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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: KelseyH

Exam 1 Study Guide Bio Sci 152

Foundations of Biological Sciences II
Dr. Daad Saffarini, Dr. Erica Young, Dr. Jane Witten

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About this Document

This is the first part of the study guide created form the first exam on September 18. Through all of Monday (9/14/15) I will be adding to this study guide and completing it before the day is over....
Foundations of Biological Sciences II
Dr. Daad Saffarini, Dr. Erica Young, Dr. Jane Witten
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by KelseyH on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio Sci 152 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Dr. Daad Saffarini, Dr. Erica Young, Dr. Jane Witten in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biological Sciences II in Biological Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.

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Date Created: 09/13/15
Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 Study Guide Study Guide Exam 1 Part 1 Study Guide covers material from September 2ndl September 16th Microbiology Introduction Cell Structure and Function The Prokaryotes Metabolic Diversity Ecology and Disease Viruses and Protists All living organisms descend from a common ancestor Broad Tree of Life See fig 14 for full view All Life Bacteria Eukarya Archaea Protists Animals Fungi Cell Types Prokaryotes includes archaea and bacteria 0 Prokaryotic cells have m nucleus and lack organelles 0 Size 0520um in diameter 0 Cell is surrounded by a cell membrane o Allows material in and out o Nucleoid holds the cell s DNA 0 DNA is a circular chromosome 0 Ribosomes are the site of protein production 0 Made of RNA 0 Flagella long appendages help cells move through environment 0 Made of proteins called flagellin o Protrude from outer membrane 1Page Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 0 Motor protein spins to create motion 0 Reproduction asexual reproduction o Binary fission o Budding o Fragmentation Prokaryote divide o Bacteria example cyanobacteria bluegreen algae 0 Cell wall contains Peptidoglycan I peptidoglycan is derived of N acetylglucosamine NAG and N acetlymuramic acid NAM with a pentapeptide off the NAM 0 Cell membrane has ester linked lipids 0 Bacterial agella I Helical screw I Hollow core I Filaments rotate independently I Motion powered by hydrogen ion gradient I Rotates clock and counterclockwise I Filaments are thicker than archaeal agella 0 Bacterial pili I Appendage made of protein I Thinner than agella I Can attach bacterium to surfaces and other cells I Flexible or straight I Cross whole surface or at the poles of a cell 0 Bacterial shapes I Coccioval or sphere I Bacilli rod I Spirillaspiral corkscrew Bacteria can also reproduce by spores Gramnegative bacteria I Single layer of peptidoglycan I Have outer membrane I Periplasm Study Guide 2Fage Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 I Gram stain Appear pink red 0 Grampositive bacteria I Multiple peptidoglycan layers I No outer membrane I Gram stain Appear blue purple o Archaea 0 Cell wall lacks peptidoglycan and contains S layers 0 Cell membrane has ether linked lipids o Archaeal agella I Thinner than bacterial flagella I Structurally different I No central core I Motion powered by ATP I Filaments rotate as a bundle o Archaea cell shapes I Cocci oval or sphere I Bacilli rod I Triangular triangle I Sguare I Flattened or sheet like Study Guide Eukaryotic Cells includes animals plants fungi and protists o Eukaryotic cells Q have a nucleus and organelles o M 105oum in diameter 0 Nucleus organelle that holds DNA 0 Chromosomeschromatin DNA and protein 0 Holds nucleolus I Proteins and RNA make ribosomes 0 DNA made of nucleotides 0 Cell membrane 0 Phospholipid bilayer with proteins in through membrane 0 Semi permeable o Ribosomes site of protein production 3Page Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 Study Guide 0 Made of RNA 0 Endoplasmic reticulum ER sacs and tubules 0 Rough ER studded with ribosomes o Modifies and synthesizes proteins 0 Structural folding o Adds carbohydrates 0 Smooth ER has few or no ribosomes 0 Calcium ion storage 0 Steroid and lipid synthesis 0 Glycogen degeneration o Modifies molecules 0 Golgi apparatus GA receives vesicles from RER o Collects packages tags and organizes proteins 0 Joins carbs o Plantslocation of polysaccharide synthesis 0 Lysosomes holds digestive enzymes 0 Hydrolysis of macromolecules o Phagocytosis engulf material from outside the cell o Vesicles phagosome I Phagocytes breakdown matter 0 Mitochondria has own set of DNA ribososmes and enzymes 0 Cellular respiration I ATP from chemical energy 0 Peroxisome organelle neutralizes toxic peroxides 0 Break down amino and fatty acids 0 Lipid metabolism 0 Vacuoles large storage areas 0 Plantstonoplast plant vacuole 0 Animals adipocytes animal fat storage cells 0 Cytoskeleton protein network that provides shape movement organization and transport 0 Micro laments thinnest cytoskeleton partmade of actin I Cell movement I Determines and secures shape of cell 4Pag Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 Study Guide I Actin and myosin produce muscle contraction in animals 0 Intermediate laments family of related proteins I Anchor cell structures I Withstand stress and tension 0 Microtubules thickest cytoskeleton material hollow and lengthy I Sturdy internal skeleton I Maneuver structure in cell I Tubulin dimers I Cilia and agella o Cilia and agella grant maneuverability o Microtubules 9 2 array formation G Structures ONLY in plants amp algae Q o Plastids organelles in photosynthetic eukaryotes o Chloroplasts I Photosynthesis location Converts light energy to chemical energy I Thylakoids site of lightdepended reaction o Chromoplasts responsible for storage of yellow red and orange pigments in fruits and owers 0 Leucoplasts in nonphotosynthetic tissue of plants I Store nonpigment molecules 0 Cell Wall ridged layer of microfibrils of cellulose protein polysaccharides 0 Provides protection and structural support The first organisms on earth were prokaryotes o Prokaryotes learned how to use oxygen and perform photosynthesis o Photosynthetic prokaryotes that give off energy by chemical reactions that involve oxygen is aerobic metabolism o Anaerobic metabolismchemical reaction that doesn t use oxygen is much less efficient Eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells 0 Organelles derived from endosymbiosis one organism lives inside of another organism 5Pase Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 Study Guide 0 Examples mitochondria and chloroplasts 6Page


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