by a man, she is more likely to perform poorly than if she were given the exam by a woman. This is an example of _____________. 41. Accomplishment comes from a combination of __________ and ________. ANSWER KEY Chapter 9: 1. They provide much information with little cognitive effort. 2. Prototype. 3. Prototype. 4. Harder. 5. 1. Algorithms: searching every aisle in the grocery store until you find guava juice. 2. Heuristics: checking the juice, fruit, and natural foods aisles of the grocery store first because those are the places where the guava juice most likely is. 3. Insight: after thinking about where to find the guava juice, you suddenly realize the answer and know exactly where to find it. 6. 1. Confirmation bias: someone who believes that the death penalty is wrong is more likely to read an article that supports their point of view than one that does not. 2. Fixation/mental set: if we are asked to make four equal triangles out of 6 matchsticks that are presented in a flat drawing, we become fixated on finding an impossible 2-D solution and overlook the actual 3-D solution. 7. Intuition. 8. 1. Availability heuristic. 2. Overconfidence. 3. Belief perseverance. 4. Framing. 9. The availability heuristic. 10. The availability heuristic: the attention drawn to airplane crashes makes them more memorable even though they are less likely to happen, and because the image of a plane crash is more readily available than that of a car crash, people fear the plane crash more. 11. Underthink; overfeel. 12. Overconfidence. 13. People who are more overconfident live more happily, they seem more competent than others, and they learn to be more realistic about the accuracy of their judgments from prompt and clear feedback. 14. Increase. 15. Belief perseverance. 16. Framing. 17. 1. Intuition is implicit knowledge of skills and quack judgments without thinking (experienced nurses, chess players, etc.) 2. Intuition is usually adaptive, enabling quick reactions, especially for automatic unconscious associations. 3. Intuitive or unconscious thinking (letting our brain work out a problem without actively thinking about it) makes the best decisions, as long as they are checked by conscious critical thinking. 18. Convergent/divergent. 19. Aptitude. 20. 1. Expertise. 2. Imaginative thinking skills. 3. A venturesome personality. 4. Intrinsic motivation. 5. A creative environment (or support of others). 21. Enhances the creative process. 22. Yes. They can use concepts and numbers, display insight, use tools, and transmit culture. 23. Concepts. 24. Yes; a thirsty crow learns to raise the water level in a tube by dropping in stones. 25. Use tools and transmit culture. 26. Phonemes, morphemes, and grammar. 27. 3: “un”, “touch”, and “able”. 28. Syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning of sounds). 29. Understanding; producing. 30. Babbling. 31. Their household language; foreign. 32. One-word. 33. Two-word. 34. Rapid. 35. Universal grammar. 36. Nouns. 37. Statistical learning of statistical analysis. 38. Critical period; 7. 39. YES; sign language is language. 40. B; children will be linguistically stunted if they are isolated from language during the ciritical period of its acquisition. 41. Deafness is not a disability because native signers are not linguistically disabled. 42. People who lose one channel of sensation compensate with a slight enhancement of their other sensory abilities; the parts of the brain normally used for hearing can “donate” themselves to the visual or touch system. 43. Children may not be able to communicate with or coordinate play with playmates; they may suffer in school, which is centered around spoken languages; they may feel socially excluded and have low self-confidence. Adults may have decreased cognitive ability to remember and understand words as they must expend more effort to hear them; they also may feel socially isolated or have increased sadness. 44. False; aphasia can result from damage to any of several cortical areas. 45. Broca’s area; Wernicke’s area. 46. Speaking; understanding. 47. If language is defined as the ability to communicate through a meaningful sequence of symbols, then yes. However, if language is defined as verbal or signed expression of complex grammar, then no. 48. These are definitely communications, but if language consists of words and the grammatical rules we use to combine them to communicate meaning, few scientists would label a dog’s barking and yipping as language. 49. Linguistic determinism. 50. Determine; influence. 51. In a study of Chinese-American university students, English-language self-descriptions expressed mostly positive self-statements and moods while Chinese self-descriptions reported more agreement with Chinese values and roughly equal positive and negative self-statements and moods. 52. They form categories, so different languages may classify and remember certain things differently. 53. Think. 54. Bilingual people are skilled at inhibiting one language while using the other, so they are also better at controlling their attention to relevant versus irrelevant information. 55. Watching or imagining the activity will activate the same neural networks that are active during the actual experience. 56. Process simulation. Chapter 10: 1. Intelligence. 2. Factor analysis showed that people who score high in one area of intelligence tend to score higher than average in other areas too. 3. Novel; common or evolutionarily familiar. 4. Finding food in a drought and reuniting separated family members as novel problems, so they are part of general intelligence. 5. There are eight (or nine) relatively independent intelligences. 6. Savant syndrome. 7. 1. Analytical intelligence: solving a calculus problem with a single right answer. 2. Creative intelligence: coming up with a new way to pay an economic deficit. 3. Practical intelligence: managerial skills such as writing memos, motivating people, and delegating tasks. 8. Robert Sternberg’s three intelligences, or triarchic theory. 9. Yes; when cognitive ability is extremely high, it predicts exceptional attainments. 10. Talent; grit; 10. 11. Perceiving emotions, understanding emotions, managing emotions, and using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking. 12. Academically; emotionally. 13. Aptitude; achievement. 14. Hereditary intelligence. 15. More rapidly. 16. The Stanford-Binet test and the intelligence quotient were designed to measured human traits to encourage only smart and fit people to reproduce, thus reducing crime and poverty. Alfred Binet would not have approved; his original intention was solely to improve children’s education, not limit their future opportunities. 17. 80. 18. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). 19. It must be standardized, reliable, and valid. 20. Improving; the cause is unknown, but possibilities include changes made to the tests over time, more education and stimulating environments, or smaller families with more parental investment. 21. Retest the same people using the same test or split the test in half; if the test-retest and split- half scores correlate more, the test is more reliable. 22. Decreases; range. 23. +1.0 or -1.0; 0.0. 24. Phase 1: cross-sectional evidence showed that intelligence decreases with age. Phase 2: longitudinal evidence showed that intelligence remained stable and even increased until late in life. Phase 3: two different forms of intelligence are affected differently by aging; crystallized intelligence (vocabulary, knowledge) increases up to old age while fluid intelligence (quick and abstract reasoning) decreases beginning in early-to-mid adulthood. 25. Philosophers and authors. 26. More likely to score high. 27. 1. Intelligence facilitates more education, better jobs, and healthier environments. 2. Intelligence encourages healthy living. 3. Prenatal events or early childhood may influence both intelligence and health. 4. A “well-wired body” may foster both intelligence and longevity. 28. Low intelligence test score and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent living, including conceptual, social, and practical skills. 29. Contrary to popular belief, many kids with extremely high intelligence are healthy, well- adjusted, and academically successful. 30. More people are eligible for special education and Social Security and less people are eligible for the death penalty in the United States. 31. They create self-fulfilling prophecies, influencing children labeled as “gifted” to be academically successful while also influencing children labeled as “ungifted” to not be academically successful. They also may promote segregation and prejudice. 32. 50-80. 33. False. 34. Adoptive. 35. Malnutrition, sensory deprivation, and social isolation. 36. Growth mind-set. 37. Spatial ability and complex math problems; spelling, verbal fluency, locating objects, detecting emotions; biological/evolutionary differences or social influences. 38. Yes; may be entirely due to environmental influences, such as quality of nutrition, education, and preparation for the intelligence test, or experience of school and culture. When the same racial or ethnic group receives the same pertinent knowledge, they exhibit similar information- processing skill. 39. Cultural bias: the test involves a learned association between a teacup and a saucer, while testing a population that does not use saucers for their cups. Validity bias: the test accurately predicts the future behavior of women, but not men. 40. Stereotype threat. 41. Intelligence; motivation.
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