ANT 304 - Exam I Study Guide
ANT 304 - Exam I Study Guide ANT 304
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 304 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Chapter 1 The study of the human past Homo sapiens have been on Earth for around 125000 years Human ancestors go back to about 6 mya Archaeology only started about 200 years ago 0 Started by Rasmus Nyerup Archaeology the study of the human past from material remains o Considered a sub eld of anthropology Anthropology the study of humans Cultural anthropology study of the diversity of living societies 0 Based on the work of ethnographers 0 Also known as social anthropology Biological anthropology the study of human evolution and physiology 0 May be divided into paleoanthropology and human ecology Paleoanthropology study of fossil and skeletal remains of early humans Human ecology study of human biological adaptation to environment and disease Linguistic anthropology study of world languages how they develop and how they relate to each other Material culture often showed as mark of what it is to be human Material culture makes humans the products of the world we have created 0 Material wise we depend on what we produce 0 This material is what kept and keeps us distinct from primate ancestors Material remains can be anything left behind 0 Literature song dance ritual etc 0 Tools or any product that is manmade 0 They can also play a role in demonstrating the social economic symbolic and religious life of past humans Cognitive archaeology study of religious and symbolic behavior and of the development of the human kind Industrial archaeology archaeology of the Industrial Revolution and beyond o It focuses on the factories machines living conditions of families etc No difference between prehistoric and historic archaeology 0 There is no limit in time 0 There are however studies in archaeology of speci c times Gender archaeology study of the roles of females in past societies o Started because of feminist critiques of maledominated science Origins of archaeology are about from 500 years ago in Europe 0 Medieval scholars were given older books 0 The Church controlled much of what was read 0 Given the Bible and classics from Aristotle 0 Everything was based on speculation not scienti c approach 0 16th century 0 books became cheaper and more accessible 0 Learning became broader and was no longer taught by religious authority 0 Led to Protestantism 0 New knowledge was from observation and experimentation 0 New voyages led to learning about other societies 0 17th century 0 Archaeology rst was only focused on northern and western Europe Later became about learning of other peoples past 0 Protestant nations in northern Europe were the ones who started to observe record and excavate archaeological sites 0 First serious investigations of British prehistoric monuments began 0 John Aubrey describes Stonehenge and Avebury 18th century 0 Systematic excavation begins 0 Stratigraphy study of geology concerned with the order and position of strata and their relationship to the geological time scale Thomas Jefferson and the Native American burial grounds in 1784 o Chronology was still a big issue because there was no way to establish remains true age 0 19th century 0 Chronology issue begins to solve itself 0 Study of prehistoric archaeology born 0 Three age system of Stone Bronze and Iron established Used in Europe but not applied to Africa Australia or the Americas The others used different chronological terms 0 Newer studies showed that there subdivisions to three age system Stone Age 0 Old tools of chipped or aked stone Paleolithic New tools of polished stone Neolithic Bronze Age divided into Early Middle and Late Iron Age divided into Early Middle and Late 0 Lewis Henry Morgan North America and Sir Edward Taylor Britain Argued that humans had passed through stages of savagery and barbarism before being a civilization Said that each new stage was an improvement of the previous one Pattern of progress was driven by some sort of social Darwinism 20th century 0 Elman Service Divided human societies into four major categories Categories proved useful to comparing and understanding archaeological materials Classi cation must be used carefully because it says that there are universal types of human organization when really all societies are different and unique 0 Four categories of human societies Bands 0 Small groups of 25 60 individuals who are related through family and marriage ties o Are usually huntergatherers Tribes Settled farmers or herders of 3003000 individuals 0 Share a common ancestor 0 They have no central control or social hierarchy Chiefdoms May have over 10000 individuals 0 There is a hierarchy of lineages ruled by a chief Redistribution of wealth is common characteristic State societies or civilizations Population reaches large size and complexity Centralized and institutional control 0 Rank and wealth are important 0 Archaeological studies start literally everywhere in the world 0 Number of archaeologists still small 0 Classical archaeology of Greece and Rome archaeology of ancient Egypt and ancient Mexico and prehistoric monuments of NW Europe were of huge interest 0 Willard Libby Developed radiocarbon dating Applied to organic archaeological materials like charcoal bone and shell Fixed the chronology issue Effective on artifacts that are up to 40000 years old so cannot be used on human origins GPS Global Positioning Systems used to map sites and nds quickly and accurately in the landscape GIS Geographic Information Systems used to analyze the relationships between the nding of the GPS The development of human societies seen as a single continuous process 0 The earlier stages involves changes in the human species not just technology and society 0 Anthropologists focused on reconstructing fossil species found and their relation to each other Cladistics technique which seeks to sort species that are alive and fossilized into an evolutionary tree 0 Track the inheritance of morphological features 0 Powerful tool for understanding the pattern of early evolution Morphological features characteristics that are passed down 0 In fossils it would be in the form of transformations emergence or disappearance 0 Has proven that modern human populations are much more diverse in Africa than anywhere else in the world Molecular genetics used on recent stages in human evolution 0 DNA is extracted fro existing humans and compared to that of ancient remains 0 Has the potential to document the genetic interrelationships of all hominins 0 Only problem is that DNA is rarely preserved in sufficient amounts for analysis 0 Shown that modern humans interbred with Neanderthals and Denisovans Human behavior of those times are shown through the creation of tools use of re clothing and shelter burials and symbolism Archaeologists have used three geological principles to provide rough timeframes o Principle of Superposition if a sequence of sediments is unmixed and undisturbed the oldest layers will be at the bottom 0 Principle of Association states that materials found close together tend to date at around the same period NOT TRUE IF land or area of found artifact has been disturbed for example by a rodent whole 0 Principle of Strata allows geological deposits from different areas to be compared an related to one another Relevant to paleoanthropology and archaeology Since radiocarbon doesn t work on material remains that are over 40000 years old other dating is used 0 Potassiumargon dating uraniumseries dating and electronspin resonance dating 0 The rst two apply to rocks and sediment o The last is applied to tooth enamel Cultural ecology suggests that one of the main causes of change in human culture and society has been their response to the opportunities and challenges of their environments 0 One of the approaches to study the mechanisms of change 0 Became in uential in in North American archaeology in mid 19005 0 Used byJulian Steward and Leslie White 0 Can be a great tool for understanding social practices settlement patterns and cultural change Mechanisms of change 0 Innovation when a new artifact or technique is developed 0 Diffusion innovations and materials from one area spread relatively quick into neighboring areas 0 Emulation when a society adopts features from their neighbors in the form of rivalry 0 Migration new people moving into an area and replacing or absorbing the indigenous inhabitants Processual archaeology sometimes called the New Archaeology 0 Started in 19605 0 Associated with Lewis Binford and David Clarke 0 Places focus on culture process o It stands to understand how and why things happened in the past not just recording what had happened Concept of testing was a key element to this approach Associated with the view of culture as an adaptation and where the environment caused a major change in adaptation OO 0 Focus was the processes that have affected the survival of materials from the past and the formation of the archaeological record Chapter 2 The Evolution of Humanity Since Darwin and Wallace eldwork has been done with the effort to nd paleontological and archaeological evidence of the beginnings of human lineage 0 Recent studies show that appearances of primates were drawn out through millions of years 0 Bipedalism was after the rst evidence of stone tools 0 A larger brain size occurred before bipedalism The ape ancestry started in Africa about 6 million years ago 0 The Homo species emerged only about 2 mya 0 Many species existed at once 0 Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace 0 Recognized the existence of evolution by natural selection 0 0n the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection written by Darwin One of the most in uential texts in the history of life sciences o Descent with modi cation explains how lineages could change over time 0 Models of evolutionary change 0 Gradualism a gradual slow and steady accumulation of small changes over a long period of time eventually cause major changes in a population 0 Punctuated equilibrium periods of more rapid dramatic evolution over short periods of time are separated by linger periods of little change 0 Adaptive radiation members radiate and branch out to t in and adapt to a large amount of different niches in the environment Seen in the quotmammalian radiationquot and a quotprimate radiationquot soon after 0 The human evolutionary record 0 Shows splits that form many lineages of modern and related species 0 Are most common ancestor lived between 6 and 8 mya o Behavioral traits are highly adaptive and selected for human evolution Tool use and language 0 Primates o Consists of humans apes monkeys and prosimians 0 Currently more than 200 living species O 80 of species live in rainforests of Africa Central and South America and Asia Humans are the exception because they can be found everywhere in any habitat on the planet Majority are arboreal or were at some point in their ancestry Characteristics ability to grasp with the help of opposable thumbs nails instead of claws reduced sense of smell reliability on eyesight locomotion focused on hind limbs erect body larger brain in comparison to body size Two subgroups Lower primates Prosimii lemurs lorises and tarsiers which retain primitive characteristics Higher primates Anthropoidea that have enlarged brains and better development in vision which are considered derived characteristics altered from earlier primate characteristics Look at Table 21 on page 50 o The major periods of climatic change correlated with early stages of hominin evolutionary change 0 O O 10 5 mya Earth had a major drying and cooling phase The rst bipedal hominins appear evolving from some last common ancestor of African apes and humans By 6 million years smallbrained bipedal hominins were present in Chad and Kenya Time of radiation of African faunal groups including the bovids ox or cow 3 2 mya Pliocene Build up of ice sheets in Artic and Antartic Increase of aridity in Africa Less dentally robust quotgracilequot Australopithecus Emergence of Australopithecus boisei and Australopithecus robustus Emergence of early member of Homo Early recognized stone tools Beginning of archaeological record 17 mya Beginning of Pleistocene and Ice Age Time of appearance of Homo erectus Emergence of Acheulean industries hand axes and cleavers Earliest evidence of hominins out of Africa Ardipithecus ramidus O O O O O O O 0 Found in northern Ethiopia in Great Rift Valley Name means quotroot ancestorquot Last common ancestor of chimpanzees and bonobos in Africa Dated to 44 mya 36 individuals have been recovered Features Small body stature Long arms and hands but short legs Apesized brain Apelike lower face with reduced canines Mediumsized cheek teeth Hand with long and curved nger bones and a exible wrist Pelvis with humanlike ilium but apelike ischium Foot has divergent big toe but doesn t grasp like apes so more for bipedal walking Low degree of sexual dimorphism Research says A ramidus was an excellent bipedal primate but also really good at climbing Best candidate for human ancestor between 5 and 4 mya At least a dozen primate species existed in Africa before 15 mya Famous fossil quotLucyquot 0 00000 O Australopithecus afarensis Bipedal Short legs longer arms Apesized brain Skull had projecting face Large dentition Evidence of sexual dimorphism Emergence of Homo O O H rudolfensis H habilis and H ergaster Probably came from Australopithecines H rudolfensis probably looks most alike Stone artifacts O O O 0 First recognized as made by hominins 25 million years ago in the form of aked stone Earliest sites show the Oldowan Industry characterized by rock with akes detached Basically any tool with the least amount of effort in aking just enough to be used to cut chopping and hacking Australopithecines and Homo would have been the ones to use these techniques NOTE Later Homo could have used the Acheulean technique 0 Behavior of Oldowan Hominins 0 Social Organization Sexually dimorphic Probably lived in groups with many males and females Males more than likely competed for females Group size would have been around 30 individuals but prone to change due to resources 0 Diet Mostly plantbased with the occasional need for meat Some may have also been seed and root eaters 0 Technology Suggested that a large range of tools were made Nonmanmade material may have been used as containers skins shells Digging tools made out of horns broken bones branches Clubs were made of bones and think branches Sharp wood shafts as spears Unmodi ed stones could be used as missiles 0 Fire Debate on whether able or not to control it Artifacts found near what are thought to be re pits 0 Site modi cation No clear evidence of architecture Possible that hominins used nests in trees or on ground 0 Art ritual and language No direct evidence Little evidence of representative features or abstract art graves or collection of objects Chapter 3 Hominin Dispersals in the Old World 0 H ergaster o Lived at same time as H habilis o Manufactured Oldowan tools 0 Later developed ability to make larger akes o Evolved into the Acheulean culture of making hand axes and more extensively aked tools Anatomical changes more sophisticated in technology use and behavioral advancements O O 0 First human species to expand from Eurasia De nitely less intelligent than people living today but smarter than ones at his time Acheulean industry H O 0 000000 A tradition started by H ergaster where core forms of stone were carefully shaped Hand axes were important part Resemble a large tear drop Each piece was handheld and used for chopping Cleavers and bifacial tools also big part Spanned for over a million years and over three continents Earliest known tools dated to 176 mya Developed from the Oldowan Extremely conservative unchanged Main difference between Early vs Late Acheulean tools Early were thicker less trimmed and less symmetrical Late were thin carefully trimmed and highly symmetrical Levallois technique a method for stone aking where the maker prepared the core to that it could make a ake of a certain size and shape erectus O 0 Eugene Dubois found a human skullcap with a bunch of bones from ancient animals Skullcap was lowdomed angular thickwalled and had a large brow ridge A year later he found a femur He was convinced he had found an erect standing apelike form Named it Pithecanthropus erectus quoterect ape ma nquot Later transformed to Homo erectus Does not differ much from living people H sapens A second skull found in 1975 from Mojokerto in eastern Java Was a child skull who probably died before second birthday Three partial skulls found between 1937and 1941 Also had fragments of mandible and isolated teeth ln Trinil and Sangiran also in Java It is believed that H erectus reached Java only after 1 mya But a lot of controversy and other theories Some think it reached Java 165 mya First theory allows for H ergaster to be rst hominin in Africa then gave rise to H erectus O Second theory says they evolved separately or that H erectus gave rise to H ergaster in Asia NOT only found in Java MANY in Asia First occupants of Europe were late Acheulean hand axe makers O O From Italy and Spain into southern England Some found in Greece H heidelbergensis O O O O 0 Immediate African and European descendants Named after a lower jaw that was found in Heidelberg Germany Dated to nearly 500000 years ago Larger brained more arched brow ridge and robust skull shape Not yet con rmed to be reason of late Acheulean industry Neandethals O O O O O 0 European phenomenon Evolved in Europe at the same time that modern humans were evolving in Africa Roots stem from Sima de los Huesos in Atapuerca Spain NOTE Sima people were NOT Neanderthals but were near the line of where they were produced Retrieval of the rst human fossil a mandible Hard to work in Sima so archaeologists worked in nearby caves Large skulls shared primitive charactersitics Early human behavior 0 O O O O 0 Did not only include usage of stone Used other raw materials like bone wood reeds and hide Animal bones show evidence of use of individual bones as hammers stone tool retouchers anvils or cutting boards Bones were also aked were usually elephant Bamboo was more than likely used in Asia Fire Most early accepted evidence from Gesher Benot Ya aqov Israel and from Zhoukoudian locality Others in Europe Neanderthals were able to control re No idea as to when the ability evolved Besides hand axes mineral pigment designs on elephant bones and modi ed lava pebble gurines have been found Objects with artistic meaning of cially appear after 50000 years ago Diet and Food Procurement Plant food was more depended on Evidence of plant diet only survives in a few Acheulean sites H ergaster was known to eat tough plant based foods roots and tubers Most likely depended on large animals for food and only obtained a few The biggest evidence for animal food is that animal remains are found in caves no animal deliberately goes into an inuse cave voluntarily Chapter 4 The Rise of Modern Humans The Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic between 55000 and 40000 years ago coincides with the expansion of H sapiens and the demise of all other hominin species Success of modern humans shown by replacement of H erectus and the Neanderthals and they spread to continents where other didn t exist 0 Australia and Americas Archaeological record is biased toward Europe 0 Central and East Asia should be more important but only a few sites exist Human biological and behavioral evolution during the Pleistocene 0 400000 YEARS AGO Homo neanderthalensis evolves in Europe and western Asia Earlier Homo sapiens evolve later in Africa Both species share common ancestor H heidelbergensis 0 300000 YEARS AGO Early Neanderthals and early H sapiens start different populations Transitional traits seen in H sapiens both primitive and modern 0 100000 YEARS AGO Dispersal of ANATOMICALLY modern H sapiens from Africa Reduction in number left about 10000 individuals bottleneck effect Earliest transitional and anatomically modern H sapiens share traits that develop from the earliest species in the lineage Also early Neanderthals appeared 150000 years ago Classic Neanderthals appeared 70000 years ago 0 40000 YEARS AGO Development of modern behavior in Africa was accompanied by a dispersal of H sapiens from Africa and western Asia to Australia southwest Siberia and Europe 0 20000 YEARS AGO Last Glacial Maximum creates population diminish lce sheets at their greatest extent and then followed by a major demographic expansion 16000 years ago Leads to rst American colonization Farming in regions starts 11000 years ago 0 At least 4 interglacials 4 four glacials and climatic uctuation seen in the last 400000 years 0 Four main evolution hypotheses o The out of Africa hypothesis an African replacement hypothesis that argues that modern humans started in Africa moved out and replaced all of the existing Homo species somewhere else with little or no interbreeding between groups 0 The hybridization and replacement model similar to the out of Africa one but interbreeding factors are signi cant 0 Assimilation hypothesis gene ow gene mixture and the effects of the already existing population on an incoming African population are signi cant 0 The multiregional evolution hypothesis denies that Africa was the origin of modern humans and emphasizes on long term population continuity and gene ow 0 Anatomy of Homo sapiens o Similarities in skull to humans alive today 0 Strictly relates to size not intelligence Homo Neanderthaensis 0 Anatomy Have the basic body of H heidelbergensis Adapted to cold and dry environments of northern tundra Lifestyle was physically demanding so had to adapt bodies Large brain selection Many traits that differentiate to H sapiens is the biological adaptation to severe northern latitudes Cranium has long low vault of H heidelbergensis Bodies were large and thick Pronounces muscular insertions Limbs were short relative to their trunks a biological response to retaining body heat in cold climates 0 Hunting and Gathering Ate plants and cooked them Hunt was a dangerous activity that led to numerous broken bones or even death Show scavenging and hunting strategies that are very advanced Hunt of mediumsized and large herbivores Opportunistic hunters quoteat what is therequot o Lithic Industry Technological strategies used to break up blocks of stone Levaois aking techniques were common Mousterian of the Acheulean Industry which contained a variety of tools without one type dominating 0 Behavior Skilled workers of organic materials like antler and bone Easily shaped them into points or other forms Buried certain dead Wore clothes or hearths for warmth o Colonization of the Americas 0 Only a few ways that modern humans could have gotten to the Americas Bering Strait linked northeastern Siberia to Alaska Trip by boat across the Bering Sea or Paci c Rim A European Solutrean theory that is SO UNLIKELY don t even need to understand it 0 Usually agreed on the Siberia theory but there is poor archaeological evidence of such 0 Kennewick Man Completely confused matters on a possible archaeological link of the Siberia and Bering Strait theory Nearcomplete skeleton of adult mail found in eroding Halocene sediments in Kennewick Washington State Cause of death possibly a stone point in pelvis Skeleton is different from indigenous Americans and such traits are not unique to just these remains o No reason to believe that humans have been in the Americas for more than 800 generations so about 16000 years 0 Some archaeologists believe that the Clovis people were the rst to colonize the Americas due to a spear point found in a bison o The Clovis people hypothesis at least improved the idea that more humans were occupying the continent ANT 304 Introduction to Archaeological Studies Week 2 Monday August 31 2015 Romanticized form is Indiana jones 0 Such as seen as treasure hunters Some archaeologists search is foreign places others in local neighborhoods 0 Stories show the business of the unexplained of the lost and forgotten all of that has really become BIG business 0 Real world bears little resemblance to those stories Somehow archaeology is also the acquisition of objects but it is not Finds are a nite resource there s only so many of them 0 Every object whether you can buy it or nd is part of past human behavior 0 Need the context in order to reconstruct that behavior Artifacts anything that has been modi ed by humans 0 Prehistoric archaeology the time before written records 0 Different kinds of archaeologists 0 Classical those that work with the Greeks and the Romans classic statuary temples etc Use the same archaeologist methods 0 Historical study sites cultures that are within the historic pe od Medieval Europe colonial Williamsburg Provide information to supplement the archives Example 0 Underwater mostly held together with historical archaeologists Archaeologists specialize with certain artifacts 0 Stone tools metal etc 0 Human prehistory o In the 17th century Archbishop Ussher calculated that the world was created in 4004 BC Meaning there was about 6000 years for all of human existence to occur 0 By 19005 agreed that humans had traveled by Beringia B dge But still argued how they got all the way to south America 0 Stone tools found near old bones became clear native Americans had been here for a very long time Wednesday September 2 2015 o In 18th century difficult to understand and explain all the societies around the world 0 ln 18705 British anthropologist named Edward Tylor attempted to explainorganize all of humanity o Organized societies into three stages of development or achievement 0 Humanity progressed through these stages 0 Even if someone wanted to accept that going through this stages was natural or that some could regress there are important questions How does one move from one stage to another Why does it happen Are there negatives What s to keep you from going back How do societies move from simple towns to complex cities Tylor s three stages of development 0 Savagery Considered that the earliest of societies were hunter gatherers Put in the same category as modern huntergatherers o Barbarism Early farmers pasture workers Food is produced in some form A step or two behind what Tylor saw as his society 0 Civilization The most advanced stage 0 Neolithic revolution 0 All of the sudden people went from huntergatherers to food producers 0 We know that it wasn t really a revolution it was a process that came about over thousands of years 0 First archaeological sites 0 Begin with the rst concentrations of stone tools and broken bones found 0 Anthropology discipline for studying humanity in its widest possible sense 0 Cultural work with contemporary societies Huntergatherers villages remote place in the world corporate headquarters 0 Physical study the physical being Essentially do human biology look at humans in a biological sense 0 Archaeologist anthropological archaeologist Work with material remains of the past material record Usually do not work with documents nor people they can talk to Have to determine human behavior from material remain 0 These three are super important Archaeology connection to Anthropology o By way of a couple of early anthropologists o Bandolier was one don t need to memorize o Cushing spent 5 or 6 years living with Zuni in Southwest Dressed and spoke like them Saw a longlived society in architecture artifacts life ways etc His statement archaeology was like cultural anthropology carried back to prehistoric times 0 Ultimately they have the same goal to study human society NOT objects 0 Three goals of archaeology 0 To study culture history 0 Reconstruction of ancient life ways 0 Investigate the way in which human cultures change in prehistory how and why 0 Culture how we learn appropriate behavior 0 We are not born knowing 0 19505 0 Archaeologists tried to explain that the changes that took place through time were because of the interactions with the ecological factors 0 Environment not only factored into food supplies it also helped decide where people would live settlements 0 Local environment becomes a signi cant backdrop to these cultures 0 19605 0 Another signi cant change in methods and theoretical approaches 0 Whole new generation concerning arcaheology how it s done and how it s approached ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies Page numbers for next week Chapter 1 2529 3240 Chapter 2 4750 5668 7275 7879 0 Ignore table 23 Chapter 3 85 93 97 111114 116121 Chapter 4 125131 145152 166172 Week 3 September 9 2015 19505 0 Placing of materials in context 0 Had an ecological background and what was evolved in that sense 19605 0 Graduate students people going to college on the GI bill People becoming familiar with computers The younger students could now process lots of data through the use of computers Wanted to apply scienti c research methods to archaeology Archaeologists led by Lewis Binford Lewis Binford o The introduction to the New Archaeology 0 Binford and his disciples not the nicest people New Archaeology 0 The new archaeologist wanted to understand explicitly the question of WHY 0 Why had things changed the way they did Why were cultures the way they were around the world 0 Wasn t enough to describe the past they wanted to explain it as well 0 Everything that there was to know about cultures was in the archaeological record Two things that come from Binford o Eventually it would be realized that the promises by archaeology were not going to be Not everything preserves But prophecies did hold up 0 You can explain certain things if you ask the right questions Keep in mind It isn t so much about the question is it there You have to be willing to ask the dif cult question and gure out if there is a way to answer such question if you re ever willing to nd the answer If you don t look for it it s a selfprophecy Processualarchaeology 0 Simply looks at process 0 We all live in a cultural context 0 It s one that is usually quali ed by some kind of label ie middleclass American 0 You have certain images given cultural context of what applies to your label 0 What s implied by middleclass American What s implied by Texan o Cultures will set institutions morals beliefs etc o The things that usually come to mind are generalized stereotypes Stereotypes o Tend to be prude and inaccurate generalizations 0 People in photography came into play and took photographs of Native American groups Always pictured with feathered head dress and typical clothing Though Native Americans should be dressed like that and would make them dress like that just for pictures 0 Very broad generalization Human culture is unique because much of it s content is transmitted from generation to generation by various communication systems 0 Can be formal education daytoday social interaction etc o REALLY IMPORTANT We are the only animals that use out culture as a primary means of adaptation Culture is an interface between ourselves our environment and other human societies 0 Culture can be divided into different aspects technology 0 Culture is the dominant factor in determining social behavior 0 How we learn what is considered to be proper behavior 0 Behavior at wedding vs Behavior at funeral 0 Not everyone follows the same behaviors A lot of interacting features or attributes of culture that are perishable Archaeologists have to work with solid tangible remains of whatever human activity took place 0 Tangible remains are involved with the intangible features or attributes those that are perishable When excavating artifacts they re ect a technology involved 0 May also be excavating the value that the society puts on those artifacts 0 Always consider context Artifacts found are not culture in it of themselves but they are a pattern re ection of the culture that produced them In archaeology we want to understand the cultural aspects along with how such interact with the environment T or F Every cultural system is in a constant state of change TRUE 0 We live in a time where it looks like culture is in rapid change of little things minor changes o In ten year segments become a little more obvious 0 Many of the changes that take place are not just aesthetic but may have to do with government regulations or issues of safety 0 Process implies a patterned sequence of events ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies Week 4 September 14 2015 0 Every cultural system is at constant rate of change 0 As archaeologists to understand the pastancient human behavior we have to look at what survives in the ground 0 Structures buildings other types of artifacts such as stone tools 0 Everything that remains is archaeological record 0 Archaeological record is comprised of all kinds of archaeological nds o Pyramids of Giza to the smallest remain of a stone tool 0 In many cases the way the artifacts are preserved is due to environment 0 Tropical environments are the worst for preservation 0 Have heating and cooling lots of moisture and lots of decay 0 Inorganic materials preserve well 0 Organic materials tend to disappear o KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORGANIC AND INORGANIC o In extremes of the environment there is good preservation o Waterlogged frozen or extremely dry 0 Otherwise artifacts tend to disappear Surveys looking for sites and excavation the digging up of materials make up the data in the archaeological record 0 From surveys we nd archaeological sites as well as artifacts 0 Same could be true for excavation but you have to be at the site already F o The way the archaeological record is modi ed after a site is abandoned is called 0 Where is the place that we nd traces of ancient or past human activity 0 Archaeological sites 0 May be gigantic or may be a simple camp site 0 We classify archaeological sites by the activities that took place there 0 Habitation site remains of houses cooking areas any other kind of domestic activity o location where there are lots of bones of some animal cut up butchered slaughtered etc or nd some of the weapon used to kill them or process them there 0 Quarry site location where materials are quarried Can be stone or stone tools Stone is quarried for the building of structures Artifacts objects found in archaeological sites that show evidence of some human activity or modi cation Knowledge of how artifacts are made or constructed is transmitted from generation to generation 0 Part of culture Whether it be bone tool modi ed piece of shell etc it has a relationship to another artifact 0 Where it is in space and time o It is what becomes vital for an archaeological that relationship in space and time AKA CONTEXT Context relationship space and time between artifacts o Artifact is worthless without its context 0 Foundation of modern archaeology Human prehistory stands several million years 0 Our lives today are governed by time work hours track of time time of day time of night 0 There s a need to keep up with everyone else and that sense of time measurement is a recent phenomenon goes back about 5000 years 0 Societies that have some kind of record keeping developed calendars that gave astronomical predictions o If we go earlier than 5000 years we enter a chronological vacuum If you ask when Washington DC was founded we have a precise placement 1800 When was Teotihuacan founded The BEST we can do is say 2008C give or take 100 years or so 0 utilizes the principle of superposition o Superposition is fundamental for archaeology 0 You excavate and have unique layers could be cultural arti cial etc o The stuff that s at the lowest layer is older and the stuff at higher layer is newer 0 We can tell where artifacts t and how they relate to other artifacts in other landscapes Relative dating doesn t have all of the pieces of the other site 0 Missing dates in between Relative crossdating compares artifacts between sites and makes sense of what is there or what is missing another aspect of relative chronology o The study of pollen 0 May have big trees for a while then they are cut down it changes the pollen dating in particular years 0 AKA absolute dating Various techniques for chronometric dating 0 Treering dating AKA Tree rings can give us up to 8000 years back Gives us speci c dates counting back from the present 0 Radio carbon dating you need some kind of organic material bone hair feathers C14 dating SPACE Every archaeological nd has an exact location latitude and long ude Space where it occurs precisely on the landscape 0 Ties directly into people s past behavior 0 It s the artifact and the association With both space and artifacts you can gure out what the people were like and their behavior and culture Law of association the artifacts found and what is associated to them is most likely to be contemporaneous 0 May tell you something about the activities that took place there We can determine activity areas at sites 0 Based on artifacts and association 0 Excavating house structure you might nd a bits of broken bones seeds pottery etc and nd that this was cooking area 0 Other side you nd broken tools and shell pieces so maybe a tool shed The concepts of culture time and space in archaeology are ABSOLUTELY inseparable ln archaeology we are studying the interrelations between the artifacts found at a site their date and their special location All scienti c archaeology whether survey excavation laboratory analysis is based on TWO critical concepts 0 Time 0 Space CONTEXT CONTEXT CONTEXT
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