HDFS 1610 TEST ONE STUDY GUIDE (chapters 1-3)
HDFS 1610 TEST ONE STUDY GUIDE (chapters 1-3) H_D_FS 1610 - 01
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Mills on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to H_D_FS 1610 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ashton Chapman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 223 views. For similar materials see Intimate Relationships and Marriage in Human Development at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
HDFS other 1610 chapters 13 study guide 09142015 Chapter 1 what is an intimate relationship Characteristics of an intimate relationship Interdependence Consider each other special and unique In uence each other Mutual sexual passion Interdependence them mutual in uence two people have over each Ex if one person moves away the other might consider it Interdependence must work in bot h directions or bidirectionally Interdependence is necessary condition for intimacy Necessary but not suf cient Interpersonal vs personal Interpersonal formal and task oriented Personal relatively informal and engage us at a deeper emotional eve Intimate relationships occur not just between two interdependent people but two people who treat one another as unique individuals From personal relationships to close relationships Not all personal relationships are intimate ones Close relationship quali es interdependent and personal relationships further We understand closeness by strength and diversity of the in uences that partners have over one another From close relationships to intimate relationships An intimate relationship is close where closeness is understood to mean strong frequent and diverse forms of mutual in uence Importance of intimate relationships Basic feature of who we are as human beings This capacity for intimacy contributes to our ability to regulate our emotions and adapt to the world in which we live Consequences Determine the survival of our species Expand our range of emotional experience survival of our species product of natural selection led to advanced tness biological systems within out body respond in systematic ways to what is happening in our intimate relationships universal human experience Pair Bonds relationship between two people who have some degree of emotional and or practical investment in one another with often the purpose of reproduction motivated by love and mutual attraction Cohabitation living together without being married Experience of love differs across cultures Young adults in America and china identify the same basic emotions and categorize positive and negative emotions the same way except in the case of love Americans positive with mutual happiness Chinese negatively tinged with unrequited feelings Child birth patterns are changing since marriage is no longer viewed as a prerequisite for becoming a parent 16 children were born with unmarried parents in 1982 now 13 children are born with unmarried parents intimate relationships expand our range of emotional experience passionate love marked more by infatuation intense preoccupation with the partner strong sexual longing throes of ecstasy and feelings of hilaration that come from being reunited with the partner companionate love potent feelings diminished but are enriched by feelings of attachment an authentic and enduring bond a sense of mutual commitment the profound knowledge that you are caring for another person who is in turn caring for you feeling proud of a mates accomplishments and the satisfaction that comes from sharing goals and perspectives relationships on mental health subjective well being how happy we are generally in life linked between various aspects of our intimate relationships relationship status relates to subjective well being relationship quality how well they judge their relationship to be relationship transitions movement into and our of partnerships another way that intimate relationships are linked with subjective well being selection effect when groups of people differmarried and unmarried people not because of something special about the groups they are in but because of the people who choose to enter those groups people who are happier are more likely to marry than to stay single protection effects something about the experience itself produces protective bene ts or advantages goo relationships bene t mental health comes from studies of couples therapy and unhappy couples can be randomly assigned to experiences designed to improve relationships people who are in good relationships have more money more sex and better health and that they are thus happier with their lives 7 essential attributes of love desire wanting to be united with the partner physically and emotionally idealization believing the partner is unique and special joy experience very strong positive emotions preoccupation thinking a lot about the partner and having little control over when these thoughts occur proximity taking steps to maintain to restore physical closeness emotional contact with the partner prioritizing giving the relationship more importance than other interests and responsibilities caring experiencing and expressing feelings of empathy and compassion for the partner correation with sex life and happiness social control theory link between intimate relationships and the broader social impact of individuals actions social relationships organize and regulate how individuals behave such that fewer weaker or poorer relationships increase the occurrence of deviant behavior effect occurs because relationships encourage individuals to internalize and abide by societal norms in part because people incur personal costs and sanctions when these norms are violated when relationships dissolve the accumulated costs to society are high main points six key reasons support the contention that intimate relationships are an important and even essential topic of study intimate relationships re ect and evolved and therefore biological capacity to nurture others they are universal across all known cultures intimate relationships expand our repertoire of emotional experiences in positive and negative emotions they can affect the physical and emotional health of relationship partners intimate relationships can in uence the physical and emotional well being of children they can affect society at large by discouraging crime and promoting conformity to social norms intimate relationships are fundamental to who we are as humans and pervasive in their effects and those around us Chapter 2 Tools of relationship science Asking and answering questions Relationship science is essentially a set of tools for answering these queonns Primary tool for evaluating competing claims to the truth scienti c method Set of procedures for making predictions gathering data and comparing the validity of competing claims about the world Three kinds of questions Focuses on descriptions What happens Focuses on predictions When does it happen Focuses on explanation Why does it happen Predicting whether a relationship will stay happy is not the same thing as understanding why relationships deteriorate or remain satisfying Theories and hypotheses Identifying the possible answers to be evaluated requires a theory Or general explanation of a phenomenon Elements of a theory are often referred to as variables because scientists tend to theorize about aspects of the world that vary across individuals or across time One measure of a good theory is that it is falsi able Suggests testable predictions that can be con rmed or discon rmed through systematic observation Consider theory that intimate relationships work out if two people are destined to be together No conceivable observation would be able to falsify this theory If two people stay together theory explains that they were indeed destine to do so And if the same two people break up the theory explains that they were not What makes hypotheses useful Can be con rmed or discon rmed through systematic observations are falsi able Scienti c method requires replication Repetition of research that examines the same questions multiple times Choosing a measurement strategy One difference between theories in the social sciences and theories in physical sciences Central to thinking are known as psychological constructs Love lacks measurable physical attributes This step of the scienti c method is operationalization Translation of an abstract construct into concrete terms in order to test predictions about that construct Construct validity Describe how well an operationalization represents a particular construct Self report measures Self repots from partners their own descriptions and evaluations of their experiences are the most commonly used source data in research on intimate relationships Simplest type of self report is a direct question People vary in their willingness to contemplate sec outside the context of a committed intimate relationship Sociosexuality Positive phrased questions tend to bring to mind positive aspects of the relationship thus leading to more positive responses Same with negative phrased questions Self reports can be problematic because the kinds of answers people provide People cannot describe what they do not remember Self reports about behavior may be unreliable People cannot provide meaningful answers if they misunderstand the queonns Social desirability effect the possibility that research participants are giving answer they think will make them look god to researchers rather than describing what they actually know Observational measures gather data about relationship events without having to ask the people who are experiencing the events Researcher must decide who will do the observing Partners general feelings about the relationship frequently overwhelm their perceptions of speci c aspect of the relationship a process called the sentiment override Relies on observers who are completely independent of the relationship such strained assistants to avoid sentiment override Must decide what to observe Physiological responses body s involuntary reactions to experiences Where to do the observing Researchers who use home based observation hope couples will act more naturally in their own environments and their observes behaviors really will represent what they do when not being observes Laboratory based observation eliminates any outside factors that may alter couples behavior while they are at home but it also removes couples from the environment where their behaviors usually take place Reliability the extend to which different observers agree that a specifies behavior has or has not occurred When used appropriately observations directly assess behaviors of great interest to relationship research Avoid some speci c problems associated with self reports of behavior Possibility of reactivity sometimes the act of observing someone changes the behavior being observed Which measurement strategy is best Best research adopts a multiple method approach operationalizing the constructs of interest in different ways so the limitations of each measurement strategy will eventually cancel each other out thereby the effect the researcher is most focused on emerge clearly Designing the study Correlational research study to study naturally occurring associations among variables aimed primarily at answering descriptive questions Each of these questions asks how differences in one variable may be associated with differences in another variable Valuable for studying variables that cannot be manipulated or studied in other ways Correlational data can support only certain kinds of conclusions Correlational data cannot be used to support statements about causation the idea that on event or circumstance is the direct result of another Correlation does NOT equal causation 1 X may cause y 2 Y may cause x 3both x and y may be the result of some other cause their signi cant correlation may be entirely the result of an unmeasured third variable Cross Sectional Data data that has been collected from individuals at one assessment the data describe a cross section or a snapshot of a single moment Longitudinal Research address two kinds of questions descriptions and prediction Daily Diary Approach asks people to ll out a questionnaire every day at about the same time Experience sampling gathering data from people throughout the day literally sampling from the totality of their daily experiences Longitudinal is the most direct and appropriate approach Attribution bias bias caused by participants dropping out leading to a nal sample that differs from the initial sample in important ways Experimental research more active role by manipulating one element of a phenomenon to determine its effects on the rest of the phenomenon 4 elements to an experiment dependent variable independent variable control random assignment enables researchers to move beyond description and prediction to address explanatory questions about intimate relationships External validity whether the results of an experiment apply in other s ua ons Archival research researcher examines existing data that have already been gathered usually for an unrelated purpose by someone else Content analysis coding their materials in such a way that they can quantify difference between units Representative samples samples consisting of people who are demonstrably similar to the population to which the researchers would like to generalize Convenience samples recruited solely because they are easy to nd Statistical Analysis To determine the probability of obtaining a particular result given a particular set of conditions Statistically signi cant effects effect large enough to occur less than 5 of the time if the null hypothesis were true Metaanalysis set of statistical techniques speci cally designed to combine results across studies and reveal the overall effects observed by a body of scienti c research Ethical Issues Con dentiality Anonymity Informed consent Chapter 3 theoretical frameworks Psychoanalysis theory that rst distinguished between the conscious and unconscious mind Radical behaviorism the idea that behaviors are shaped by their consequences and that positive consequences make behaviors more likely and negative consequences make them less likely Intimate relationships have problems when partners begin to play out with each other their unresolved issues and con icts with their parents Freud Drive us to exist primarily in the present environment not the past Successful relationships depend on the extent to which pleasuring behaviors are rewarded and encouraged and displeasing behaviors are extinguished through negative reinforcement skinner Evolutionary perspective Begins by nothing that human beings like any other species must reproduce in order to pass their genes to the next generation Evolutionary psychology assumes that in the mind like any other organ in the body evolved in response to speci c selection pressures that led some preferences and capacities to be associated with more successful reproduction and other preferences and capacities to be associated with less successful reproduction Feature of an organism can be adaptive for either of two reasons Because it increases an organisms chances of successfully reproducing by helping the organism compete for or attract males Increase organism chances of survival Sexual selection adaptive feature even if it has nothing to do with survival or even if it impedes survival Psychological mechanisms preferences capacities responses and strategies characterizing our species The desire for sex is a psychological mechanism and an exceptionally useful one for prompting reproduction but for most people this desire is highly responsive for cues in the environment Environment evolutionary adeptness or the period tens of thousands of years ago during which the human species took its current form Theory of parental investment sexual selection presumes tend to be based on the amount of energy and resources each sex must invest to raise surviving offspring Predicts that to solve the problem females should be selective about mates and chose only high quality partners Attachment theory proposed that the intimate relationships we form in our adult lives are shaped largely by the nature bonds we form with our primary caregivers in infancy and early childhood Attachment gure someone who provides a child with comfort and care Attachment behavior system set of behaviors and reactions that helps ensure that developing child s survival by keeping the child in close physical contact with caregivers Felt security makes the child feel safe and sheltered from impending threat or harm Attachment behavior prompts the child to evaluate whether it is possible to restore closeness with the caregiver working models can be thought of as internal psychological structures representing the conscious and unconscious beliefs explanations and feelings people have about themselves about others and about relationships Social Exchange Theory Partners in all social interactions try to maximize their outcomes through the exchange of social goods like status approval and information Predicts what people will do in any given situation and how they will feel about the outcomes of their actions Focus on two individuals only in research Dyad Interdependence theory extent to which behaviors of each partner affect the outcomes of the other People evaluate and make decisions about relationships the same way they approach economic decisions by analyzing the rewards and costs Rewards bene ts Costs consequences Material rewards food and protection Social rewards companionship validation security Opportunity costs costs associated with no pursuing other possible sources of a reward Outcome rewards costs If the rewards you are receiving from the relationship are greater than what it is costing you to remain in the relationship then the outcome is positive Subjective probability your own sense about the likelihood of a particular reward or cost Comparison level partners compare their perceived outcomes to a certain standard Satisfaction in a relationship is not merely the result of experiencing positive outcomes but of experiencing outcomes exceeding the level we think we deserve Social exchange theory predicts that such an individual must have a high comparison level so high that the outcomes that might be satisfying to other people are no positive enough to satisfy this person Satisfaction outcome comparison level Dependence how free a person feels to leave the relationships Comparison level for alternatives function of how the relationship compares to the available alternatives outside of the relationship Dependency outcome comparison level for alternatives Alternatives all of the likely consequences of leaving a relationship Barriers all the forces external to a relationship that act to keep partners together Investments number and magnitude of resources that are tied to a relationship Children a shared home and even the time spent in a relationship are all investments that may be lost or threatened when a relationship ends External forces keeping couples together become noticeable only when the partners are considering leaving the relationship In satisfying relationships partners generally focus on love and companionship as the reasons they remain together Commitment intention to remain in and feel connected to a relationship Partners who perceive fewer comparable alternatives to their current relationships prove signi cantly more likely to remain together Social learning theory In terms of the behaviors partners exchange during their interactions with each other Ongoing exchange of behaviors between partners is the essence of any interpersonal relationship Partners learn from their experiences in each interaction about the quality of their relationship Coercion theory if people get a response from their partner after engaging in a particular behavior ex yelling to get their partner s attention they will continue to engage in that behavior Escape conditioning behaviors reinforced if they lead to the end of an aversive or painful stimulus Even if behaviors are rewarded in the short term they can be very dangerous in the long term outcome Social ecological models how the stresses supports and constraints in the environment of a couple may affect the way partners think feel and act in relationships range of approaches emphasizing the interplay between people and their environments microsystem couples family and friends mesosystem contains the neighborhood social system and culture in which the relationship takes place macrosystem national and historical forces affecting the relationships ABCX model A stressor B resources C interpretation of the events i I ch ExistingE m Eli251mg Een t i mll ram u reeks JE z Fla5w rates I A r m v39lr i 1 Swing i I Amarillo a i i V39Jerisis ENE51m 739 3 File Lip 7 l I 39 quot I E h il 1 M al aelaugafalu n pm mm it n P r pil n i a I l of na b Fran Erisis 1 Foal Erissi time I h I irrile h nature of the stressor the couples level of resources and their interpretation of the event lead to Xcrisis or the couples experience of and response to the stressful event double ABCX model revision suggesting that each element has an initial meaning that emerges over time stress pile up one stressful event leading to another life span studies assess individuals repeatedly over the course of 50 years or more Themes in theories of intimate relationships Dyadic interaction interaction bw two people is the heart of any relationship then any general understanding of intimate relationships must take the way partners behave and respond to each other into account Individual difference partners do not enter their relationships as blank slates Bring the sum od all their previous experiences in the form of each partners personality values history ethnicity culture and socioeconomic status External circumstances relationships are affected not only by what goes on within them but by the external circumstances around them Including social physical cultural and historical forces
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