Psych 105 Study Guide
Psych 105 Study Guide Psych 105
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 105 at Washington State University taught by Johnathan Preszler in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psych in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Lect Psych 105 Study Guide No1 Professor Johnathan Preszler Class Intro to psychology ure Notes combined with book info Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes and is used to describe predict explain and controlinfluence In many areas of psychology the assumption of materialism pervades Stems from the idea called positivism which states that only that which only that which can be observed empirically or proved mathematically can be known Psychology was associated with philosophy for a long time before it became independent Origins of Psychology Started with Aristotle 3005 BC Descartes16005 0 often called the quotFather of Modern Philosophy 0 Contributed to the idea of mindbody interactive dualism 0 Interactive dualism the idea that the mind and body are separate entities which interact to produce sensation emotions and other conscious experiences Wilhelm Wundt late 18005 0 The true father of psychology 0 Helped establish psychology as a quotsciencequot 0 Use of scientific methods of experimentation to gain knowledge 0 Develop many tools called apparatus 0 Thought of psychology as a study of consciousness Edward Titchener early 1900 0 Student of Wundt 0 Father of quotstructuralismquot consciousness can be broken down into elemental structures such as feelings William James 0 Father of quotfunctionalismquot which is the function of any behavior we have Father of pragmatism Thought consciousness was viewed as a stream of changing mental activity Today functionalism is no longer a school of thought Ideas of free will will to believe and pragmatism Sigmund Freud o Founder of Psychoanalysis I Ideas of unconscious drives and aggressive unconscious motives I His stuff is lots of nonsense I Some of his thoughts influence ways of thinking today John Watson 0 Founder of quotbehaviorismquot I Focused on stimulus and response OOOO I Rejected the idea of consciousness at all BF Skinner 0 Student of Watson 0 Continued to champion behaviorism o Called consciousness Carl Rodgers Humanistic Psychology 0 Endorsed the conscious experience 0 Promoted growth and positive psychology 0 Emphasized free will 0 Yielded influential and still used psychotherapy practices I Unconditional positive regard Perspectives of Contemporary Psych Biological Psychology Looking at chemicals in the brain and how they affect us Focus on physical bases of human behavior 0 Esp genetics metabolism Psychodynamic Mostly present therapeutically some research Emphasize unconscious drives Behavioral Present in therapy and research Emphasizes stimulus and reaction Biggest achievement learning theory reinforcement and punishment Humanistic Motivation of person to grow Emphasis goodness of each person Emphasis freewill and choice Focuses on the conscious experience Not much research most present in therapy Positive Psychology Type of research that focus particularly on positive or happy traits and states Cognitive Focuses on cognitions Thoughts Strong presence in therapy and research Perhaps strongest perspective among clinical psychologists Cross Cultural Popular currently Emphasizes cultural differences as the antecedent to psych differences Social Loafing example discovered by Aristotle western world absent in China Ethnocentrism it is the belief that one that has their culture is the best culture Raises problems if there is a moral exist of moral code Evolutionary David Buss what evolutionary purpose does behavior serve Emphasizes sexuality Scientific Method Assumptions 0 Events are lawful 0 Example Gravity o Consistent follows patterns 0 Events are explainable 0 There are causes to behavior 0 Open Minded o Skepticism 0 Not unbelieving 0 One rule of positivism in science you can never make an absolute negative statement ie extraterrestrials do not exist A note on Epistemology the question of quothow can we know somethingquot 0 What is a fact What is an opinion Are they mutually exclusive 0 So fact and opinion are not mutually exclusive ideas despite being often presented as such 0 Epistemology In order for us to know something it must be what us called quotjustified true beliefquot 0 First must be true 0 Second it must be a held belief 0 Third we must be justified in believing it Proof and truth are different things Scientific method 1 Formulate a testable hypothesis 2 Design the study and collect the data 0 Descriptive approach more questionnaires who what when where 0 Experimental approach How 3 Analyze the data Look for statistical significant meaning it probably did not occur by chance 4 Report the findings usually in some kind of scientific journals After the study is conducted it is important for the experiment to be replicated so that all the findings can be compiled and compared in a MetaAnalysis and used to build a theory Descriptive research 4 types Naturaistic Studying something that is already happening without setting up an experiment Case studies gather lots of information most used in clinical study mostly medical more rare conditions generalizability is difficult because there is only 1 study Surveys set of questions difficult to set up because of wording Correlational Study suggests a relationship between two variables Ethics of Psychological research study 1 Consent Must inform the participant about all parts of the study as well as providing an out for participants if they want to leave 2 Students as research participants students can be difficult because they might drop out if they39re uncomfortable 3 Use of deception No feasible alternatives and the results are worth being deceptive to the participate 4 Confidentiality of Information personal info can t be disclosed to anyone outside of the study 5 Animals in research comparing if animals and people react the same Sometimes the experiment cannot be done on a human Statistics Frequency Distribution 0 Definition A graph summary of how various scores occur 0 Always a histogram a bar graph where the bars touch Population and Sample 0 Population a complete set of the subjects of interest 0 Sample a portion of the population 0 Ex a class might be either a population or a sample Measurements of central tendency Mean the average of a set overly sensitive to out liars Add all the numbers and divide by the number of cases people EX 1236 63 2 the mean is 2 because Median the score in the middle of the data not sensitive to out liars Count inward to find the number in the middle of the string of numbers EX 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 the mean is 4 because it is in the middle Mode score that occurs most frequently EX 1 2 2 5 9 8 the mode is 2 because 2 appears more frequently Measures of variability Range highest score minus lowest EX 1234 4highest 1lowest Variance squared average difference of each case from the mean Standard Deviation square root of the sum of the squared deviations around the mean divided by the number of scores in the distribution Normal Distribution o It appears as a quotbell curvequot symmetrical o The 68 95997 rule with one standard deviations 68 of your cases will fall within two standard deviations 95 of your cases will fall and within three standard deviations 997 of your cases will fall 2 Scores 0 Related to the quotnormal curvequot is the concept of the zscore 0 Calculated like this X mean Standard Deviation 0 Data that is normed on standard deviation Measures of variability Variance is really the average sum of the squares of the divitants Take the case subtract the mean square that answer Add all of those together and divide by the number of cases Look up central limit theorem Ttest looks at different means and measures the difference Analysis of variants compare as many groups as you want measures variance between them Type 1 Error concluding that a null hypothesis is false when in reality it is true 0 Null Hypothesis hypothesis in data that says there is no real difference between two or more groups Type 2 Error Believing the null hypothesis is true when in reality it is false Correlation relationship between two variables Correlation Coefficient the actual calculated value that is used to quantify the relationship between two variables Biological Psychology specialized branch of psych studying the relationship between behavior and bodily processes and systems Neuroscience studying of the neurons in the brain 3 types of Neurons 1 Sensory Neuron 0 These are from the body to the brain from the extremities to the brain 2 Motor Neurons 0 These send from the brain to the extremitiesbody 3 nterneurons 0 These send to each other 0 They differ in size shape and complexity 0 Most Neurons have three main components 0 Cell body soma o Dendrites The tendrils that spread out of the cell body 0 Axon main cell part 0 Myelin Sheath is the fatty substance that cover the axon 0 Action Potential state of a neuron with an electrical charged produced by the movement of electrically charged particles ions across the axon membrane 0 Some ions are negative some are positive 0 Resting Potential 70 millivolts state which neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it receives sufficient stimulation Communication between Neurons o Synapse the gap between two neurons 0 Presynaptic neuron sending o Postsynaptic neuron receiving 0 Activated presynaptic neuron generates an action potential that travels to the axon terminals which contain synaptic vesicles holding neurotransmitters o The connection between a particular neurotransmitter and a particular effect is not a simple one toone relationship Acetylcholine learning memory muscle contractions Dopamine movement thought process rewarding sensations Serotonin emotional state sleep sensory perception Norepinephrine physical arousal learning memory regulation of sleep Glutamate Executory messages GABA inhibitory Endorphins feel good addictive Drugs work by interfering in the normal functioning of neurotransmitters in the synapse Changing the amount of neurotransmitters released by the neurons Central Nervous System CNS This is the central player in all behavior and all communication Protected by meninges and cerebrospinal fluid which surrounds the spinal cord and fills the ventricles in the brain ventricle in the brain is the absence of anything in the brain where the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid are made Neural stem cells line inner surface of the ventricles Meninges is the fluid surrounding the CNS and around the brain Ventricles are cavities in the brain where cerebrospinal fluid and meninges are produced Traumatic Brain Injuries TBI damage to the brain from concussion to chronic traumatic encephalopathy o Concussion is the most common 0 Repeated concussion leads to CFE which ultimately leads to dementia and death 0 Many Athletes have had these Peripheral Nervous System PNS Comprises all nerves outside the CNS that extend to the outermost body boarders including the skin Somatic nervous system communicates sensory info to CNS and motor messages from the CNS muscles Autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary functions Parasympathetic Endocrine System ES Made up of glands that are located throughout the body and uses chemical messenages hormones to transmit info Hormones o Hypothalamus a gland o Regulate physical process and influence behavior 0 Influence emotional and stress response 0 Closely linked to CNS working o In some cases chemical identical to neurotransmitters they are neurotransmitters Main distinction where they originates hormones are from the glands neurotransmitter is from the neurons Hypothalamus regulates release of pituitary gland hormones 0 Growth hormone o Oxytocin Adrenal glands produce Phrenology The study of points in your brain and how that correlates with behavior 0 Proposed variation in size and shape of skull reflects individual differences in abilities character and personality Not on Test Human Connectome project NIH aims to combine brain imaging data from hundreds of participants into a three dimensional map of the brain39s information highways The Dynamic Brain 0 Plasticity the capacity to change in response to experience 0 Functional brains ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas 0 Structural brains ability to change its physical structure in response to learning active practice or influences from the environment diminishes with age 0 For a long time scientists thought people and animals did not experience neurogenesis after birth however this has been disproved Neurogenesis 0 Research on neurogenesis in humans and animals has uncovered a number of findings The Hindbrain o Connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain 0 Three main structures 0 Medulla o Pons o Cerebellum 0 Central Organizations 0 Sensory comes from one side of the body over to the opposite side of the brain move right arm uses left side of the brain 0 Has a lot to do with things that are automatic for people breathing Forebrain o Uppermost and largest part Corpus callosum thick bands connecting two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex 0 Cerebral Cortex responsible for sophisticated mental functions 0 Increased in ability and complexity during evolution Midbrain 0 Important relay station for containing centers involved in the process of auditory and visual sensory info 0 Substantia Nigra 0 Large part of neural pathway Cerebral Cortex o The outer portion of the forebrain o Divided into two cerebral hemispheres 0 Grey matter 0 White matter 0 Corpus callosum serves as the primary communication link between the hemisphere 0 Each cerebral hemisphere has four regions associated with distinct functions 0 Temporal primary auditory cortex Occipital primary visual cortex Parietal primary somatosensory cortex Frontal primary motor cortex Neurons basic unit of the nervous system Sensory neurons Motor neurons 0 nterneurons 0 Mirror Neurons seeing someone do something and then doing it yourself smiling Part of Neurons 0 Cell body including nucleus 0 Dendrites o Axon o Synapse Myelin o Insulting layer of fatty material 0 Made of glial cells 0 Helps with transmission Electric signaling 0 Cells are said to be polarized because of the separation of charge A typical resting membrane potential is 70 mV 0 Depolarization happens when cells potential moves in the positive Synapse gap between two neurons What happens to the neurotransmitters in the synapse o Reuptake neurotransmitters are absorbed back into the presynaptic neuron 0 Enzyme Deactivation Neurotransmitters 0 Chemicals released from the synaptic vesicles in the axon terminals and received by postsynaptic neurons 0 Serve different functions 0 Reuptake Synthesis 0 Neurons are the basic units 0 Interact using electric pulses as well as neurotransmitters 0 Different neurotransmitters have different functions and drugs can effect levels of NT Plasticity 0 Functional one part takes on a function 0 Structural Hindbrain o Connects the spinal cord to the rest of the brain 0 Medulla O Pons O Cerebellum O Reticular Formation o Sensory info comes from Pons 0 Part of the brain stem 0 Helps control regulate 0 Taste Sleep Facial expression Respiration Swallowing Bladder function Heanng Equilibrium Eye movement Facial sensation Posture OOOOOOOOOO Medulla 0 Controls cardiac rhythm and respiration Reticular Formation o Regulates 0 Sleep 0 Wakefulness 0 Levels of arousal Cerebellum o Nonverbal learning 0 Control of automatic voluntary movement Midbrain 0 Important relay stations that contains centers involved in processing of auditory and visual sensory info 0 Substantia nigra Forebrain cerebrum o Cerebral cortex the outer portion of the brain closest to the skull divided into two hemispheres putter covering of the two hemispheres connect them Limbic system controls emotions learning and memory Broca 1824 1880 lower left frontal lobe part of the brain that helps produce language When someone can understand but can t speak it is called Broca39s aphasia Wernicke temporal lobe when someone can speakmake noise but can t understand written or oral language Somatosensory cortex 0 Near the front end of the parietal lobe o Represents skin areas on the opposites contralateral side of the body Inner brain 0 Pituitary gland 0 Master gland of endocrine system 0 Receives hormones signals from hypothalamus O Sends signals to control stress and hunger and reproductive activities 0 Basal ganglia O Directs intentional movement 0 Receives input from cerebral cortex 0 Sends output to motor centers in the brain stream 0 Striatum involves control of posture and movement 0 Hypothalamus 0 Located below the thalamus O Regulates body temperature 0 Helps Governs endocrine system 0 Houses quotreward centerquot 0 Part of it uses light cues to regulate sleepwake cycles 0 Hippocampus limbic system 0 Creates new memories 0 Processes memories 0 Stores memories 0 Gets rid of things that don39t need to be memories 0 Amygdala limbic system 0 Intense emotions 0 Significant role in emotional memories 0 Attaches significance to emotions Corpus Callosum 0 Split brain operation surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum and is used to stop or reduce recurring seizures Left vs Right 0 Most people are left for speech and language and right hemisphere dominant for visualspatial tasks 0 Many are symmetrical and preformed the same way on both sides
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