ANSC 23000 Exam 2 Study Guide
ANSC 23000 Exam 2 Study Guide ANSC 23000
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Gayatri on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 23000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Scott Mills in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Animal Physiology in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
ANSC 23000 Exam 2 Study Guide Renal Physiology Anatomy of the urogenital system 0 Kidney I Located behind peritinum of abdominal cavity I Bean shaped I Functional units are called nephrons Tested using glomerular ltration ratio I Functions Filtration of blood and elimination of waste Monitoring and maintaining blood pressure body water volume Monitoring and maintaining blood pH Monitoring and maintaining electrolyte balance Activation of Vitamin D Regulation of RBC formation erythropectin o Ureter I Connect kidney to bladder and carry urine to storage structure 0 Bladder I Made of transition epithelial cells I Has two sphincters Internal smooth muscle and external skeletal muscle 0 Urethra Micturition Re ex Pee pathway 0 Sensation to urinate is sent to the sensory cortex via a sensory neuron from bladder to the brain 0 A parasympathetic neuron from the spinal cord synapses with the bladder and tells it to relax internal sphincter and another parasympathetic neuron goes to the bladder and tells it to contract 0 In the brain the motor cortex controls urination through sending a motor neuron to the external sphincter to tell it to contract Histology o Bladder transitional epithelia o Nephron Filtration blood gets ltered crude urine is made 0 Occurs at glomerulus Reabsorption multipstep process 0 Amino acids salt water glucose and calcium ions are reabsorbed Water is reabsorbed from descending loop Salt is reabsorbed from ascending loop Salts also reabsorbed from DCT Water also reabsorbed via aquaporins from collecting duct 0 Occurs in PCT Loop of Henle DCT and CD Secretion Bicarbonate is used to regulate pH potassium ions are used for electrolyte balance 0 Occurs in DCT Excretion wastes and toxins are removed 0 Occurs in collecting duct Counter Current Exchange refers to the anatomical positionpathway of blood passage and the loop of henle to optimize exchange between two vessels with semipermeable membranes and maximize equilibrium 0 Concentrations are same in corresponding levels but ow is in opposite directions in order to balance them 0 Regulation of Water and Electrolvte balance 0 O O O o RAAS rennin enzyme angiotensin aldosterone system ADH comes into play in response to changes in blood pressure 0 High blood pressure I Right atrium senses high BP secretes Atriopectin to the kidney I This stimulates decrease in reabsorption of NaCl and water more urine produced which leads to drop in blood volume and thus lowers BP 0 Low blood pressure I Kidney senses low BP secretes Rennin to the liver I Liver is stimulated to release Angiotensinogenl in its inactive form which get activated into Angiotensinogen 2 by Angiotensinogen converting enzyme ACE comes from lungs I Angiotensinogen has three targets Adrenal cortex secretion of aldosterone is stimulated which targets kidney DCT which then stimulates reabsorption of NaCl Hypothalamus a neuron goes to the posterior pituitary and stimulates secretion of ADH which goes to kidney and stimulates reabsorption of water from aquaporins Vessel constriction leads to increase in BP Erythropoietin EPO produced by kidney in response to low oxygen levels high altitudes 0 EP0 targets the bone and stimulates increase in ow of RBCs which increases amount of oxygen ow to cells thus enhancing endurance Toxicities and disease 0 ACE inhibition is used to cure high BP 0 Dialysis bags are used when kidney does not function properly difference is that dialysis bag uses selective diffusion and desirables stay in and do not diffuse out like they do in kidneys Cardiophysiology Blood Pressure 0 Systolic pressure when ventricles contract blood goes out aorta increased pressure 0 Diastolic pressure when ventricles relax in between beats heart is at rest 0 Normal 12080 Anatomy of the heart 0 Heart valves I Atrioventriular valves Right tricuspid Left biscuspid mitral I Semilunar valves prevent back ow sheer bras Right pulmonary Left aortic Electrical activity and heart beat 0 Pacemaker cells coordinate contractions I Sinoatrial node sends signal across the heart in the left and right atria I AV nodes sends signal down the bundle of hiss I Signal goes up the Perkinge bers and up and across ventricles o Electrocardiogram ECG six parts I P depolarization of atria leads to contraction I Q R S repolarization of atria not seen depolarization of ventricles I T repolarization of ventricles leads to relaxation I U Return to resting state 0 Regulation I Heart rate is modified by autonomic nerves based on situation and needs at the time along with its own pacemaker cells which deliver a constant heart rate Sympathetic nerves increase HR secretion of norepinephrine Parasympathetic nerves especially vagus nerve decreases HR secretion of acetylcholine Pathology 0 Cardiac Muscle structure intercalated disks where cells come in contact are anchoring structures that contain gap junctions I The cells are slightly striated branching and form a functional network I The are mononucleated I They do not require neural stimulation because they have their own pacemaker cells own action potential 0 Action potential travels through all cells connected together forming a functional syncytium in which cells function as a unit and cells do not fatigue Digestive Physiology Identify the organs of the digestive system and their major functions 0 Salivary gland three pairs all are exocrine glands I Mucus lubricates and protects I Lysozyme kills and lyses bacteria I Amylase hydrolyzes starch found in saliva does not survive in stomach s acidic environment I Lipase hydrolyzes triglycerides found in saliva does not survive in stomach s acidic environment 0 Stomach four secretions from four cells three exocrine and one endocrine cell I Mucous cell secretes mucus which protects I Parietal cell secretes HCl which activates pepsinogen and sterilizes contents of the stomach I Chief cell secretes pepsinogen which when activated hydrolyzes proteins 9 short peptides I Gcell secretes gastrin which stimulates HCl secretion 0 Liver gall bladder I Liver cell hepatocyte produces bile saltsacid which assist in fat digestion by emulsifying them NOT hydrolyzing bonds bile gets stored in gallbladder except in rats and horses I Bile is a route to eliminate waste from the body bile duct leads to duodenum I Bilirubin degradation product of heme from hemoglobin in RBCs o Intestinal cells Crypts of Lieberkuhn intestine is very metabolically active cells of villi are constantly made in crypts base of villi and Brunner glands and endocrine cells are in the same area I Intestinal cell enterocyte secretes the following enzymes Peptidase hydrolizes peptides Amylase hydrolizes starch Disaccharidease hydrolizes disaccharides Lipase hydrolizes fats TGs Enterokinase activates trypsin I Brunner s gland cell secretes mucus which protects epithelium I Endocrine cell secretes secretin which stimulates pancreatic bicarb secretion and cholecystokinin CCK which stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion and gall bladder s bile secretion 0 Pancreas has exocrine and endocrine portions focus on exocrine secretions via a duct combine with common bile duct and then empty into duodenum Two separate types of secretions I CCK stimulated Enzymatic secretions Peptidase trypsinogen chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidase all hydrolyze peptides Amylase hydrolizes starch Lipase hydrolyzes fats TGs I Secretion stimulated Bicarbonate HCO3 buffer neutralizes acidic environment of intestine Describe the functional histology of the digestive tract 0 Mouth trachea esophagus made of stratified squamous epithelia I Protection from potential food damage 0 Stomach made of simple columnar epithelia I Cells secrete mucus to protect lining of stomach from digestive acids and enzymes which enter through gastric pit I Gastric Pit consists of four types of cells Parietal cells secrete HCl Chief cells secrete pepsinogen which is activated by HCl G cells secrete gastrin stimulates HCl secretion MucusGoblet cells secrete mucus and bicarbonate o Kidney I Participates in selective reabsorption I Less volume I No hydrolysis I Nephrons a million gives more surface area for absorption 0 Intestine connects stomach to L1 made of simple columnar transport epithelia I Lots of folds I Participates in selective absorption I Very voluminious I Digestion and hydrolysis I One nephron relatively less surface area than kidney for absorption I Villi Lined with microvilli membrane extensions Brunner s gland cells secrete mucus Endocrine cells secrete CCK and secretin Crupt of Lieberkuhn makes new cells younger cells are closer to bottom and older at top Outline the mechanisms that regulate digestion o Neural regulation I Autonomic NS Parasympathetic NS Rest and digest o Secretes of enzymes 0 Promotes digestion overall 0 Vagus nerve innervates most of GI tract 0 Innervates salivary gland Sympathetic NS Fight or ight o Decreases or halts digestion to conserve energy 0 Blood ow decrease along GI tract and organs 0 Decreases motility of GI tract I Enteric NS local nerve network not originating from CNS Local control of digestive organs Releases enzymes from cells 0 Eg parietal chief stomach cells 0 Identifv hnvv nutrientq are HQPH hv kev nronnq nf the hnrlv r Glucose I Stored in liver and muscle as rgllycoen and adipase tissue as fat 397 Oxiized all cells to make ATP 0 Acids 39 Stored muscle cells for protein I Oxidized in most cells to make ATP I Stored in adipose tissue s trilycerides I Oxidized in most cells to make ATP
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