Exam 1 Study Guide!
Exam 1 Study Guide! PSY 462
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailee Zemlock on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 462 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Luecken in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Health Psychology Study Guide September 13 2015 Chapter 1 What is Health Psychology Physical psychological behavioral and social factors that are intertwined with mind and body relationships What is the leading cause of death in the United States today Cardiovascular Disease 100 years ago what was the leading cause of death More acute illnesses that they didn t have medicine for What are the leading preventable causes of death Smokingtobacco use sedentary lifestyle poor diet alcohol microbial agents toxic agents car accidents firearms sexual disasters heart disease How is age related to mortality Older people have increased causes of death therefore are more likely to die They typically have age related diseases chronic diseases and unintentional injuries Is genetics a related factor of mortality NO no and no How does income affect mortality Lower income people have less access to medical care higher stress levels fewer resources limited access to healthy foods lower birth rates and shorter life spans How can education change mortality There are lower rates of mortality with higher levels of education How has life expectancy changed in the United States It use to be about 473 years old and now it s 79 years old apan is even higher 84 years old But other countries are lower like Sierra 46 years and Kenya 61 What is the leading cause of LONGER average life expectancy Decrease in infant mortality Other factors vaccinations antibiotics safer drinking water better waste removal What is health The overall wellness of one s body mind and environment What does it mean to be healthy Brainstorm activity in class Eat well treat your body with care practice a positive mindset take care of your personal relationships and stay active Health Psychology Study Guide September 13 2015 What is the biomedical model of health States that a disease results form exposure to a pathogen It views health as the absence of disease in the body therefore separating the mind from the body I Problem with this It s only a current state of being only about the physical body but behaviors and emotional states can affect your body too What does the Biopsychosocial model of health state A disease results from a combination of biological psychological and social in uences I Psychological health affects physical health physical health affects psychological health can t separate mind from body I Views health as a positive condition What are the goals of interventions To improve health healthy behaviors and recover from poor health problems What did Walter Cannon discover in 1932 Stomach movements are affected by emotional states Because stress increases blood sugar blood pressure and epinephrine What did Neal Miller study in 1970 That people can learn to control bodily functions like intestinal contractions muscle tension and blood pressure The Framingham Study is an ongoing study from 1948 explaining what Lifestyle factors are clear risk factors for cardiovascular disease and cancer What do health psychologists do Health research in universities or government agencies direct clinical work in hospitals or clinics develop public health programs or consultadvising roles What training do health psychologists receive Graduate PhD training in psychology special courses in health and biology postdoctoral training Chapter 2 What is the best scientific evidence in health psychology EVOLUTIONARY rather than revolutionary then published in peer reviewed journals I We tend to put more support in personal experiences rather than research My grandfather smoke a pack a day for 50 years and never got lung cancerquot How can researchers make valid healthrelated claims Use controlled methods for collecting data restrict personal biases make claims cautiously do no overgeneralize peer review each other s work and replicate studies Health Psychology Study Guide September 13 2015 What is a correlational study The relationship between two variables 0 Correlations are measured by a correlation coefficient R can range from 1 to 1 0 Correlations closer to R1 or R1 indicate stronger relationships between the two variables 0 They have two components strength and direction 0 Spurious Correlation there is something else that is causing the connection the third variable What are crosssectional studies An analysis of several different population groups at the same time 0 Taking multiple samples to get group differences testing 20 year olds 40 year olds and 60 year olds and compare across groups 0 There s no comparison groups there could be generational gaps What are longitudinal Studies They are longterm studies of the same people over time I Takes a long time and lots of resources people drop out hard to control variables Correlational crosssectional and longitudinal designs only examine relationships between variables they CANNOT tell us if one variable causes another variable What is an experimental design It compares at least two groups to be able to draw causes 0 Randomly assign people to either the control group or the experimental group 0 Only difference between groups experimental group receives one level of independent variable and the control group a different level of the independent variable I Independent Variable condition of interest is manipulated to see its affect on the dependent variable I Dependent variable the outcome behavior or response that is being studied What is a confound variable An unknown unanticipated variable something that varies systematically with the independent variable and may also explain the dependent variable What is a placebo An inactive substance or condition such as a sugar pill that has the appearance of a real treatment 0 A belief in the effectiveness of a treatment boosts the treatment s effectiveness Health Psychology Study Guide September 13 2015 o Placebo effect may account for around 35 of treatment effects 0 Placebos have been shown to positively affect treatment for migraine headaches pain depression anxiety insomnia asthma hypertension surgical outcomes What is an observational method Observing a particular subj ect population from a distance similar to correlational methods cannot be used to demonstrate causation What are Prospective studies They begin with participants that are diseasefree and follow over time to see who develops a condition versus and who does not What are Retrospective studies They begin with participants who have a disease and look backward to see if they can identify why these participants have the disease casecontrol studiesquot What is epidemiology The field of study that investigates patterns of disease and factors contributing to the occurrence of a disease in a particular population 0 Epidemiologists identify patterns of disease mechanisms of transmission risk factors and ultimately causes of disease 0 Epidemiologists have two ways to talk about the rates of disease in a population I Prevalence represents the proportion of the population that has a disease or condition at a specific time I Incidence represents the number of new cases of a disease or condition during a specific period What is a risk factor in a study Any characteristic or condition that occurs with greater frequency in people with a disease than people free from a disease I Ex Smoking is a risk factor for lung cancer but does not necessarily mean it causes it What are the two Risk Factor Approaches for identifying risk factors Absolute risk a person s chances of developing a disease independent of anything else other risks I Ex risk of food poisoning from eating sushi Relative risk ratio of incidenceprevalence of a disease in an exposed group to the incidence prevalence of a disease in an unexposed group I Ex Risk of food poisoning in a group who ate sushiRisk of food poisoning in a group who did not What is a Randomized Controlled Trial RCT Health Psychology Study Guide September 13 2015 Participants are randomly assigned to either a study group or a control group similar to experimental studies RCT s are considered the gold standard of research design What are Natural Experiments Involves the study of natural conditions differs from casecontrol study because there s no manipulation or placing participants into different experimental groups I Ex Drinking age on traffic accidents What is Meta Analysis The evaluation of many research studies on the same topic to draw an overall conclusion on that topic I Allows researchers to be familiar with other s studies
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