RTV2100 Exam 2 Notes
RTV2100 Exam 2 Notes RTV2100
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This 33 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stefani Dopico on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to RTV2100 at University of Florida taught by Saunders,Lynsey MSelepak,Andrew G in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Writing for Electronic Media in Engineering and Tech at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
RTV 2100 notes exam 2 0 Guest speaker telecomm production major who passed the news test scooter magruder Get experience at a news station and get comfortable on camera Learn how to edit either final cut or adobe premiere On youtube need to be consistent at least once a week The gator nation is REAL not necessarily direct success coming from it but contacts made 000 102114 sound elements writing beyond the news 0 Sound elements 0 Words I The dialogue you write 0 Music I Can be background music like a sound bed or stand on its own 0 Sound effects I SFX o Silence I Indicates a pause 0 Words 0 Up until now we ve been practicing writing with words as a reporter who informs 0 Like with news they are restricted by time I Every spot has a specific spot length I People are buying time and they want their money s worth I Still not using complicated language still writing conversationally 0 Word choice 0 As a copywriterproducer you need to select words that have I Precise meaning 0 Don t confuse people or they won t do what you want 0 You re not trying to be vague that doesn t sell or persuade I Use rhythm and balance Catchy 0 Examples 0 Home depot you can do it we can help 0 Like a good neighbor statefarm is there 0 Five dollar five dollar five dollar footlong o It I Music can stir emotions 0 Think of the star spangled banner or catchyjingles o It I We often remember music more than words I Allows for better memory recognition 0 We can know where we are from the music in the background 0 Orange and blue gator game 0 Choice of music o It should match the product s personality I You wouldn t use lil Wayne for AARP commercials 0 Make sure it matches the situation I Don t use Taylor Swift for valentine s day 0 Do you have clearance for it I Get permission from the artist before using their song I Justin Bieber probably doesn t want his songs in a Cialis commercial o It should be in line with the audience s interests I Using rap music on a country station I Stories books images songs web pages etc o A copyright legally establishes who owns a creative work and who controls its sale and reproduction 0 Music and copyright 0 Copyright laws protect the rights of intellectuals over their productions 0 Music clearance 0 Clearance is the process through which permission is obtained to use a musical composition i To put music in your spot movie film etc you need to 1 Research the owners a There can be more than one owner who has to give clearance 2 Contact the owners 3 Negotiate a fee a Lawyers assist in reaching a license agreement and how much it will cost to use 0 The for music All of these can influence the cost 0 Which 0 Radio Tv internet 0 What kind of o Foreground Background 0 How of the song 0 The whole song Part of it 0 Which o The original A remake 0 NO music for you 0 Owner may refuse your request 0 They may not want to be associated with your spot show or film 0 Composition is licensed to someone else 0 Someone else may already be using the song They want to charge too much Instead music in the public domain doesn t require clearance 0 Because of mickey mouse Disney keeps boosting the limit used to be 50 but they moved it to 75 so others can t use the mouse 0 So you can use twinkle twinkle little star 0 Car commercials used to use Led Zeppelin pretty often Indicating music 0 There are two ways to indicate music 1 Provide the song 0 MUSIC Fade in chorus Ring of Fire Johnny Cash 05 fade under 2 Provide the type of music 0 MUSIC Fade in piano upbeat patriotic 05 forms of music 0 Like in a slogan 0 Music with no lyrics so it can go under the dialogue 0 Like the quotominous music that Jason Segal plays in forgetting sarah marsall o Probably not under dialogue to not distract Sound effects SFX o Enhances the main point of the message 0 Can move a story forward 0 Can help explain action or clarify situation 0 Natural to the situation 0 Should not be used when 0 It is distracting 0 Or because you like it or decide to use it o SFX should add to a spot or video 0 Like Kung Fu SHence o Silence makes us in Western culture uncomfortable we don t like it 0 Can be used to add emphasis 0 Give the audience time to reflect 0 Or as a stage direction Radio copy format sug 0 Your name 0 Client name 0 Product name Title of the spot Length of the spot Location on air evening after certain programs or ROS run on schedule Production notes 0000 0 Where I explain here s the different voice parts I wanna hear 0 Andrew Selepak o Waffle House 0 Home Fries o quotScattered Covered 0 60 o ROS 0 Young male voice older female voice redneck male voice 0 Radio spot format 0 General style 0 Speaker names on the left dialogue on the right two columns 0 Narration o All dialogue is typed in upper and lower case 0 Directions in the copy 0 Directions to the producer are in ALL CAPS on the left for MUSIC and SFX o Directions to the talent are in upper and lower case on the right in parentheses such as speed or excitement or accent Talent people reading the script Ad lib words not written in script but spoken by talent ANNCR an abbreviation for announcer Dead air when no sound is being transmitted SFX sound effects Music bed background music that goes under the radio for your spot that can be heard but doesn t distract the audience from understanding the dialogue o Fading on 000000 0 Walking toward the mic different from fading up 0 Fading off 0 Walking away from the mic different from fading down Off mic when the talent doesn t talk directly into the mic to make it sound distant Behind barrier using an object to cover the mouth to make it sound like the talent is speaking behind a door or in another room 0 FADE IN FADE UP 0 For introducing the scene or to increase the volume 0 FADE OUT FADE DOWN o For ending a scene or to decrease the volume 0 Radio advertising 0 Promos stations IDs and Legal Ds 0 Promote the station or a show on the station 0 quot40 minutes of commercial free nonstop country music o Commercials 0 Sell a product or service 0 Convince the audience to buy something or vote for a candidate 0 PSAs 0 Announcements intended to get the audience to do something 0 Donate blood don t smoke marijuana or do drugs safe sex 0 Script format 0 Under the slug you include your production notes 0 Who are the voices to be heard 0 For your script make sure you have two columns 0 PersonmusicSFX words spoken or sound 0 Notice the distinct columns like you would see in a play PSA video 102214 0 A spot often by a nonprofit organization or government agency designed to persuade the audience to do something in the interest of the community 0 To take some specific action donate money wear seat belt stop smoking or 0 Promote a particular viewpoint on a cause or social issue often has a political influence I Proantideath penalty prochoice or prolife o PSA compared to commercials o Similarity I Goal is to persuade the audience to do something 0 Commercial is to buy PSA is to act on something 0 Difference I Stations receive no money for airing PSAs 0 It s a community service for being able to freely use the airwaves I Stations select which ones to air 0 Some stations pick a cause I Stations select when to air them 0 Challenges for PSAs 0 Making intangible products concrete I How do you sell helping others 0 Asking something of the audience for no immediate benefits I How do you get people to do something when they get nothing out of it o Homeless people smoke to have something they re in control of rich people smoke because they can afford care if they get sick from it 0 Getting aired I Stations can choose from hundreds of PSAs and run them very infrequently Accepts requests from sponsor organizations Assigns each campaign to a volunteer advertising agency Distributes the finished PSA to stations Does very few each year about 25 0000 0 Creating an effective PSA message 0 Get people to realize there s a problem 0 Appeal to emotions I Logic isn t enough to convince people I Fear and laughter are most effective strongest emotions to connect to along with anger 0 Give a doable call to action 0 Articulate a benefit 0 Effective PSA steps 1 Present the vague in a concrete manner so audience can relate break intangibilitv barrier I For example 0 Relate things to what people can understand 0 Millions die from smoking each year how to make that tangible 0 Think of the swamp it holds about 90 thousand people now think of 11 swamps all next to one another 2 Appeal to the emotions fear appeal I Start with the negative to get attention 0 Tell people the dangers of having sex wo protection 0 Or even the dangers when using protection I Focus on how to avoid the negative 0 Tell them the STDs that can be prevented by using a condom I But don t leave your audience terrified give a call to action o If people think they re powerless they won t do anything 0 Give the doable action at the end 0 Use humor except when it doesn t work I Laughter won t get people to quit smoking 0 Can t get people to do things like save children or save animals w humor I Just like with news story writing if you can tell a joke you can make it funny 0 Great CPR PSA Vinnie Jones british heart foundation 3 Empower the listener call to action I Give the listener the right and the duty to be involved and take action 0 Drinking and driving campaigns tell the passenger to not let the driver get behind the wheel I Focus on the positive by giving a positive action the audience can take that is within their capabilities 0 Instead of quotdon t drive drunk it s quotdon t let your friend drive drunk 0 Always provide a call to action I Let the audience know they can be involved o If you re fundraising make sure you give the phone number to call or text to pledge or website o If you re creating awareness include source for more info 0 Website email social media 4 Tag line at the end I Identify the sponsoring institution o quotThis message is brought to you by 0 Let people know who went to the trouble and effort to create the PSA 5 Appeal to the enlightened self interest I When confronted by tough choices 0 People want to do good but 0 They also want to get a benefit for themselves 0 Like nominating people for the ice bucket challenge I Demonstrate what the audience will get by doing the right thing 0 Helping a friend quit smoking means they ll be around longer 0 When you donate blood the life you save might be your own I Doing good can have a reward beyond simple selfishness and philanthropy for the sake of philanthropy o PSAs are no place for commercialism 0 Messages considered quothelpful to the public are PSAs 0 Don t include a commercial pitch 0 Don t try to sell the audience a product I It may be acceptable if you re giving something away to participate like tshirts for doing a blood drive 102314 0 The Greeks 0 Since ancient Greece a major function of communication has been persuasion 0 Today ancient Athens has morphed into our American democracy that runs on capitalism 0 Ingredients of a persuasive message 0 Aristotle s rhetorical triangle I Logos logic rational appeals I Pathos emotionsempathy emotional appeals I Ethos credibilityauthority people we respect celebrities or experts I quotof the three elements in speechmaking speaker subject and person addressed it is the last one the hearer that determines the speech s end and object 0 You cannot tell a story to an audience without understanding that audience 0 Persuasive message delivery styles 0 Univoice uni I A single voice delivers the message with words read by 0 Announcer live 0 Production engineer or announcer recorded 0 Celebrity liverecorded o Testimonial of someone who experienced something liverecorded I Cheap and quick to produce I Easy to write I BUT a little boring o Univoice spot or using univoice dialogue I Writing a univoice spot or using univoice dialogue is pretty easy 0 The person speaks directly to the listener o No attempt at creating a false reality 0 Shands amp matchcom 0 Can get boring need added production value to hype it up I Music SFX logos etc o Multivoice no dialogue I At least two voices I No interaction between voice parts talking directly to listener I Advantage vocal variety 0 Adds interest 0 Different voices perk up audience attention 0 Allows for a lot of info to be covered no need to introduce dialogue with setup of false reality 0 Multivoice dialogue I The speaking parts are in a real conversation 0 Real language and real dialogue I Makes the listener feel like they are eavesdropping on a personal conversation I Usually one voice is the quotsellerquot and the other is the skeptical potential customer 0 Potential customer represents the person to be persuaded and the seller is an expert 0 Doesn t have to be a salesperson but should sell the product 0 Avoid making them sound unnatural 0 Problems writing dialogue spots I Difficult to make it sound natural and conversational and not awkward or like you are trying to get people to do something 0 Even when you are I Characters may not sound like real people and end up sounding like actors 0 Tips for multivoice 1 Use realistic dialogue 0 Save the direct quotsellquot until an announcer at the end 0 Keep exchange brief but real 510 seconds 0 Back and forth like a normal conversation 2 Create distinctive characters with distinctive voices 0 One should know what s going on and the other should be listening and open to a productservice 0 Use different characters 3 Build dramatic tension 0 There should be a problem that one character solves I Colonial penn insurance MusicSFX 0 Music can create a mood on its own if the music matches the message you want to deliver 0 Music serves as the backdrop and sets the mood 0 Music or SFX only require graphics so people know what you are selling or trying to convince them to do so for TV or radio 0 Choose wisely o The audience may become upset when their favorite song becomes attached to a productcandidateshowmovie that they don t like or they feel cheapens the music I Example the beatles selling nikes o The musician also doesn t want their music associated with a politician 0 Audience may even be upset to see a favorite artist selling themselves in a commercial 0 We are seeing this less and less I U2 giving away their album to itunes 0 Recorded spots 0 Advantages I Eliminates possibility of error I Allows complex production I Ensure uniformity of presentation 0 Disadvantages I Lack of spontaneity I Changes can t be made 0 No adlibbing o If anything changes must be reproduced 0 Live spots 0 Advantages I Changes can easily be made I Adds variety 0 Multiple people will read the spots 0 Disadvantages I Errors of interpretation 0 Emphasis on different parts than intended I Errors of presentation 0 People make mistakes when they read I Little production value 0 The doughnut commercial 0 High quality preproduced material at the beginning and end or in the middle 0 A hole in the middle for local announcer to add to a script 0 Nationally produced for local markets I Usually originates in New York city before given to other places to add local flair 103014 0 Editing 0 Michael Corleone as godfather at baptism while his family is taking down the heads of the five families 0 Have a relationship to one another but the time frame is different 0 A father arrested for committing a crime and a son arrested years later for the same crime 0 Editing transitions 0 Cut I Change from one image to the text 0 This is the least obtrusive transition because it does not call attention to itself I Resembles the blinking of the eye 0 Dissolve I Gradual transition where two shots overlap as one becomes clearer and the other disappears fades inout o Often indicates passage of time or change of location 0 Used to show a relationship between two unrelated events 0 Defocusrefocus I A shot that goes out of focus and cuts to another shot that starts out of focus and then goes into focus like waking up 0 Fade I Pictures goes to black gradually fade out to end the show or appears gradually onscreen from black or any other color fade in to start the show 0 TV and Film writing 0 Tv and film writing is not just coming up with the words an announcer will read or actor will speaker but I Directions about how the shot will be filmed and how the scene should be cut together 0 How shots are filmed and how this will impact the audience 0 Le camera angles for weak vs strong characters I The way shots are cut together affects how an audience reacts to a scene 0 Quick cuts add suspense 0 Horror films require diff reactions than Rom Coms I Transitions have meaning too like fading to black 0 Shot selection 39 to show intimacy and subtle emotional body language and the face of the character I Films are better at expansive imagery because larger screen 0 You don t want a 5 foot nostril on a movie screen 0 Saving Private Ryan is much better on a 20foot movie screen than on a TV screen 0 Closeups o More frequently seen on TV I One form of closeup is when the talent looks directly into the camera and addresses the audience to make a direct connection 0 Makes it seem personal I This technique is found in comedies that attempt to look like reality TV 0 It s like the quotconfessionalsquot on reality TV 0 Began with the Real World The script I But the writer leaves the actual shots to the director 0 Writerjust gives idea The 2 column script o Narration and talent instructions are in upper and lower case on right 0 Mostly used for commercials not TV or movies usually TV and film script 0 Exact formatting varies from show to show and film to film I Generally has a layered look The storyboard o A series of panels with a visual block at the top or left and an audio block below it or to the right I The panels usually illustrate the sequence of visuals camera angles optical effects dialogue music and sound effects 0 The visuals are sketched and narration script is written at the bottom or right of each shot I Don t have to waste resources filming to show look just draw 0 The idea is to show what the spot or scene will look like including dialogue I Computer programs are often used to help create storyboards o The storyboard allows you to have an idea of what the final version will look like without going to the trouble of wasting resources filming getting talent etc Origin of storyboarding I Had a lot of information and description now we have less I Avengers and despicable me How the storyboard is translated o A storyboard is like a blueprint to an actual building I Helps make sure the film is structurally sound Dr Who Storyboard readings 0 When the movie producers and writers go over a storyboard Shrek deleted scene I You save thousands of dollars by doing storyboards The photo board 0 Photos of the main action in the spot pasted together I Usually done for shorter pieces 0 You don t want to put a lot of resources into something that may not be used 0 Usually after the script has been approved 0 How can we visualize this without getting the videosound staff I More expensive than sketching less then filming 0 Almost like a photo collage 0 TV and films are expensive 0 Presence of the image I In radio you can pretend to be anywhere I In tvfilm you either have to actually be there or be somewhere that looks similar 0 There are no mountains in Miami 0 More professionals are involved in the production I There is the copywriter the art director the film director and the director of photography 0 Visual writing strategies 0 Techniques to make your tvfilm script more memorable and entertaining I Humor I Shock I Suspense I Dramahorror I Kidsanimals I Special effects I Sexuality 1 Humor 0 People are attracted to humor I Characters need to be funny either in their behavior or in the spoken lines 0 Comedy can be shown in visual graphics I Cats and dogs being made to talk memes Humor can be in exaggeration like in slapstick and vaudeville The risk in using humor is if you re not funny I Bad jokes and unfunny humor turn off an audience 2 Shock 0 Shocking an audience is a way to get their attention I Can be violent like an explosion or funny amp unexpected like Something About Mary 0 The goal is to grab the audience s attention but then you have to hold it 3 Suspense o Suspense is intended to make the audience hold its breath until it knows what the outcome will be I We like drawn out cliffhangers walking dead 0 Think of the previews or endings of TV episodes weeklong o quotthe usual suspects one of the greatest cliffhangers ever 4 Dramahorror 0 Uses quick cuts to mimic life dramas or horrific dramas I Quick cuts can be seen in action and horror films 0 Teen horror films with clich teen situations to relate to couple hooking up I Quickly switching what is seen makes the heart race 0 Musical scores add to this 5 Childrenanimals o Kidsfurry creatures I People love cute kids and animals I People stop and respond emotionally to cute things connect to it strongly 6 Special effects 0 Many images we see on TV and films now are computer generated 0 Special effects are a way of challenging visual norms and defying reality 7 Sexuality 0 Sexual innuendo is probably the oldest technique to grab attention 0 Use closeups of lips or frame parts of the body or simply show nudity and the characters reactions I Sexuality sells everything especially in movies shows and commercials 110414 being ethical in the media 0 Ads ethics and our influence 0 Ethical issues arise when dealing with advertising entertainment programming and social media I Some media critics argue advertising is unethical because it attempts to change a person s attitude or behavior I Subliminal messages attempt to influence us through our subconscious without our even knowing I Social and online media use data mining and potential invasion of privacy to find out more about us a new form of advertising 0 Ethics and advertising 0 Advertising is an attempt to get us to buy a product use a service vote for a candidate or support a position 0 It is also one of the roles of media I Bring together the buyers and sellers of goods and services through the medium of advertising 0 But just because something is marketed to us doesn t mean we need it want it or should have it if you re broke you don t need an iPhone 6 0 Helping us from ourselves o The government steps in to protect us from corporations and corporate advertising I Requires concrete evidence before claims are made 0 So Extenze can only say it helps with that quotcertain part of the male anatomy 0 Drug company advertising is a huge market and the FDA keeps us safe from thinking these new drugs have only benefits and no consequences I This is why commercials include quotpossible side effects 0 Infomercial 0 Advertising disguised as entertainment or news programming I Program length ads 0 Looks like news documentary talk or interview programs but are really a sales pitch 0 Some people have trouble distinguishing ads from shows 0 The government vs business 0 Gov t tries to protect us from ourselves but corporations politicians causes etc still want to be heard I But they have other ways to influence how we view their products other than just advertisements o Corporations interfere with content 0 Corporations have long used their financial power from advertising dollars to kill editorial content in news they object to or entertainment programming they find objectionable I And pull their ads and sponsorship 0 Big tobacco 0 Tobacco companies would use their advertising dollars to get positive coverage of smoking and tobacco Fought against antitobacco advertising Magazines that accepted tobacco ads could not editorialize against tobacco Paid movie production costs to display smoking as appropriate behavior I Wanted to see scripts before they aired 0 Tobacco was a huge advertiser I Between 1951 and 1955 the most popular show on TV was sponsored exclusively by Phillip Morris cigarettes I In 1963 Winston pulled their sponsorship from the show when Wilma became pregnant after that the main sponsor became Welch s grape iuice 0 Doctors also endorsed cigarettes 0 NASCAR and the Winston Cup like being called the Marlboro cup 0 No commercial for you 0 Companies may pull their sponsorship if a program is unfavorable to them or their product or controversial I Controversial shows frequently lose advertisers o In 2012 Delta o In 2013 Sears 11714 o The people amp government vs corporations 0 Advertisers know we don t like commercials I New technologies like DVR and web streaming allow us to skip commercials 0 We re still getting commercials though 0 Shows like reality tv use product placement product integration and product tieins nserting commercial messages within the program itself so the audience can t skip it I Product integration when a commercial message is not only shown in the program but also part of the storyline survivor The media environment Companies influence content with their advertising dollars The FTC and FDA protect us from false claims We have DVR Netlfix and Hulu TV shows have product placement All of this goes on in front of us and we are conscious of it I But we sometimes don t notice everything O 0000 Subliminal advertising 0 Below the threshold of consciousness o The media can manipulate our behavior without our realizing it insert hidden messages I Subliminal messages in logos FedEx has the arrow between E and X I Sexual innuendos in cartoons Subliminal messages in music I Messages in music like Beatles in Abbey Road where each one s outfit represents theirjob in how Paul is Dead play revolution 9 backwards I What is Satan asking you to do Stairway to Heaven Led Zeppelin I Hit me baby one more time Hi my name is Slim Shady Propaganda 0 Imagine ww2 cartoons being shown today I Propaganda was a huge part of the war effort in the 1940s 0 The US government and governments around the world believed people could be easily manipulated invest in war bonds o Racist bugs bunny cartoon quotJapanaziquot The future 0 Product placement will be more than just seeing products in our TV shows I Our computers will see what we are interested in 0 And we will be targeted with ads that we never said we wanted 0 Product placement on TVs and tracking our interests 0 Start getting emails about what to get when you get a rewards card because they track your purchases 0 Give you commercials during the break based on what products you were looking at during the show 0 Social media 0 User data is being used by third parties for commercial surveillance and data mining purposes I Facial recognition software automatically identifies people in uploaded photos and the NSA is using it I Thirdparty applications collect and publish user data without permission or awareness google analytics I Social media automatic optin privacy controls 0 Cookies to track online user activities after they have left a social media site o Locationbased social networking for stalking or other illicit monitoring 0 Sharing of user information or activity with government entities 111314 online world 0 How to think of the internet 0 The web is a hybrid medium combining the immediacy and impact of tv and the depth and portability of newspapers I A lot more info than both combined 0 Tv newspaper and radio are like the internet after you take away user control alternative opinions timeliness feedback and 99 of the stories I Tv and newspaper is what s already happened I Online is what s happening 0 The internet is a means of sharing info through a variety of media I Tweeting Facebooking creating a message to persuade or inform o On demand delivery 0 Allows the audience to control the time place and subject matter it wants to consume and people no longer had to wait for the news 247 news 247 sports 0 But the audience still had to wait to hear the specific story they want 0 Old school mass media o It costs money and was intended for a wide audience 0 The MASH finale got 1255 mil ppl 602 of homes feb 28 1983 0 Super Bowl 48 got 167 mil ppl 464 of homes feb 2 2014 o Gatekeepers 0 Only so many stations on a radio dial 0 There were once only 3 networks 0 New media and the internet 0 The internet and the media s use of the internet means I Greater quantity of information available I More content 0 Content creation is now in the hands of more people I It costs less to produce content I The internet isn t controlled by anyone net neutrality 0 Everyone has access and therefore can contribute 0 Mass production at low cost 0 We have more options and the problem is no longer cost but figuring out how to be heard among so many competing voices and information I With so much content being produced there s too much out there 0 How much info I 1000 bytes 1 kilobyte I 1000 tb 1 petabyte I 1000 kb 1 megabyte I 1000 pb 1 exabyte I 1000 mb 1 gigabyte I 1000 eb 1 zettabute I 1000 gb 1 terabyte I 1000 zb 1 yottabyte 0 Apps for TV 0 ESPN and BBC 0 Personalized media 0 Media is tracking us to find what we like and specialize recommendations 0 Millennials consume TV through online way more than nonmillennials 0 Online info 0 The internet is changing advertising and public relations 0 Online media properties in Weimer 0 TV and radio stations must have an online presence to accompany and complement their broadcast service 0 Online news media 0 An internet presence provides a delivery method of information and a source of info I Newsrooms now have a wealth of immediate info about what s happening and can get human stories 0 A station s website can become a support network in severe weather o The internet increases a station s audience and enhances listener loyalty I They can listenwatch whenever wherever I Can talk back to the station through social media 0 People pull out their phones to record every type of event which news stations seek to find and make into original news sources 0 Online radio 0 Through the internet local radio stations can now reach beyond their limited broadcast area I The internet saved radio 0 Stations can also receive instant response and feedback from listeners via messageposting email and text online polls Facebook and twitter 0 Entertainment TV on the internet 0 You can follow your favorite shows and favorite actors on Facebook and twitter 0 MASH had tons of people without appealing to viewers via internet but there weren t as many options of what to watch as there are today 0 Why 0 An audience tunes in when they re told to a fanbase chooses when and what to watch 0 An audience changes the channel when their show is over a fanbase shares comments creates etc 0 Crime 0 When hunting for the Boston terrorists the police authorities and traditional media used social media like twitter nstagram reddit and Facebook to collect and disseminate information 0 Several voluntary groups were also set up via social media to try and help the police 111814 0 Think online first o In the world of 247 media you want to be first online whether it s a bulletin a brief a blog post or a twitter feed 0 People demand info NOW I The internet is most likely the only media source available to people at work their car and everywhere they go 0 We carry it with us on our phones 0 Mobile news 0 The internet and mobile technologies are at the heart of how news is changing 0 News is becoming portable personalized and participatory I cell phone users can access the web on their phone I internet users can customize their home page to include news from sources and on topics that interest them and search for specific stories 0 Bookmarks and RSS feeds 0 People can select which media outlets to follow I internet users contribute to the news comment about it or disseminate it via posting on social media sites like Facebook and twitter 0 How portable o In some parts of the world without home access to the web apps are the dominant way that people receive their news I This year there will be as many mobile phones as there are people on earth and by almost a billion there are more people who own a cell phone than a toothbrush on earth 0 You are using the web 0 But is the information you look up credible I Is it accurate Is it objective Is it recent 0 Not just news but with anything you want to learn 0 Accuracy of info is imperative I Are you sure of a website s authors identity reliability and credentials I Is the site sponsored by a reputable institution or organization I Does the info seem to be comprehensive and complete I Is there a way to contact the author web master to verify or contradict info 0 Being accurate is important but how objective is the info I Is the site affiliated with a sponsor or group with an agenda I Can you trust the site to distinguish between facts and opinion I Does the site prevent feedback from readers who challenge the accuracy or correct mistakes I Might the site be satire or a hoax o 0 Information that was once accurate may no longer be so I Has the site been updated regularly and recently I Are there publication dates on all pages with timely material I Are the links to and from the page updated regularly o Watchinglistening to the news is more about knowing that something occurred 0 Reading the news is more about understanding why something occurred 0 Writing online 0 Rarely will you find an online story that is just images and video I Even with stories ofjust photo and video the photos have captions and the videos have narration and often graphics 0 Online is about text I The text is accompanied by photos videos sound links interactivity etc to ADD to the text 0 Writing for online is different than print or broadcast 0 Combo of print and broadcast writing I Written for the eye 0 So it has to be read like a newspaper 0 But more personal than newspapers and more like the oneonone style of radio where you write like you are talking to one individual I Written like broadcast o Writer must decide the most interesting aspect of the story and lead with that but then continue writing while holding the audience s interest and still ending with a payoff o No inverted pyramid Readers are in a huJy Readers have short attention spans Readers want stories they connect to PWP Readers want stories written compellineg 5 There s more than one type of reader 0 Hurry hurry o In the past people devoted a big block of time say half an hour to viewing a broadcast andor reading the paper 0 Today we absorb info in chunks throughout the day in a steady series of updates rather than a dedicated block of time I Every time you look at your twitter feed you re receiving more headlines There is no scarcity of news and info available but time is limited You are competing for the audience s time and attention so stories need to be clear focused and to the point with an eyecatching headline 0 Sorry wasn t paying attention 0 90 of the time people prefer short stories to long I People are impatient swamped by a sea of info much of it meaningless I People are distracted and can t process long complicated stories 0 How to write for people who don t want long stories I Often writers often get it backwards and write long stories and then try to cut 0 Write a damn good story 0 Write average sentences if you want to be an average writer I Your sentences don t have to say a lot but they have to say the right things 0 Do I care or not 0 Unfortunately too many stories focus heavily on the power structure I Meaning middleaged male official perspectives 0 Successful online writers craft stories that focus on m the reader instead of m those politicians and strangers over there 0 Stories about the actions of city council the planning commission or the school board are ignored unless the writer makes it clear why it matters to the person reading I With limitless online choices audiences want stories they care about 112014 It is important to understand what people care about then help them smarten up on those topics 0 Second most popular thing on the internet is porn but that doesn t mean we need to give them what they want 0 Tease viewersreaders with their interest usually with a catchy headline and then inform Is it interesting 0 You will sap the audience s energy and attention if you give them dry detailed summaries or an endless parade of facts I Readers prefer stories real narrative dramas starring real people 0 Writing online is more like featurestyle writing more personality more quotwhy should I care attitude which has more impact 0 Readers will always want solid accessible facts though I They can find this in your story or through hyperlinks to access more info Delivery of text o If a story can be more effectively told with a bulleted list a series of photos a Q and A format or a graphic so be it I Buzzfeed s Top 20 lists of stuff are bulleted which works for them I You want people to walk away knowing more and use the best method to do it The look of online writing I The screen is smaller than a newspaper of magazine which is why web pages often use bigger type I Online writing has more pictures because they don t have to pay for print space Online has more color because don t have to pay for color I Online is constantly inviting you to look at something else through internal and external links I Online has to be written very sharply concisely and personally I Writing for smaller devices means even more of this 0 Must be concise with writing when people are reading on cell phonestablets Making online writing stand out 0 Combination of 0 Research has shown I Put key points at top of the text and use multiple paragraphs chunk your information 0 Web users are more likely to scan online stories than to actually read them Writing an online story 0 Headline 0 First paragraph that hits home attracts attention and relates 0 Body of story I Short sentences I Quotes are put in separate paragraphs 0 Quotes can be broken up with the attribution in the middlequot 0 Headline 0 The headline is the first and maybe only impression you make on a reader I Writing a great headline is crucial 0 Online look 0 Use subheads bullets and lists I Short lists show readers at a glance the points you are trying to make 0 Boldface type grabs the reader s eye I Bold thick font helps emphasize key words 0 Bullets like those on the slide are a means to make lists easier to follow 0 Use transitions 0 To keep your story flowing guide the reader from one idea to another with carefully placed transitions words or phrases such as quothowever meanwhile in addition previously also 0 When did it occur 0 Time and date different from broadcast which is only heard once and uses earlier o This means NO Today tomorrow or yesterday since there isn t the same immediacy of delivering the news at a given time I Also if someone comes across a story the next day your tomorrow is their today o In some cases this also shows when a story was updated which is very common with web stories which get posted immediately after an event and new info continues to come in and stories are updated hours or even days later 0 More than lists and bullets I In some ways broadcast journalists have to unlearn techniques for writing for the spoken word and write printEnglish when writing online 0 Sites are also increasing their use of multimedia I So we quotbroadcast people are still in business but only if we learn to write print 0 Story about a speech 0 A multimedia package for the web would include photos videos audio and text to capture the event in a compelling and multidimensional way 0 Include I Text story of why the speaker was there and when what they said and what was newsworthy the audience s reaction and a quote from the speech I Audio bites from the speech or press conference I Video of the speech I Photos of the speaker and audience a possible 360 degree panorama of the crowd Online media and online writing 0 Incorporating links 0 This isn t new writers and scholars have included footnotes endnotes and annotations to add extra meaning to our writing for centuries Hyperlinks I The use of hypertext meaning quotmore than just text is what gives web its great functionality o Allows every piece of content on the internet to be connected to each other 0 Creates a web of information and used by google to index the web Internal and external links 0 An online reader may not finish a story but have a better understanding of the topic or event Links 0 As a writer you don t have to provide all the info of a story just link them somewhere else I Supplementary graphics video and audio can provide more content Provides the ability to tie together multiple angles of a story from various sources without having to include it all in one story 0 Where to use links 0 Suppose you are writing a story about a music group I To introduce the members of the band or group you could provide a link to a photo slide show of the band performing or a link to YouTube or iTunes to hear their musicsee them I If you are timing your story to go along with one of their tours add a link to Ticketmaster Example three 0 Suppose a hurricane is about to hit in your area you can provide I Weather updates info on schools closed driving tips safety warnings I Links to messages and videos sent in by audience 0 Usually in a separate box near the main story I A local weather forecast Warning on links 0 While adding a link is informative it can also be interruptive I Every time you interrupt the flow of your story to dangle a fresh option in front of the reader there s a chance they may leave your site and never come back 0 So it is best to link to internal material Tips for including links 0 Keep link wording short I Be concise I Adding a link to a half dozen words looks odd I Don t say MORE or CLICK HERE distracting I Avoid splitting links on more than one line of text 0 At this point everyone understands that if you click here they will get more info Use words or phrases that clearly indicate where the reader is going o If you want to link to a candidate s voting history or latest campaign ad users will know where the link will take them 0 Vague wording makes it harder for readers to guess where the links lead 0 Link tips 0 Links substitute for lengthy background details I If you are reviewing a new band and their lead guitarist says he modeled his playing after Jimmy Page a link to a YouTube video of Page would help to show instead of tell how the guitarist copied his style 0 While links provide more info they should be voluntary not mandatory I You should be able to get through the whole story and understand everything without clicking on any link I Assume the reader will not click on any link to make sure the story can stand alone 0 You can use links as attribution I If there s a site you rely heavily on for primary info link readers to that site I It gives credit and enhances your credibility 0 Important link tip 0 Double check that your links work 0 Make sure links go to the site you intend 0 Make sure the info on that site is correct 112514 0 Multimedia 0 Text photos audio video graphics 0 Multimedia reporting 0 The integration of different storytelling tools all in service of a single story 0 Photos 0 Photos add action emotion and authenticity to stories in ways text can t I Anyone with a good digital camera or a cell phone can be a photojournalist or add photos to a web story 0 An image is worth a thousand words but it takes a lot longer to write those thousand words 0 Visuals online 0 Pictures must have a caption that doesn t describe the image but answers questions of who what where when why I And have an ALT tag 0 Photos in online stories 0 Captions inform the site viewer why the story and photo are important and newsworthy and how the two connect I Tells site viewers what they cannot see from looking at the photo O I Lists key people in the photo I Captures action in the photo Don t do staged photos it s unethical because it s fake and usually uninteresting I Unless it is ceremonial 0 Avoid profile shots I You can only see half a face Be careful of shadows I Can make a person seem dark and moody No photos with someone talking I Their mouth will be hanging open could be gross could be stuff in there Don t appear in the photo no one wants to see you No butt shots Can t tell who it is from a butt Take 10 pictures for every 1 you need I Remember people like to see other people not objects or scenery Choosing photos 0 O 0 Audio 0 Good I A single photo can add info and visual appeal to any story even if it is a thumbnail to click and enlarge Better I A gallery 0 An assortment of photos that users can browse select and view in any order 0 Online galleries offer photographers limitless space to post images Best I A photo slide show 0 A sequence of images with audio narration music or sound 0 Slide shows require more time but users can hit play and watch the show as images advance automatically If you have used iTunes you already know downloading audio is easy I This is why online sites enhance their coverage of a story with audio as often as possible Choosing audio 0 O 0 Good I Provide an audio clip anytime sound plays an integral part in a story such as dramatic or controversial excerpt from a speech or interview 0 For musicians or comedians include a sample Better I Produce your own audio so you can add narration music and natural sound Best I Create a podcast which is an audio version of a show or discussion which people can download anytime o A video podcast is called a vodcast Choosing video 0 Good I If you can t shoot your own video link to sites that have it YouTube TV networks videos posted on other social media etc I Posting raw unedited video is ok if it s breaking news 0 Better I As your video editing improves you ll want to provide edited video of news events speeches protests and parades performances sports and concerts and interviews 0 Best I Video documentaries o Combining video with audio narratives like any news story you have seen Graphics 0 Informational graphics use illustrations like maps charts diagrams and timelines to present data in visual and accessible ways Choosing graphics 0 Good I A single chart of graph that can add info to a story and visual appeal even if it s just a clickable thumbnail 0 Better I A google mashup map is interactive and easy to use to add useful local info to stories 0 Best I Use software to produce animated slideshows or cartoons that are a series or frames that create the illusion of motion 0 User participation 0 One of the reasons the web became so popular so quickly 0 Traditional media like newspapers radio and TV are all oneway info delivery systems I Traditional media speaks and we have to listen 0 The web has changed traditional media reversing centuries of media tradition I Online users expect and demand to contribute comment get involved be heard 0 News is becoming less of a lecture and more of a conversation o Encouraging user participation 0 One of the most common ways is to use the hashtag started with twitter moved to Facebook and Instagram 0 Media producers provide options to allow the audience the ability to participate in news stories and TV shows join the discussion by getting on twitter 0 User participation is more than comments but also original material 0 Web users are everywhere you re not they can provide content I They can provide eyewitness accounts photos videos opinions and options for additional coverage 0 Web users have untapped expertise and experience I Almost everyone is an expert at something and users can add content and credibility that journalists can t 0 Web users want a communal experience I They want to know what others are feeling on the same topic I They want the web to be an information democracy where voices are heard and interests reflected o This also makes them more loyal I Joins together fans of the same thing Fandom 0 Readers are unprofessional I They mistake opinion for fact they complain grammar and spelling can be bad don t respect copyright laws 0 Readers are unreliable I They post when they want to not when you want them to o It takes time and energy I User friendly web elements take time to set up and monitoring and editing comments takes up valuable resources 0 Patriots had a social media mistake to apologize for 0 Ways to let users participate 0 Tip lines Most basic I Many news websites allow visitors to send a message via a tip to any of the reporters on staff 0 These emailed messages aren t published on the site I A contact us link lets users respond by email 0 But this doesn t create dialogue 0 Comments section I Most popular form of user participation for many media sites and often only form I You should want your stories to stimulate discussion generate feedback and trigger ideas for followup stories 0 But comment sections often get hijacked by spammers and trolls o Spammer bombards sites with ads and misleading links 0 Troll posts insults obscenities and threats I Online stories have an audience of the whole world can be shared to anyone 0 User comments how to I Sites once allowed anonymous and unedited discourse in their comments section but by 0 Requiring registration often with names email phone number 0 Using Facebook login to make comments 0 Rejecting objectionable remarks 0 Allowing users to bury or upvote the comments of others 0 Discussion I Moderated forums 0 Where users discuss designated topics in a common conversation 0 Sometimes unrelated to a specific site article 0 Sports politics movies etc I reddit 0 Live chat 0 Where users can ask live questions and react to responses made by writer or newsmaker I Anarchy after dark talking dead 0 Surveys polls and quizzes I Online polls aren t scientific but engage the reader increase page views provide graphic interest and take the pulse of the audience on a variety of topics 0 Most polls ask simple yesno or multiple choice questions buzzfeed sports nation which makes it easy to tabulate results I Tests and quizzes often have correct answers and ask users to rate their knowledge on areas like political history or sports trivia o If they re visual and interactive enough tests and quizzes can become the central element to a story 0 Crowd sourcing I When reporters leave the task of reporting up to the audience 0 Reporters want to distribute the work over a broad audience so it is either more complete or completed faster than one person working on it 0 CNN iReport ask audience to put together a full news package and they ll put it on the site 0 Interactive media I Clickable links 0 The more clickable links you provide the more users can customize their web experience I Charts graphs and maps can let users interact with the info in a way that isn t possible with any other media 0 St Peter s tour online also tour chattanooga 12214 Social Media 0 Social media 0 Makes it so that thousands of people can quotseequot you and follow your work 0 Can make you more visible to all the right people if you use it right if you market yourself with professionalism and authenticity 0 Social media shows what people care about 0 To tweet a story include a link photo or video on Facebook or to write a story on a blog requires someone somewhere to do something 0 Social media is exposing people to what s going on in the world beyond the news gatekeepers I It allows us to be our own gatekeepers by following the sources and outlets we want to get only the coverage we want A buffet of free information o important element of media and infosharing o Narrows the distance between us and the important people the politicians reporters celebrities musicians athletes etc o Encourages lively immediate and spirited discussion 0 Can be a vital infogathering and infodelivery tool o Siva Vaidhyanathan professor of media studies and law at UVA called people s use of social media quottechnonarcissism I Showing off to others through technology o In the beginning I Blogs increased immediacy 0 Let people dispense info easily instantly and often I Blogs simplify storytelling by providing quick commentaries and large amounts of info I Created the idea of citizen journalists with an easy instant medium of sharing news 0 Provide forums where ordinary citizens can share insights expertise passions and concerns 0 The rise of social media 0 From 2005 until early 2008 Myspace was the most visited social networking site in the world and in June 2006 surpassed google as most visited website in the world o In April 2008 Myspace was overtaken by Facebook in the number of unique worldwide visitors and surpassed unique US visitors in May 2009 o The big boy 0 Today Facebook has 135 billion users more than 703 million use it every day on a mobile device and 399 million use Facebook ONLY on mobile 0 Twitter in America 0 According to pew research center percentage of online Americans using twitter grew to 19 of internet users in 2014 up from 16 in 2013 15 in 2012 and 13 in 2011 o 271 million monthly active users 500 million tweets per day 0 78 of twitter active users are on mobile 0 Twitter supports 35 languages 0 Social media news 0 People use their networks and networking technology to filter assess access and react to information or send comments to editors and writers 0 Before that you used US postal service 0 Pew research center 0 Giving up the fight 0 Traditional media are embracing social media I According to TV news researcher Bob Papper 0 Covering social media topics in newscasts o What is trending o Gatekeeping done by citizens instead ofjust news director 0 Using social media in storytelling 0 Reactions from audience 0 Reporting on tweets from relevant people authors politicians athletes celebrities etc 0 Searching out sources 0 Integrating social media on websites 0 Twitter feeds on sites or linking back to sites from twitter 0 Stations using social media 0 Tv news stations run live scros of commentary and tweets at the bottom of the screen or ask people to tweet their thoughts 0 Newssports stations monitor twitter and other social media sites looking for breaking news which appears there first I This info can be discovered on twitter and be put on the TV screen in 30 seconds I Using raw material from regular people and pull it into their editing software 0 Or they re encouraging people to be involved by being crowd sourced reporters I Like the dude who posted that video from the FSU library during the shooting 0 The famous on social media 0 Many wellknown news correspondents athletes and entertainers have blogs websites twitter and Facebook 0 Anderson cooper s website shows how he s using numerous forms of social media for branding 0 Clay Matthews and Kim Kardashian too 0 Ethical reminders 0 What s posted onine is open to the public even if you consider it to be private I Personal and professional lives merge onine I Even though your comments may seem to be in a quotprivate space your words become direct extensions of you and the organization you work for 0 Search engines and social mapping sites can locate posts and link the writers names to employers 0 As well as photos google lets you search 0 There are journalistic reasons to connect with people onine even if you cover them I But consider whom you quotfriendquot on sites like Facebook or quotfollowquot on twitter I You may believe onine friends are different from other friends in your life but the public may not see it that way 0 You can be judged for who you choose to friend or follow like following an antiSemitic tweeter 0 Be careful when registering for social network sites I Pay attention to how the public may interpret Facebook info that describes your relationship status age sexual preference and politicalreligious views o Thee descriptors can hold loaded meanings and affect viewer perception o quotgraph search makes this easier to find I When you join an online group the public may perceive that you support that group 0 Be prepared to be judged I Check the user agreement for the privacy and info you give away 0 See what info they re taking from you and sharing 0 Avoid posting photos or any other content on any website blog or social network or videophoto sharing website that might embarrass you or undermine credibility I Even if it s password protected or private 0 Protecting yourself online 0 Be decent fair and accurate with your comments 12414 personal branding and reputation management 0 The world we live in o In the job market you can tjust be a name on a resume I You have to engage in personal branding quotselfpackaging and reputation management 0 You have to make yourself known but it needs to be the best you possible not 100 you 0 Branding 0 You need to perform roundtheclock personal brand maintenance 0 Social media are how you will be evaluated in your professional and personal life I And you re responsible for preventing and displaying this image to the public 0 Your online brand I Think about the face you want to show the world and how you want to position yourself through all forms of social media 0 Also use a professional email and post professionally on twitter 0 Facebook keeps data and photos even if you delete it until you delete your account 0 Your reputation precedes you 0 Some job interviews ask for Facebook password during interviews to look you up I In the majority of states it s legal 0 You progress or you stagnate o The only way to demonstrate your expertise to a broad audience is to brand yourself as an expert I Online create a stream of content I Offline cultivate your reputation through involvement in professional associations and societies public speaking and networking 0 Skills to learn 0 Basic photo editing photoshop 0 Basic video editing final cut or adobe premiere 0 Google drive and Microsoft office I Learn how to use excel o Html and basic coding 0 Brand yourself 0 Ways to build your image online 0 Monitor I Keep track of media and online mentions 0 Control the dialogue I If you don t put out material someone else will 0 Create a fan base I Reach out to colleagues professors friends allies 0 Your domain 0 Create your URL and put it everywhere business cards social media resume etc 0 Your website should be your online CV 0 Include multimedia Extra little shit to study Shots the basic unit in TVfilm 0 Scenes one or more series of shots from the same time and place 0 Sequences Series of scenes from different places Swish Pan A quick pan from one object to the next across the same space Over the shoulder shots are mostly done during interviews Rack Focus Deliberater changing the focus to shift from one character to another while they are speaking Product Integration When a commercial message is not only shown in the program but also part of the storyline Charmin challenge on Survivor 0 Commercial tieins Product based on media property like a video game on Walking Dead Who said if you ever want to lose faith in humanities read comments section Benjamin Dolnick October 13 2012 Facebook saves pics for 16 months 0 January 2013 30 days How many ads does ad council do a year 25 What is CSR Corporate Social Responsibility When a company brags about what they donated etc Why write a PSA 0 Writer is viewed as moral and upstanding member of community 0 Less interference from regular clients 0 Advertises agency if done well 0 May help save a life Professionals involved in production copywriter art director film director and direct of photography In 2003 we had how many exabytes 5 o in 2012 we had how many zetabytes 27 1000 exa1zeta so 2700 exabytes
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