Study Guide Exam 1
Study Guide Exam 1 Comm 1500
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashleigh Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 1500 at University of Georgia taught by Kristin Andersen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Interpersonal Communication in Language at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Exam 1 review 09082015 Interpersonal communication 0 Dynamic form of communication between 2 or more people in which the messages exchanged signi cantly in uence thoughts emotions behaviors and overall relationships Intrapersonal communication 0 A dynamic form of communication between two or more people which the messages exchanged signi cantly in uence their thoughts emotions behaviors and relationships Message 0 The package of information transported during communication Context v Relationship information Dyadic Primacy Dyadic Consciousness Dyadic Coalition Primacy in a group will break down into 2 people Coalition group project form to achieve mutual goal Consciousness relationship has it s own identity 0 Act as one unit and relationship is one thing 0 Develops and sustains relationships 0 Natural for us to want to bond with others Context Situations in which communication occurs 0 Physical locations backgrounds genders ages moods and relationships of communicators as well as time of day Channels and media 0 Channels 0 The sensory dimension used to transmit information during communication ex soft touch on shoulder to convey empathy 0 Media 0 Tools used to exchange messages including everything from newspapers blackboards and photographs to computers smartphones and TV Sender and receiver Receiver the individual for whom a message is intended or to whom it is delivered Sender the individual who generates packages and delivers a message Attachment Theory 0 THEORY Secure attachment 0 O O 0 Individuals are low on anxiety and avoidance They re comfortable with intimacy and seek close ties with others Caregiver responds in a consistently attentive and loving way to the child Positive selfworth More outgoing and affectionate in relationships When faced with disappointments in life doesn t negatively affect their selfesteem Don t depend on relationships on selfworth Preoccupied anxious ambivalent attachment 0 O O 0 High anxiety and low avoidance Desire closeness but are plagued with fear of rejection Most complex and is fostered by inconsistent treatment from the caregiver Some days warmsupportive then it switches to something more negative YOU might mess things up makes you inconsistent Dismissive attachment 0 O 0 Low anxiety but high avoidance View close relationships are comparatively unimportant instead prioritizing selfreliance Caregivers are dismissive rejecting or abusive toward children Others aren t worthy of my lovetimeattention self reliant hasty exits Fearful attachment 0 O 0 High in attachment anxiety and avoidance They fear rejection and tend to shun relationships preferring to avoid the pain they believe is an inevitable part of intimacy Caregiver in the rst bond communicates negative rejecting or even abusive ways to the child Want to be in a close bond but they re afraid of getting hurt Feel they re unworthy of love and that others are not loving Tend to feel less hope disclose less and experience less satisfaction in relationships Principles of Interpersonal Communication 0 It s unavoidable O 0 Cannot NOT communicate Can be intentionalunintentional lt s irreversible O O 0 Once you say it it s said can t take it back can t go back Why do we apologize Skew perception lt s unrepeatable and DYNAMIC Always changingdifferent mood view etc Cant redo a situation again IPC relates both context and relationship info Content meaning of the wordssymbols in the message what it SAYS 0 Relationship info consists of how the symbols relate your perception of the relationship status power etc 0 It s primarily dyadic o Primacy in a group will break down into 2 people 0 Coalition group project form to achieve mutual goal 0 Consciousness relationship has it s own identity Act as one unit and relationship is one thing Develops and sustains relationships Natural for us to want to bond with others 0 It s learned 0 Desireneed to communicate is innate 0 Effectiveness and competence is learned through trial and errorwatching others 0 It s governed 0 Rules are prescriptions for behavior 0 Rules have sanctions if violated o If broken there are consequences Ex some body language you avoid and personal space especially US culture Metacommunication OOOO Verbal or nonverbal communication messages that have communication as their central focus Goals 3 types of goals Selfpresentation desires to present ourselves in particular ways show a certain self Instrumentaltask practical goals we want to achieve begged a friend for a favor Relational building maintaining and ending bonds with others starting a relationshipconversation Ithou Iit communication Interpersonal Ithou way of relatingdeepening relationships lots of cognitive energy Impersonal IIt when we regard people as objects not as people treat them in their role one thing 0 Middle IYou occurs when we recognize the other as a person and treat herhim based upon a social role sheshe occupies Interpersonal Needs Theory Affection feeling loved and displaying forms of intimacy to others 0 Inclusion feeling the need to belong to a group group af liation be in company of other people 0 Control perception and ability to cope with situations and to in uence events and people I can handle this Models of Communication similarities and differences 0 Linear 0 Information ows in one direction from a starting point to an end point 0 Starterreceiver messaged communicated through various channelsnoise 0 Noise disruption during transmission 0 Interactive 0 Communication is happening simultaneously all the time 0 Communication as a process involving senders and receivers feedback Transactional 0 Communication is happening simultaneously all the time 0 Each person equally in uences the communication of the behavior of one another 0 Body language says more than words 0 Gage behavior of others when talking 0 Field of experience bringing all of our own baggageexperience to conversations on both sides Types of Noise 0 Physical external to communicators 0 Fire alarm going off during a lecture 0 Massive sunglasses eye contact 0 Physiological internal to communicators but mostly of the body 0 Hunger lose focushangry 0 Pain in the body bug bites Psychological internal but about the mindcognitive process 0 Thinkingrumination re ecting on something over and over 0 Stressing about the next class 0 Semantic interference with the language itself 0 Dialect actual language accent slang Interpersonal Communication Competence appropriateness effectiveness ethics 0 Appropriate follow accepted norms Effective ability to achieve goals 0 Ethical treats people fairly Self selfawareness selfconcept selfesteem Selfconcept o The relatively xed overall perception of who you are 0 Based on beliefs attitudes and values 0 Emerges through interactions with others 0 Learned from others changed based on reactions 0 We like people to match the way we view ourselves Selfawareness 0 Step outside yourself and re ect on your thoughts feelings and behavior through communication with others Selfesteem o The overall positivenegative value that we assign ourselves Looking Glass Self re ected appraisal De ning selfconcepts through thinking about how others see us mirror 0 Person doesn t need to say anything taking the view of others I think they think this of mequot 0 When you park like shit and think quotpeople must think I m a bad driverquot 0 We never actually know 0 We adjust behavior accordingly Selfconcept is strongly in uenced by emotional responses to your lookingglass self 0 Social comparison looking at others and judging then acting accordinglywe match it or adjust Direct de nition 0 Social comparison Observing and assigning meaning to others behavior and then comparing their behavior to ours when judging our own actions Johari s window technique 1 used to help people better understand their relationship with themselves as well as others Johiari Window Known to self Not known to self Known to others Arena Blindl Spot Not Klr39lOWl39li to Others Fagaclle Unknown 0 Cu ltu re 0 The established coherent set of beliefs attitudes values and practices shared by a large group of people Culture Intercultural Communication 0 form of communication that aims to share information across different cultures and social groups It is used to describe the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious social ethnic and educational backgrounds lndividualistic culture 0 a society which is characterized by individualism not collectivism The individualismcollectivism dimension is one of the most important of the value dimensions which occur when quotvarying degrees of importance on those deeply felt views of what is right good and worthwhilequot that distinguish cultures from one another lndividualistic cultures are oriented around the self independent instead of identifying with a group mentality More western Collectivistic culture 0 such as those of China Korea and Japan emphasize family and work group goals above individual needs or desires Collectivism and individualism deeply pervade cultures People simply take their culture39s stance for granted Facemask o The self we allow others to see and know the aspects of ourselves we choose to present publicly Embarrassment A feeling of shame humiliation and sadness that comes when we loose face Warranting theory and value 0 Theory suggests that when asserting someone s online self descriptions we consider the warranting value 0 Value the degree to which online information is supported by other people and outside evidence Social Penetration Theory peripheral intermediate central core Closeness through selfdisclosure Onion analogy layers 0 Peripheral layers super cial information information we wouldn t mind telling anyone 0 Intermediate layers may not tell someone right away drinking religion family issues 0 Central layers most personalintimate information Biggest fears Personal issues Few people get to this level of information 0 Increase in breadth and or dept 0 some people know a lot about segment of your life don t know daily activities however 0 academic advisor talk about career goals classes etc Selfdisclosure positive and negative consequences Revealing private information about yourself to others Increases intimacy between partners psychological closeness Varies greatly across cultures Happens more quickly onlineCMC potentially positive 0 for self catharsis mental health if we don t let go we get stressed improved physical health o in relationships relational initiation forges the bond relational maintenance show you re still there for that person escalating the relationship potentially negative 0 possible hurt and rejection 0 increased con ict 0 personal acknowledgment 0 increased relational obligation some people can t handle it Intimacy A feeling of closeness and quotunionquot that exists between us and our relationship partners Interpersonal process model of intimacy O Selfful lling prophecy Predictions about future encounters that lead us to behave in ways that ensure the interaction unfolds as we predicted Perception The process of selecting organizing and interpreting information from our senses Selection and salience Selection the step of perception in which we focus our attention on speci c sensory data sounds sights smells touches tastes Salience the degree to which particular people or aspects of their communication attract our attention Organization and punctuation 0 Organization the step of perception in which we mentally structure selected sensory data into a coherent pattern Punctuation a step during organization when you structure information you ve selected into a chronological sequence that matches how you experience the order of events Interpretation and Schemata Interpretation the stage of perception in which we assign meaning to the information we have selected Schemata mental structures that contain information de ning characteristics of various concepts such as people places events as well as how those characteristics are related to one another This is used when interpreting interpersonal communication Perceptionchecking A 5step process to test your impressions of others and to avoid errors in judgment Checking punctuation knowledge attributions perceptual in uences and impressions Attributions internal v external 0 Internal presume that a person s communication or behavior stems from internal causes ie character or personality 0 External a person s communication is caused by factors unrelated to personal qualities Fundamental attribution error 0 The tendency to attribute others behaviors solely to internal causes the kind of person they are rather than the social or environmental forces affecting them Factors in uencing attribution Internal consensus consistency distinctiveness Actorobserver effect 0 The tendency of people to make external attributions regarding their own behaviors Selfserving bias 0 A biased tendency to credit ourselves internal factors instead of external factors four our success Uncertainty Reduction Theory amp strategies Uncertainty fuels anxiety 0 We want to reduce our anxiety and uncertainty seek more information o 3 types of strategies passive watching to see if someone is a hugger n no active approach at all not talking to anyone information comes to you active Do you know if x is a huggerquot In making effort but not directly from source interactive Hi are you a huggerquot u going directly to source getting information there a ex sexual health going to talk to a doctor active would be onine research Stereotyping Categorizing people into social groups and evaluating them based in information about that group 0 Positive and negative attributes based on learnedheard information 0 Use it to evaluate people o If they seem dissimilar we re not motivated to nd more information about them outgroupers Ex North v South Rely on information tell you not always accurate Ingroupers v outgroupers Ingroupers those who are similar to yourselfculture you re willing to help them Outgroupers those who are different from yourselfculture don t usually approach Personality An individual s characteristic way of thinking feeling and acting based on the traits he or she possesses Implicit personality theory 0 Personal beliefs about different types of personalities and the ways in which traits cluster together Gestalt general and global impressions of people how we feel about the person 0 Either positive or negative 0 5 minute conversation what do you know quotOh I like them or quoteh not so muchquot overall are more likely to be positive we tend to follow social norms Impression Formation refers to the process by which individual pieces of information about another person are integrated to form a global impression of the individual ie how one person perceives another person Positivity bias 0 A tendency for rst impressions of others to be more positive than negaUve Negativity effect 0 A tendency to place emphasis on the negative information we learn about others HaloHorn Effect 0 Halo effect 0 When you have a positive impression of someone you skew everything positively 0 Keep it consistent Horn effect o If you have a negative view of someone you see everything they do even if it s good negatively 0 Again keeping it consistent Ethnocentrism o The belief that your own culture s beliefs attitudes values and practices are superior to those of all other cultures World mindedness The ability to practice and demonstrate acceptance and respect toward other cultures believes values and customs Emotion An intense reaction to an event that involves interpreting the meaning of an event becoming physiologically aroused labeling the experience as emotional attempting to manage your reaction and communicating this reaction in the form of emotional displays and disclosures Dimensions of emotion Valence positivenegative 0 Happiness surprise anger fear sadness contempt H We feel sadness for y kind of loss 0 Activity passiveactive 0 Passive contentment not motivated to act no high energy 0 Active fear surprise ght or ight Intensity weakstrong o Annoyance l anger l rage Ex Fresh Prince anger came up with they stood and started naming schools rage was punching Direction Arousal FeeHngs Shortterm emotional reactions to events that generate only limited arousal such as the eeting nostalgia you experience hearing a familiar song Moods Lowintensity states of mind that are not caused by particular events and typically last longer than emotions boredom grouchiness contentment serenity 3 different perspectives of emotional process Primary emotions blended emotions Primary emotions 6 emotions that involve unique and consistent behavioral displays across cultures anger disgust fear joy sadness surprise Functions of emotion Survival internal guidance system when needs are not met Decisionmaking emotions guide them choosing a college Predicting a behavior if I have to be with someone I don t like I ll act like x 0 Boundary setting whenhow we set boundaries with people if you feel used step back from hanging out emotional or physical Communication convey what message we want to send makes what you re trying to convey more real 0 Unity mutual feelingemotion 0 Parents ganging up on a coach Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy comprehensive activedirective philosophically and empirically based psychotherapy which focuses on resolving emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and enabling people to lead happier and more ful lling lives Display rules 0 Cultural norms about which forms of communication and emotion management are socially desirable and appropriate Framing rules feeling rules emotion work 0 Framing rules What this mean is that how we see a situation whether good or bad depends on our backgrounds and cultural settings 0 Feeling rules socially shared norms that in uence how people want to try to feel emotions in given social relations Emotion work understood as the art of trying to change in degree or quality an emotion or feeling Emotion sharing Disclosing your emotions to others Emotional contagion The rapid spreading of emotion from person to person Emotion management Attempts to in uence which emotions you have when you have them and how you experience and express them Emotional intelligence 0 The ability to accurately interpret your and other s emotions and use this information to manage emotions communicate them competently and solve relationship problems Reappraisal Actively changing how you think about the meaning of emotion eliciting situations so that their emotional impact is changed Suppression Inhibiting thoughts arousal and outward behavioral displays of emotion Venting Allowing emotions to dominate your thoughts and explosively expressing them Encounter avoidance Preventing unwanted emotions away by keeping from people places and activities likely to provoke them Encounter structuring Preventing unwanted emotions by intentionally avoiding discussion of dif cult topics in encounters with others Deachann Preventing unwanted emotions by systematically desensitizing yourself to emotional experience Anger Chronic Hostility Anger the negative primary emotion that occurs when you are blockedinterrupted from attaining an important goal by what you see as the improper action of an external agent 0 Chronic hostility a persistent state of simmering or barely suppressed anger and constant negative thinking Catharsis and Jefferson strategy 0 Jefferson strategy to manage your anger that involves slowly counting to 10 before responding to someone who says or does something that makes you angry Catharsis
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