Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide BSC197
Popular in Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 562 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
BSC197 Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1 Themes in Biology What are the levels of organization of multicellular organisms and how are they related 0 Molecules 9 Organelles 9 Cells 9 Tissues 9 Organs and Organ Systems 9 Organisms o How they are related Molecules are the basis of life Molecules make organelles Organelles are the functional systems of Llls Enough L118 create tissues Enough tissues create organs and organ systems Lastly organs and organ systems make functional organisms What is meant by an emergent property 0 the Whole is greater than the sum of the parts 0 Simple agents molecules etc operate in an environment forming more complex behaviors as a collective organisms Name the 5 kingdoms and the three domains of organisms 0 Kingdoms Monera Protista Fungi Planae Animalia 0 Domains Eukaryota Bacteria Archaea 0 Domains come first when classifying organisms Dogs are from domain Eukaryota kingdom Animalia Steps of Scientific Method 1 Ask a question 2 Background research 3 Form a hypothesis 4 Experiment 5 Analyze Data 6 Resuls Part 2 Chemistry of Biology Which elements are most important for life The most abundant elements are 0 Phosphorus calcium sodium magnesium potassium and sulfur are also common Atomic structure atomic mass and atomic number 0 Atomic structure 0 Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus 0 Electrons orbit the nucleus o sum of protons and neutrons see figure 1 Atomic mass is below the element name 1008 number of protons in the nucleus see figure 1 Atomic number is the number in the top right corner 1 Hydrogen 1 1 Figure 1 Hydrogen Electron configuration and valence of oxygen nitrogen hydrogen and carbon 0 used to depict the number of electrons in an energy level or orbital o number of electrons in outer shell Oxygen 6 Nitrogen 5 Hydrogen 1 Carbon 4 How valence affects chemical bonding 0 Valence electrons are the only electrons that interact in a chemical bond 0 The number of valence electrons determines its reactivity group 1 and 2 are most reactive The different types of chemical bonds and how they are formed A bond formed when two atoms share electrons A bond formed when an atom gives up electrons causing ions to form One of the atoms sharing an electron pulls the shared electrons to itself results in a molecule with slightly charged regions like H20 A weak bond between a hydrogen atom and electronegative atom with a lone pair of electrons How hydrogen bonding works 0 Hydrogen bonds are about 5 the strength of a covalent bond 0 Polar molecules such as water molecules have a weak partial negative charge at one region of the molecule the oxygen atom in water and a partial positive charge elsewhere the hydrogen atoms in water 0 Thus when water molecules are close together their positive and negative regions are attracted to the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules This attraction between the positive and negative regions is a hydrogen bond What makes some molecules polar 0 Molecules that are polar are covalently bonded molecules One of the atoms in the covalent bond has a stronger pull and pulls the shared electrons towards itself This results in a molecule with a positively charged end and a negatively charged end 0 Non polar molecules are molecules with no charge How molecular shape in uences biological function 0 Molecular shape is determined by electron shells and the size of the atoms included 0 Molecules of certain shapes will perform specific functions 0 Molecules with similar shapes will therefore perform similar functions and vice versa molecules with different shapes will perform different functions Molecular mimicry 0 Molecular mimicry is when a part of a molecule of a given protein closely resembles a part of another totally different protein Part 3 Water and Carbon in Biology The physical and chemical characteristics of water and how these are important from a biological perspective 0 Physical characteristics Two drogen atoms bond to one oxygen atom see figure 2 Figure 2 shows two water molecules The blue spheres represent hydrogen whereas the red sphere represents oxygen This figure also shows that the water molecule is polar one end is positively charged the other is negatively charged 0 Chemical characteristics 0 Covalently bonded 0 Polar molecule 0 Biological Perspective 0 Each water molecule can hydrogen bond with four other molecules This occurs when the hydrogen of one water molecule bond with the oxygen of another 0 Cohesion water sticking to water I Allows water ow I Allows surface tension how some bugs can walk on water 0 Adhesion water bonds to other surfaces I Allows water to cling to vertical surfaces when water droplets are stuck on a glass Why carbonbased molecules are so diverse and how diversity arises 0 Carbon is the basis of organic molecules 0 Carbonbased molecules are diverse because they can vary in 0 Carbon chain length 0 Carbon chain branching 0 Double or triple bond position 0 Chain vs ring configuration Be able to recognize the structures of functional groups commonly found on organic molecules and their properties 0 Figure 410 in book Part 4 Biological Macromolecules How polymerization is accomplished 0 Large molecules carbohydrates lipids proteins and nucleic acids perform many important biological functions 0 Many are polymers 0 Large molecule that is made of repeating units of identical or similar subunits I Subunits monomers 0 a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or threedimensional networks 0 Subunits 9 Monomers 9 Polymers Dehydration and Hydrolysis 0 the loss of water between monomers to make a polymer 0 the addition of water to a polymer to split it into separate monomers o lysis split Functions of carbohydrates 0 Can exist in chains or rings 0 Used for a variety of functions 0 simple sugars I Simple sugars monomer monosaccharide starches cellulose and chitin O 0 How starches monosaccharides disaccharides and storage molecules differ o a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds 0 simple sugars and building blocks of disaccharides a sugar composed of two monosaccharides o Formed when two sugars are joined together and a water molecule is removed dehydration synthesis 0 energyrich molecules such as glycogen and triglycerides that store energy in the form of covalent chemical bonds The biological use of cellulose 0 Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on earth 0 Plants use cellulose as a structural component of cell walls 0 Most animals cannot digest it o Cellulose is actually the fiber in your diet 0 Comprised of polymerized units of glucose The structural difference between starch and cellulose 0 Cellulose is the polymeric form of glucose units linked together by beta 14 glycosidic linkages 0 Starch is the polymeric form of glucose molecules linked together by an alpha 14 linkage 0 Found in both linear and branch chains The biological functions of fatty acids and lipids 0 Fatty acids 0 Components of more complex membrane lipids 0 Major components of stored fats in the form of triglycerides o Precursors for the synthesis of bioactive lipids o Lipids 0 Structural components of biological membranes 0 Provide energy reserves 0 Some lipids specialize and help with digestion and other biological functions How fats are assembled 0 Fat molecules are made up of four parts 0 Glycerol molecule 0 Three fatty acid chains 0 The glycerol has three hydroxyl groups making it able to interact with the carboxyl group of the fatty acid chains The structure and role of phospholipids o A phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule meaning it contains both a hydrophobic waterfearing and a hydrophilic waterloving domain 0 The hydrophilic domain is a phosphate group that is negatively charged 0 The hydrophobic domain are two uncharged lipid tails o Phospholipids are major components of cell membranes The structure and function of lipid bilayers o Lipid bilayers are composed of phospholipids HVdroPhilic 39 39 39 i 39i quot 391 39 A I H A TK Hydrophobic who o to so tail V I A I 39 l 1 r i I t J 4 J Ur l r b r u quotrquot a I u c I I gt IL quot 139 I 139quot 4 I I Aquot nt Figure 3 0 Figure 3 shows how the hydrophobic tails of a phospholipid will face each other to escape the water The hydrophilic heads however face the water The phospholipids behaving like this and facing each other form a lipid bilayer o Lipid bilayers are essential for membrane structure The various functions of proteins and why they are so versatile 0 Proteins are the most versatile of the macromolecules 0 Proteins can perform many different tasks 0 Functions 0 Structural callogen keratin silk tubulin Storage casein valbumin Transport hemoglobin Hormones insulin Receptor ASGPR Contractile actin Defensive antibodies Enzymatic lysozyme and many others OOOOOOO Four functional groups of amino acids 0 The four parts of an amino acid 0 Amino group Carboxyl group R group Usually a hydrogen 000 How 20 possible amino acids at each position can result in high levels of sequence variation 0 Sequence variation is due to a different R group The amino and carboxyl termini and polarity of protein synthesis 0 Carboxyl termini also known as Cterminus is the end of an amino acid chain 0 The polarity of protein synthesis is from the amino Nterminus to the Cterminus o Nterminus is the start of a polypeptide or amino acid chain Four levels of protein structure 0 Primary Structure 0 Sequence of amino acids within a single polypeptide amino acid 0 Often similar among proteins or similar function 0 Usually written from amino terminus Nterminus to carboxyl terminus C terminus o JUST A CHAIN OF AMINO ACIDS 0 Secondary Structure 0 Localized within regions of polypeptides o Stabilized by hydrogen bonding polar R groups 0 Alpha helix corkscrew structure 0 Beta pleated sheets 0 CAN BE TWISTED OR PLEATED o Tertiary Structure 0 Folding events that are stabilized by interaction between amino acids I Hydrophobic interactions 0 Nonpolar regions I Disulfide bridge 0 Very stable bond formed between distant cysteine residues I Ionic interactions 0 Strong bond between oppositely charged side groups I Hydrogen bonds 0 TWISTED OR PLEATED SHEETS ARE NOW FOLDED Quaternary Structure 0 Only seen in compound proteins 0 Interactions are maintained between polypeptide chains by bonds similar to tertiary structure 0 Function is often unique to quaternary structure I IndiVidual components are unable to accomplish task alone 0 TWO PROTIENS IN TERTIARY STRUCTURE COMBINE TO FORM A NEW PROTEIN General structure of nucleotides Comprised of a pentose 5carbon sugar a nitrogencontaining base and an organic phosphate group The different bases found in DNA and RNA Pyrimidines are single ring structures 0 Cytosine thymine and uracil RNA Purines are double ring structures 0 Adenine and guanine In DNA cytosine pairs with guanine and thymine pairs with adenine In RNA cytosine pairs with guanine and uracil pairs with adenine Structural and functional differences between DNA and RNA Both are important for cell function DNA is double stranded RNA is single stranded DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose RNA contains the sugar ribose DNA stores and transfers genetic information RNA codes for amino acids and acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes to make proteins Structure of the double helix Most common double helix is DNA The two strands are not parallel and are paired with hydrogen bonding Looks like a twisted ladder Central Dogma of information ow in cells 0 DNA 9 RNA 9 Protein 0 DNA is to RNA RNA can be in the form of mRNA rRNA or tRNA 0 RNA is to Proteins Why organisms need energy input 0 Organisms need energy to survive 0 Energy is needed for biological functions to happen such as digestion Catabolism and Anabolism and how they interact 0 Catabolism 0 Degradation of complex molecules into smaller ones 0 Results in release of stored energy 0 This energy can be used by anabolic pathways 0 Anabolism 0 Synthesis of complex molecules 0 Requires the input of energy 0 Energy is obtained by catabolic reactions 0 Resultant molecules can be used in catabolic reactions How ATP is used for short term energy storage 0 ATP is used to close the energy gap between energyreleasing reactions 0 Used for energy transfers not long term energy storage How enzymes function Enzymes are proteins that catalyze specific reactions Contain active site or pocket that modifies a molecule called the substrate into a pocket Returns to readyform and is not usedup by the reaction Tend to perform only a single speci c reaction and not multiple reactions How inhibition occurs 0 Occurs when the substrate and a substance resembling the substrate are added to the enzyme Part 6 Cells and Cell Organelles The differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 0 Prokaryotic o All bacteria 0 Must have cell wall 0 No membranebound organelles 0 Biochemical reactions take place in the cytoplasm of cell membrane 0 Eukaryotic o Protist fungi plant and animal cells 0 Some have cell walls 0 Possess membrane bound organelles Why cells tend to be small 0 Cells are small in order to form more complex organisms humans vs 8bit characters 0 Cells have high surface area volume ratios maximize the amount of cellenvironment interaction Structure and function of cell membranes 0 Cell membranes are lipid bilayers o Integral proteins oat in uid 0 Hydrophobic region of proteins reside in fatty acid layer of membrane 0 Hydrophilic regions are on cytoplasm and extracellular surfaces 0 Membrane uidity may be altered by adjusting fatty acid chains 0 Membranes are the gatekeepers of cells only let certain things into the cells 0 Other functions 0 Transport signal transduction cell to cell communication Diffusion and Osmosis o Diffusion 0 Starts With a gradient System Will eventually reach equilibrium Happens passively Without selective barriers Many small cells diffuse through cell membranes Particles move from an area of high concentration to low concentration until equilibrium is reached 0 Osmosis o Requires a gradient and a selectively permeable membrane I Solute is unable to pass through membrane to reach equilibrium I Water Will move to area of greater solvent concentration until equilibrium is reached 0 O O O The common methods by Which molecules get inside of a cell and how these methods differ 0 One method by Which molecules get inside a cell is through a channel protein 0 Channel proteins act as a tunnel o The other method by Which molecules get inside a cell is through a carrier protein 0 Both ends of the protein are never open at the same time o A molecule enters the top of the protein 9 top of the protein closes 9 bottom of the protein opens 9 molecule enters the cell How membrane pumps work and their uses 0 Membrane pumps work to pump something usually ions from areas of lower concentration to higher concentration 0 Membrane pumps are specific they only let certain molecules or ions into the cell The role and importance of compartmentalization within a cell 0 The formation of cellular compartments is called compartmentalization 0 These compartments are in the form of cell organelles 0 Compartmentalization is important because the cell function is dependent on the organelles within the cell The three major forms of membrane facilitated cell uptake and the resulting vesicles 0 Phagocytosis celleating or engulfment o Amoebae or macrophages 0 Cell produces pseudopod to surround large object or food 0 Pinocytosis celldrinking o Vesicle forms and brings in liquid 0 Endocytosis receptor mediated o A specific receptortarget interaction occurs The structure and function of the nucleus and its components The nucleus is the command center of eukaryotic cells Double membrane 2 distinct membranes inner and outer Nuclear pore regulate movement across the membrane Chromatin DNA and other proteins Nucleolus where ribosomes are formed Anatomy of the Nucleus Endoplath Reticulum Figure 1 The location structure and function of ribosomes 0 Location 0 Outer surface of nuclear membrane 0 Rough ER 0 Structure 0 Made up of many small proteins and rRNA molecules 0 Function 0 Synthesizes protein via translation 39 Uses mRNA as a template Two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum and their functions 0 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ER 0 Involved in some protein production protein folding quality control and dispatch synthesize excreted proteins modify proteins delivery of membrane associated proteins 0 Called rough because it is studded with ribosomes 0 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum 0 Associated with the production and metabolism of fats and steroid hormones detoxification in the liver and storage of carbohydrates 0 Called smooth because it is coated in smooth slippery fats The structure and function of the Golgi and how it interacts with the ER 0 The Golgi Apparatus has polarity o Cis end is close to the ER 0 Trans end is away from the ER 0 Function 0 Replace sugars places on glycoproteins o Modification of phospholipid acylgroups and head groups 0 Molecule targeting and assembly 0 Production of vesicles to delivery membrane associated molecules and excreted molecules to cell surface 0 Interaction o The ER often performs the first steps of modification that is later finished in the Golgi The process of cell renewal and how it is accomplished 0 Cell renewal is the replacement of old cells 0 Cells and their molecules age and become less effective 0 An important cellular function is renewal 0 Old molecules and organelles are recycled 0 New phospholipids are produced for the membrane 0 Toxic molecules need to be collected and disposed of 0 Sometimes cells commit suicide Lysosomes peroxisomes and glyoxysomes o Lysosomes O O O O 0 Contain digestive enzyme used to degrade macromolecules or organelles Originates in ER but enzymes are activated in Golgi Important in macrophages for degradation of particles acquired via phagocytosis Used to degrade organelles autophagy Used in cell death 0 Peroxisomes O O O 0 Contain enzymes to collect free hydrogen and oxygen and combine into H202 peroxide Peroxide is also toxic so they contain enzymes to degrade into water and oxygen molecules 39 Catalase experiment Peroxisomes are formed by aggregation of lipids and proteins not formed in the ER Many are found in liver cells I Degrade alcohols into peroxide then into water and oxygen Also responsible for degradation of fatty acids in cytosol Modify fatty acids and phospholipids and incorporate into peroxisome membrane Divide by binary fission 0 Glyoxysome O O O O Specialized peroxisomes found in plant seeds Recognize appropriate signals and begin to degrade stored fat in seed Fat is converted to sugars Which allows seedling to sprout Once photosynthesis starts glyoxysomes degrade Cell death and its biological uses 0 Cell death is When a cell dies 0 Sometimes used in development of organisms O 0 Hand development in the womb Certain cells are programmed to die at appropriate times 0 Defense against viral or intracellular bacterial infections 0 O Selfdestruct Program is started by T cells killer T cells 0 Apoptosis is often accomplished by leaky or popping lysosomes
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