Study Guide 1
Study Guide 1 PSYC 225
Popular in Lifespan Development: Child-Adult
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Study Guide 1 Chapter 3 What is fertilization union of sperm and ovum to produce a zygote point of conception Define dizygoticfratemal and monozygoticidentical twins Know the difference Dizygotic fraternal twins Twins conceived by the union of two different ova or an ovum that has split with two different sperm cells Fraternal twins no more alike genetically than regular siblings May run in families Monozygotic Identical twins twins resulting from the division of a single zygote after fertilization identical twins genetically similar occur by chance Why has there been an increase in multiple births recently the trend toward delayed childbearing the increased use of fertility drugs which spur ovulation and of assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization Which parent determines the genetic sex of a baby Father s sperm Define recessive trait Will a recessive trait be expressed in a person s phenotype pattern of inheritance in which when a child receives different alleles heterozygous only the dominant one is expressed it will only be expressed if one copy of an allele was recessive and the other was dominant therefore two recessive alleles will not be expressed What is a phenotype observable characteristics of a person physical appearance Define mutation permanent alterations in genes or chromosomes that may produce harmful characteristics What are the three stages of prenatal development Germinal stage Embryonic stage Fetal stage During which stage does the zygote implant in the uterine wall Germinal Stage Fertilization to 2 weeks What are the primary functions of the placenta allows oxygen nourishment and wastes to pass between mother and embryo During which stage do the major body organs and systems develop Embryonic Stage 2 to 8 weeks When is the unborn baby most susceptible to environmental in uences which stage everything that in uences the mothers wellbeing may alter the embryo fetus environment What is a teratogen Environmental agent virus drug or radiation that can interfere with normal prenatal development and cause developmental abnormalities What are the characteristics of a child with fetal alcohol syndrome combination of mental motor and developmental abnormalities short attention span distractibility restlessness hyperactivity learning disabilities memory deficits mood disorders How can nicotine affect a developing fetus miscarriage growth retardation stillbirth small head circumference sudden infant death Colic and longterm respiratory neurological cognitive attentional and behavior problems What are the effects of prenatal marijuana methamphetamine and cocaine use Marijuana Iimpaired attention impulsivity and difficulty in using visual and perceptual skills after age 3 Cocaine I spontaneous abortion delayed growth premature labor low birth weight small head size birth defects impaired neurological development acute withdrawal symptoms and sleep disturbances after birth Meth llow birth weight small for their gestational age fetal brain damage to areas of the brain involved in learning memory and control Chapter 4 What is a cesarean section Delivery of a baby by surgical removal from the uterus How long does the neonatal period last first 4 weeks of life Explain what the fontanels are the place on the head where the bones have not yet grown together soft spots What is neonatal jaundice Which bodily organ is responsible for it condition in many newborn babies caused by immaturity of liver and evidenced by yellowish appearance can cause brain damage if not treated promptly affects roughly 50 of babies What is the Apgar scale What are the five subscales standard measurement of a newborn s condition assesses appearance pulse grimace activity and respiration What does the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale assess motor organization activity levels bringing hand to mouth re exes state changes irritability excitability ability to be quieted attention and interactive capacities alertness and responses to visual and auditory stimuli and indications of CNS instability tremors and changes in skin color Define mortality rate proportion of babies born alive who die within the 1st year What is the leading cause of infant death in the United States Birth defects disorders realted to prematurity and low birth weight SIDS maternal complications of pregnancy Define Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant What are ways to reduce the risk of SIDS sleeping with a fan placing babies on their backs to sleep not letting infants sleep on soft surfaces adult beds sofas or chairs use pacifiers no connection between immunizations and SIDS What are the two principles of development Explain each Cephalocaudal Principle I principle that development proceeds in a headtotoe direction Proximodistal Principle I principle that development proceeds from within to without For how long is it recommended that women exclusively breastfeed 6 months Define lateralization tendency of each of the brain s hemispheres to have specialized functions What are the primary responsibilities as discussed in class of the left hemisphere The right hemisphere Left Hemisphere I language and logical thinking Right Hemisphere I visual and spatial functions Which senses are welldeveloped at birth touch and pain smell and taste hearing sight Which sense is the last to develop Sight is the least developed sense at birth What are some common milestones achieved during the first year rolling over grasping rattle sitting without support standing while holding on grasping with thumb and finger Chapter 5 According to Piaget what is a scheme Organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations How did Piaget define circular reactions Processes by which an infant learns to reproduce desired occurrences originally discovered by chance What are primary secondary and tertiary circular reactions Define each and provide the substage during which we would see each Primary circular reaction action and response both involve infants own body 1 to 4 months I second substage Secondary circular reaction action gets a response from another person or object leading to baby s repeating original action 4 to 8 months I third substage Tertiary circular reaction action gets one pleasing result leading baby to perform similar actions to get similar results 12 to 18 months I fifth substage During which substage do children achieve symbolic thinking Sixth Substage 18 months to 2 years What is object permanence The understanding that a person or object still exists when out of sight Define and explain habituation type of learning in which familiarity with a stimulus reduces slows or stops a response researchers repeatedly present a stimulus and then monitor responses like heart rate sucking eye movements and brain activity Explain what crossmodal transference is Ability to use info gained by one sense to guide another ex Negotiating a dark room by feeling for familiar objects What is prelinguistic speech What are examples of prelinguistic speech Utterance of sounds that are not words includes crying cooing babbling amp accidental and deliberate imitation or sounds without understanding their meaning Define babbling repeating consonantvowel strings Define linguistic speech Verbal expression designed to convey meaning When do children usually say their first word age range 10 to 14 months What is a holophrase single word that conveys a complete thought ex Da Where is Daddy What is telegraphic speech What would be an example Early form of sentence use consisting of only a few essential words Ex Damma deep Grandma is sweeping the oor What are the characteristics of early speech Simplify Understand grammatical relationship they cant express yet under extend word meanings overextend word meanings over regularize rules Chapter 6 Define psychosocial development personality intertwined with social relationships What are the different types of cries a baby may employ and how can a parent tell them apart Hunger cry rhythmic cry not always associated with hunger Angry cry variation of the rhythmic cry excess air is forced through the vocal cords Pain cry sudden onset of loud crying without preliminary moaning sometimes followed by breathholding Frustration cry 2 or 3 drawnout cries no prolonged breathholding What is the primary reason for a baby s first smile a result of subcortical nervous system activity Define selfawareness realization that one s existence and functioning are separate from those of other people and things emerges between 15 and 24 months What are the emotions of selfevaluation pride shame and guilt Define empathy ability to put oneself in another person s place and feel what the other person feels What is temperament What are the three categories of temperament characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reaching to situations Easy I generally happy temperament regular biological rhythms and a radiness to accept new experiences Difficult I irritable temperament irregular biological rhythms and intense emotional responses SlowtoWarmUp I temperament is generally mild but may be hesitant about accepting new experiences What is gendertyping socialization process by which children at an early age learn appropriate gender roles Explain the findings of Harlow and Harlow s experiment with rhesus monkeys originally thought to be based on nourishment but was actually based on contact comfort What is the strange situation Define and explain each of the attachment types laboratory technique used to study infant attachment secure attachment infant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver on hisher return avoidant attachment infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoids contact on his or her return ambivalent resistant attachment infant becomes anxious before the caregiver leaves is extremely upset during his or her absence and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return disorganized disoriented attachment infant after separation from the caregiver shows contradictory repetitious or misdirected behaviors upon their return Define socialization development of habits skills values and motives shared by responsible productive members of a society What is the foundation of socialization compliance with parental expectations if the first step How does your book characterize sibling relationships siblings con ict can be a vehicle for understanding social relationships lessons and skills learned from interactions with siblings generalize to relationships outside the home What are some of the effects of maternal employment on children s development negative effects on cognitive development at 15 months to 3 years negative cognitive and behavior outcomes at ages 38 What percentage of mothers work 551 of mothers of infants in their first year of life as well as 592 of women with children under age 3 were in the labor force When assessing the quality of a daycare what is the most important factor to consider The caregiver I stimulating interactions with responsive adults is crucial for early cognitive linguistic and psychosocial development
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