Test 1 vocabulary
Test 1 vocabulary PSY 320
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 320 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Marc Gellman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Drugs & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Drug Test 1 Vocab correlate a variable that is statistically related to some other variable such as drug use antecedent a variable that occurs before some event such as the initiation of drug use longitudinal a study done over a period of time months or years study gateway one of the rst drugs ex alcohol or tobacco used by a typical drug user reinforcement a procedure in which a behavioral event is followed by a consequent event such that the behavior is then more likely to be repeated The behavior of taking a drug may be reinforced by the effect of the drug laissezfaire a handsoff approach to government toxic poisonous dangerous behavioral toxicity resulting from behavioral effects of a drug toxicity acute referring to drugs the shortterm effects of a single dose chronic referring to drugs the longterm effects from repeated use drug a police officer trained to examine intoxicated recognition individuals to determine which of several classes of expert DRE drugs caused the intoxication DAWN drug abuse warning network system for collecting data on drugrelated deaths or emergency room visits HIV human immunode ciency virus AIDS acquired immunode ciency syndrome bath salts mephedrone or a related stimulant packaged as bath salts but intended for use as a psychoactive drug tolerance reduced effect of a drug after repeated use physical drug dependence de ned by the presence of a dependence withdrawal syndrome implying that the body has become adapted to the drug s presence withdrawal a consistent set of symptoms that appears after syndrome discontinuing use of a drug psychological behavioral dependence indicated by high rate of dependence drug use craving for the drug and a tendency to relapse after stopping use catheter plastic or other tubing implanted into the body alcoholics a worldwide organization of selfhelp groups based anonymous on alcoholics helping each other achieve and maintain sobriety biopsychosocial a theory of perspective that relies on the interaction of biological individual psychological and social variables morphine a narcotic the primary active chemical in opium heroin is made from morphine patent medicines sold directly to the public under various medicines trademark names primarily associated with the period before 1906 cocaine a stimulant the primary inactive chemical in cocoa FDA the United States Food and Drug Administration NDA new drug application must be approved before a drug is sold IND application to investigate a new drug in human clinical trials DEA drug enforcementadministration a branch of the department of justice homeostasis maintenance of an environment of body functions within a certain range ex temperature blood pressure membrane a thin limiting cover of a cell cell body the central region of a neutron which is the control center dendrites branchlike structures that extend from the cell body and specialize in receiving signals from other neurons axon a thin tube that extends from the cell body and specializes in transmitting signals to other neurons axon terminals the end region of the axon receptors recognition mechanisms that respond to speci c chemical signals neurotransmitte r chemical messengers released from axon terminals synaptic small bubbles of membrane that store vesicles neurotransmitters myelin a fatty white substance that is wrapped around portions of the axons autoimmune a condition that occurs when the immune system disease mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue multiple an autoimmune illness caused by damage to the sclerosis myelin sheath that wraps around axons A wide range of symptoms can accompany this disorder including muscle spasms vision loss severe pain dizziness fatigue and intestinal problems bloodbrain structure that prevents many drugs from entering barrier the brain semipermeable allowing some but not all chemicals to pass neurotransmissi on the process of transferring information from one neuron to another at a synapse action potential the electrical signal transmitted along the axon when a neuron res ion channels a protein in the cell membrane forms a pore that allows the passage of ions from one side of the membrane to the other ion an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge because of a difference in the number of electrons and protons resting the voltage maintained by a cell when it is not potential generating action potentials The resting potential of neurons is about 65 mV hyperpolarized when the membrane potential is more negative depolarized when the membrane potential is less negative acetylcholine neurotransmitter found in the parasympathetic branch in the cerebral cortex autonomic the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary functions such as heart rate sympathetic the branch of the autonomic system involved in ght or ight response parasympatheti c the branch of the autonomic system that stimulates digestion slows the heart and has other effects associated with a relaxed physiological state norepinephrine neurotransmitter that may be important for regulating waking and appetite central nervous brain and spinal cord system nucleus a collection of neurons in the forebrain that plays an accumbens important role in reward and emotional reactions to events dopamine neurotransmitter found in the basal ganglia and other regions ventral a group of dopaminecontaining neurons located in tegmental area the midbrain whose axons project to the forebrain especially the nucleus accumbens and cortex mesolimbic dopamine pathway one of two major dopamine pathways may be involved in psychotic reactions and in drug reward schizophrenia a mental disorder characterized by chronic psychosis Nigrostriatal dopamine pathway one of two major dopamine pathways damaged in Parkinson s disease substantia nigra a dopaminerich midbrain structure that projects to the striatum hypothalamus a structure found near the bottom of the forebrain lt participates in the regulation of hunger thirst sexual behavior and aggression striatum a term used to describe the caudate nucleus and putamen Located in the forebrain it is involved in the initiation of body movements and procedural memory Parkinson s Disease a movement disorder involving damage to andor loss of dopamine neurons along the Nigrostriatal dopamine pathway Major symptoms include tremors rigidity of the limbs postural instability and difficulty initiating movements precursors chemicals that are acted on by enzymes to form neurotransmitters nucleus basalis a group of neurons of the basal forebrain that send projections throughout the cortex cerebral cortex the outermost layer of the brain Alzheimer s disease a progressive brain disease that destroys memory and thinking skills serotonin neurotransmitter found in the raphe nuclei may be important for impulsivity depression raphe nuclei a group of serotonincontaining neurons found in the brain stem and project widely throughout the brain GABA inhibitory neurotransmitter found in most regions of the brain glutamate excitatory neurotransmitter found in most regions of the brain endorphin opiatelike chemical that occurs naturally in the brain of humans and other animals basalgangHa subcortical brain structures controlling muscle tone uptake energyrequiring mechanism by which selected molecules are taken into cells synthesis the forming of a neurotransmitter by the action of enzymes on precursors enzyme large molecule that assists in either the synthesis or metabolism of another molecule synapse the space between neurons transporter mechanism in the nerve terminal membrane responsible for removing neurotransmitter molecules from the synapse by taking them back into the neuron metabolize to break down or inactivate a neurotransmitter or a drug through enzymatic action agonist a substance that facilitates or mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic cell antagonist a substance that prevents the effects of a neurotransmitter on the post synaptic cell monoamine a class of chemicals characterized by a single amine group monoamine neurotransmitters include dopamine norepinephrine and serotonin generic a name that specifies a particular chemical but not the particular brand Provigil a medication used to treat narcolepsy shift work moda nil sleep disorder and daytime sleepiness associated with sleep apnea Nuvigil a longerlasting version of moda nil approved to armoda nil treat the same conditions placebo an inactive drug doubleblind experiment in which neither the doctor nor the procedure patient knows which drug is being used doseresponse curve a graph comparing the size of response to the amount of drug ataxia uncoordinated walking comatose unconscious and unable to be aroused ED50 effective dose for half of the animals tested LD50 lethal dose for half of the animals tested therapeutic the ratio of ED50 to LD50 index Tl safety margin dosage difference between an acceptable level of effectiveness and the lowest toxic dose side effects unintended effects that accompany therapeutic effects potency measured by the amount of drug required to produce an effect time course timing of the onset duration and termination of a drug s effect cumulative effects of giving multiple doses of the same drug effects lipid solubility tendency of a chemical to dissolve in fat as opposed to water intravenous IV injection directly into a vein subcutaneous injection under the skin intramuscular injection into a muscle lipophilic the extent to which chemicals can be dissolved in oils and fats metabolite product of enzyme action on a drug active metabolites that have drug actions of their own metabolites prodrugs drugs that are inactive until acted on by enzymes in the body drug disposition tolerance caused by more rapid elimination of the tolerance drug behavioral tolerance caused by learned adaptation to the drug tolerance pharmacodyna tolerance caused by altered nervous system mic tolerance sensitivity drug any substance natural or arti cial other than food that by its chemical nature alters structure or function in the living organism illicit drug drug that is unlawful to possess or use deviant drug use drug use that is not common within a social group and that is disapproved of by the majority drug misuse the use of prescribed drugs in greater amounts than or for purposes other than those prescribed by a physician abuse the use of substance in a manner amounts or situations such that the drug use causes problems or greatly increases the chances of problems occurring
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