UPDATED Exam 1 Study Guide
UPDATED Exam 1 Study Guide GEO 135
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Vidano on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 135 at Illinois State University taught by David Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Education and Teacher Studies at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
11 Test 1 Study Guide Six Elements of Geography Geography Study of the interaction of the world and society people cultural and political geography The World in Spatial Terms Places realms and Regions Realms similar to continents Identi ed by light blue lines Divide realms into Regions generally different colors Physical Systems Things depicted on a map except for national borders How the physical geography works together Topography physical features of an area Ex plains in Europe low land plains green rivers seas oceans depression Kalahari 1000 ft high plateau in Africa etc Human Systems Humans acting in one way or another Human migration in modern times immigration and emigration Life says it started in Africa Environment and Society Modify the environment due to human development or just for change cultural geography Ex religion education jobs crops government etc Uses of geography 12 Geography has a relationship with regional and systematic geography map of circles Interconnects different types of information Ex need swampy geography in order to have malaria southern Michigan and Louisiana The Language of quotMapsquot Maps vs Charts Map Depiction of geographic physical and cultural features usually on a at surface that s the problem continents rivers elevation cities highways etc Charts A map that people add data toinformation to ex average annual precipitation of the world Scale 0 Size of a map and what it depicts 0 Zoom in more in each picture 0 Can be depicted in many ways a diagram or numbers in lower right corner Location 0 Absolute Uses coordinate system to de ne and describe where something is exactly Latitudeongitude Relative Use something else in order to nd another location a general area with respect to something else Middle east a great source of confusion quotEastern Europequot Far East Japan China and Korea Used from prime meridian to go off of is relative from England because they ran the world for a long period of time with trade and exploration It runs through the middle of England Prime meridian line of longitude at 0 degrees Ca rtog ra ms 0 Pictorial description of a numerical quantity 0 Similar to pie charts and bar graphs 0 Similar to map as to what it looks like 0 Eye easily drawn to area for info 0 Ex cartogram for population of percent of people with a college educann Need a scale or numbers to make one 0 Don t really show location and actual size and shape of countries Regions 0 A result of interaction what is going on in society 0 Human societies 0 Natural physical environment 0 A quotfunctional environmentquot there are artifacts tangible piece of evidence of human involvementactivity 0 quotMust represent the great clusters of mankindquot DeBlij large areas of human activity 0 Transition zones where realms meet There is change so zones are a function of time change with time Ex In Africa place where Muslims mostly located mportant because it is the biggest area of human con ict because there is friction between Muslims and nonmuslims lt splits Sudan into two parts Sudan and South Sudan 0 A product of mental perception your views of an area Midwest or quotCorn Beltquot Boundades Sefevident So obviously true that you don t need evidence Ex coastlines borders of a large desert Determined by set criteria Ex highway 10 near Michigan the South vs North 0 Location absolute VS relative in notes above 0 Character 3 TYPES listed below 0 Formal homogenous region Region which is the same with its population and physical area Uniform Cultural vs Physicalnatural Sahara Desert Great Plains Functional nodal region Region decided upon by what happens there Driven by human activities quotSpatia systemsquot Von Thunen rings Citysuburbshinterland area behind a coastshoreline Core Largely where the action and decisions occur Large population education factories universities seaports industrial commercial etc The Midwest is a core Periphery Boundaries No manufacturing no corporate less population less universities less houses more of vacation places rather than living place Upper Michigan Ludington is a periphery because Highway 10 is a boundary Van Thunen Rings Europe 0 Core is where water and land meet for transporttrade As go out farther from rings goods become less perishable Truck farmers make goods consumed by large populations 0 The closest region pink take carrots and lettuce and sell it in the city before it gets bad because they are perishable The middle region green is where corn and wheat has to be transported from to get to the city The food is less perishable so it can last longer 0 The farthest region yellow is where forest lumber has to be taken to into the city It is nonperishable so it doesn t go bad fast 0 To this day these rings have changed with time because of new technology trucks with refrigeration so we are now able to get grapes from Africa and Australia is now becoming a wine producing area we can get food from other countries Vernacular Perceptual Region Based upon the way we think of it lnforma usages New Yorkers view NY as the center of the universe Corn Belt distribution of corn and wheat farming Rust Belt abandoned factories Detroit and Indiana and New York Borscht Belt red vegetables used to make soup because of poor Jewish immigrants ln southeastern New York along east coast line There was immigration from Northern Europe from Russia and Poland The new Eastern European immigrants were poor and less educated and were discriminated against by Eastern Europeans Summer resorts catered to the Jews in the borscht belt quotThe Southquot and Redneck Territory not a lot of HS graduates produce cotton origins of Country music 13 Concepts Cultural Landscape human activity changes environment Environmenta determinism environment governs actions Environmenta probabilism environment in uences actions Environment perceptionism perceptions shape actions Maps Common features Latitude Lines that run East and West horizontal but describe where you are North and South Aso called parallels Go from 090 degrees only Equator is at 0 degrees Parale with same distance apart 0 Longitude Lines that run North and South vertical from pole to pole but describe where you are East and West Also called Meridians The prime meridian is a line of longitude at 0 degrees Royal observatory in England shows this Measure 0180 degrees The International Date Line is at the 180th degree meridian longitude which is opposite of the prime meridian lt separates one day from another For example if it were noon at the prime meridian it would be midnight at the lDL Is not always exactly 180 degrees because this way it avoids problems near each other Come together at one point at the North Pole are not parallel A degree of longitude at the pole has no size North pole 90 degrees north South pole 90 degrees south Degreesminutesseconds Latitude is measured in degrees from 090 degrees Divide each degree into minutes 60 minutes1 degree 60 nautical miles 1 degree of latitude and 1 second of latitude 160 nautical mile 1 minute of latitude is 1 nautical mile 6076126080 ft quot a mile a minutequot I second of latitude 160 nautical mile A nautical mile per hour is a knot speed Divide minutes into seconds to become more exact 60 seconds 1 minute Then divide seconds into decimals Latitude uses nautical miles NOT longitude oTropics lines of latitude Tropic of Cancer 235 degrees North of the equator Angle of the noon sun is at 90 degrees its highest intensity It s as far north as the sun gets Tropic of Capricorn 235 degrees South of the equator 0 Angle of the noon sun is at 90 degrees its highest intensity in the southern hemisphere o Circles Determined by the tilt of the axis of the Earth 235 from Plane of the Ecliptic Arctic Circle 665 degrees North of the equator 0 Land of the midnight sun 0 At least one day a year where the sun never goes down or doesn t come up Aaska Antarctic Circle 665 degrees South of the equator o 90 south pole 235 axis tilt 665 degrees 0 Land of the midnight sun 0 At least one day where the sun never goes down or doesn t come up Great Circle 0 The line described by the intersection of the earth s surface and a plane that passes through any 3 points Formed by 3 points 1 point is the center of the Earth and the other two points are any points on the surface of the Earth 0 These points are nonlinear not in a straight line 0 In nite amount of great circles The 3 points de ne a plane that intersects the earth called a Great Circle 0 Doesn t have to be a circle because a plane is at Why useful It identi es the shortest distance between two points which makes it easier to have a shorter distance on an airplane ight Can only make 1 great circle between the same two points Directions Ships or aircraft The North Pole the axis of the earth s rotation is not exactly where a magnetic compass points True North Degrees with respect to the North Pole 0 Most compasses do not point true north but rather to Magnetic North Magnetic North ln Greenland slightly off the North Pole where compasses point Lines of Magnetic Declination the difference between quottrue northquot and the direction a compass points quotMagnetic Northquot Shown in aeronautical charts o Is often shown on a map as a dashed brown line the value which is added to or subtracted from the reading of your compass to get quottrue northquot Meteorological Seasons Dec 1 Sept 1 Astronomical Seasons Dec 2153 March 20 june 20th and Sept 22nCI equinoxes Projections Purpose to depict you can t have it all Equal areas Equal distances Equal shapes conforma Shape looks like the real thing Goal to wrap a 2D surface around a 3D sphere You want a map that depicts something correctly where the distances are reproduced on the map It depends on where it is wrapped where things are located Tangency quottouchesquot The closer you are to the tangent point the more accurate it is No map is 100 perfect because you can t perfectly t a 3D object on a 2D surface Al globes are transparent so light can shine through them jug of maps with different projections o Cylindrical Mercator Projection The tangent is at the equator Most common projection but is not perfect Cosest to depiction of Earth globe In this type Greenland is not its accurate size too big A transverse Mercator is used from pole to pole oYou tilt the earth 90 degrees so the prime meridian is horizontal Not conformal Conic Projection Fold the paper and point the top to make a cone The tangent point latitude of tangency is called the standard parallel and creates a circle around the globe It is the latitude where the imaginary cone sits on the globe Standard parallel changes with size The taller the cone the more cylindrical it becomes The closer you are to the standard parallel makes the map more accurate Not conformal o Polyconic Projection Multiple quotstandard parallelsquot The more standard parallels the more lifelike your map is Meridians are curved More than one triangle Not conformal o Azimuthal Projection Tangent at a point Projection where the cone gets shorter and shorter so the standard parallels become closest to the North Pole The tangent touches the North Pole and is a at ine plane Longitude lines radiate out from the North Pole Use this map if doing something in the North Pole 0 Area Cartogram a quotMapoidquot 0 Equal area the right size but NOT conformal Governments and other things Nations 0 De nition entities of in nities something we can identify that is being drawn towards something Nationstate o Historically belief in a common birth Latin natio Greek savoc Similar to a tribe Generally possessing a functioning common government a quotstatequot Increasingly as USA acceptance of a common credo belief or proposition nteresting parallel Islamic Shahabad States 0 Political entities nations and states sovereign supremeabsolute government eg the USA 0 The only true nationstate in the world is Iceland because it has a government and everyone is of the same racekinship Others have to recognize you as a state in order to be one 10 Treaty of Westphalia 1648 quotEuropean state modelquot as a nation state The European government agreed that there was a state that existed and that it was going to be separated from power the king queen etc Based upon the concept of coexistingsovereign states Same common credo and same government Entities of in nity of a nation and also has the political portion Stateless Nation Want to be a state but nobody recognizes them as one ex Palestine Kurds not Arabic consider that they are a country but they aren t because they are living on other countries turf and the countries do not see themselves as a nation They have been ghting for their independence for a long time Development Methods Incomes Method Developed by the quotworld bankquot In order by social classes High income Uppermiddle income Lowermiddle income Low income ssues Variations with country generalizations doesn t show sovereign debt bimodal on graph doesn t show monetized economy if trades done on barter system you don t have real money so you can t compare economies ResourceWealth Method Core periphery Von Thunen s rings quotHavesquot quothavenotsquot quotNorthquot South 0 Northern hemisphere is mostly holding upperclass 11 Group of nations rather than nations individually Economic impact is limited due to small population ex Australia 0 Political Af liation Method Cold War Amost everyone uses this Accidentally invented by Lennon in the Soviet Union communist who stated the quotnew worldquot ron curtain separates the rst world from the second world western democracy vs the soviet union Forced separation between east and west First World Western democracies were the old world Western Europe and the US Second World The new world will overtake the rst world the Soviets will take over Europeans 0 Live in a pure communist government Marxist system Third World Neither western democracy or the SU 0 Africa Middle East India 0 Has picked up meaning of not welldeveloped 1955 President Sukarno of Indonesia gave to spirit of Bandung which is going to be the association of non aegiance nations 0 Found ways to get rst and second world countries to ght Became complicated because early in the cold war there was a revolution when china s national gov fell and communist came up and took over people s republic of china Probem communist world was run out of Moscow In Beijing china gets in shooting wars with Russia Russia and China are now third world countries because they are oligarchy dictatorships Fourth world 0 No longer political af liation but deve0pmental Not very prosperous Africa 12 Fifth world Basket Cases 0 Countries so poor that they can t advance 0 Bangladesh East Pakistan Muhammad Yunis won a Nobel peace prize To get rich you need money but not a lot of money quotMicro bankingquot lend women money for a baking business and had to pay back their citizens to make a community developed banking B is no longer a basket case Teleological Method Philosophical looking of where something is in the future and how they are changing and developing Developed DCUSA UnderdevelopedLesser developed UDCLDC Due to advantage the engine that drives development Some have it some don t Two types of Advantage Short term Fragile and can be gone oil cheap labor due to people wanting more money and growing up Oil running out in Yemen 0 Long Term Geography Saudi Arabia is an energy giant for solar energy because it is mostly desert which absorbs sunlight in the sand ProblemsCauses of Disparities Dependency theory in lesserdeveloped countries we are poor because you are rich and you are rich because we are poor There is only so much wealth on the planet Underdeveloped Debt service people owe lots of money and can t pay interest off Neocoonization often no way out o Began in the 188051993 13 Decolonization created colonies who had ties to their old countrytied to your colonial master 0 Debt forgiveness Jubilee everyone s debts are forgiven and you can start over The longterm bene ts are enormous Migration Forces Emigration Leaving one s country mmigration Entering another country Migration The movement of people FactorsTypes Push factors why one leaves Wanting to leave your country Pul factors why one goes to another country Speci c Factors deoogy what people believe Freedom Oppo un y Economics Globalization jobs come in and out Ethnicity these people are not like me Famiy Case Study 1 Russia the USSR and environs Starting in 1917and for the next decades the new USSR expanded Countries adjacent joined the USSR reasons varied In theory a federation in reality colonization the USSR was really run by Russia New acquisitions were Soviet Socialist RepubHcsSSR Little immigration from Russia A group tries to overthrow the zar king because they had very little rights and were controlling 1905 attempt to overthrow but it was a failed revolution The people were forced to leave Russia They came to Britain US and some to Germany Emigration from Russia again to do with growth of Russia and their view of the world 14 Soviet Union expanded in 19205 and after WW2 they conquer eastern Europe 0 Russia overrun by Mongols Fins Sweeds Germans etc at some point and became paranoid of invasion and seek to solidify control 0 Establish Glacis Area around the castle where land is built up and trees are cleared Used to see people coming so they aren t overthrown Undertook a program called Russi cation Create a glacis area by moving ethnic Russians out to other places various SSR s to establish Russian presence and control so the other countries don t become a threat to Russia 0 Rustication to make rustic out in the middle of nowhere Send people to live into farm country Indigenous people were sent to Russia especially Siberia In 1991 USSR collapses and people return home both ways on paper Ukraine Case Study 2 Russia the Ukraine USSR lived and breathed quotproduction quotasquot The Ukraine exceeded quotas Moscow gave the Ukraine land and people east of Dnieper R In the Ukraine lived many Russians who didn t move there Net immigration how many people are coming in Why Russia population fell off end of cold war and collapse of communist government Germany a good place to be because economy is great Canada is good because of healthcare and they are most immigrantfavorable and want more people to come in because it is empty Net emigration Leaving country Mexico is so high because come here for economic opportunity and is a war zone 15 Leave China to come to US to have political and religious freedom and because it is overcrowded in China 0 Brain Drain everyone smart who leaves the country to go somewhere to use their knowledge to make more money India and china 0 US is the top immigrant country Mexico is the top emigrant country Migration Corridors Mexico to US 0 Russia and Ukraine once sent to Ukraine they want to go back to Russia and vice versa BangladeshIndia to get religious freedom 0 Muslims in India is a high population also Hindus and don t agree with each other s religion Establish Pakistan as homeland for Indian Muslims and Hindus in India 0 TurkeyGermany to work in factories Kazakhstan Russia now is an independent country under Russia 0 Forward capital moving your capital city to some place you don t trust to make sure they follow the rules and stay in line and establish Glacis Ex Kazaks didn t like the Russians in their country so they move their capital more north by the Russians even after it moved south earlier to keep and eye on rebel Kazaks Concepts Seasons 0 The building blocks of weather and climate 0 Product of Earth s o Orbit 36514 days more or less mostly less 0 Tilt of rotational axis wrt Plane of the Ecliptic 235 Climate the weather over a period of time Weather everyday weather forecast quotClimate is what you expect weather is what you getquot Mark Twain 0 Terms 16 o Deserti cation Expansions of deserts o Glaciation Freezing of ice due to snow becoming compacted and ice spreads Ice Ages lnterglaciation Holocene Epoch 1011K years ago when glaciers contract and the ice melts Glacial Lake Lake that forms because a glacier melted and created a lake A moraine is evidence that a glacier has visited The Bloomington moraine is older than the normal moraine o Hydrologic cycle 0 Climatic regions Wladimir Koppen amp Rudolf Geiger System to identify climates of the world A B c D E H Humid eduatorial Africa Af No DRY SEASON Am MONSOON Aw DRY WINTER Lid Timbuktu Sahara Desert Humid temperate the US Humid cold North Polar cold North Highland Himalayas Topography physical landscape Culture amp Ethnicity Cultural landscape intersection of 0 Culture The sum of knowledge attitudes behavior 0 Physical landscape 17 0 Ethnicity culture racial heritage Ethnicity savoc l natio l nation 0 And yes Virginia everybody has quotethnicityquot EGVLKoc 0 Flexible can change if move to another country Fabricatedconstructed ethnicity inventing a new story Assimilated ethnicity Population size doesn t determine realm or region 0 Density of people 0 Arithmetic lsq mi how many people per square unit 0 Physiologic lsq mi of arable land how many people there are per land that you grow crops on 0 Distribution 0 Change showing contrasts 0 Growth decline 0 Urbanization rustication Note sometimes this is involuntary 0 Aging quotyoutheningquot like Merlin I guess 0 Education 0 quotBrain drainquot
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