Study Guide 3
Study Guide 3 MANGMT 3000 - 01
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by elenaspeake on Monday September 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MANGMT 3000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Timothy Waid in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management in Business, management at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Management Study Guide Test 3 CHAPTER 11 Personality the stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identity 0 How you think and how you act The Big Five Personality Dimensions 0 ExtroversionIntroversion how outgoing talkative sociable and assertive a person is Measures interpersonal relationships 0 Agreeableness how trusting goodnatured cooperative and softhearted one is Measures cooperation and trust toward others 0 Conscientiousness how dependable responsible achievementoriented and persistent one is Measures dependability and care to commitment 0 Emotional stabilitv how relaxed secure and unworried one is Measures relaxation and work approach 0 Openness to experience how intellectual imaginative curious and broad minded one is Measures curiosity and imagination Extroversion has been associated with success for managers and salespeople Conscientiousness has been found to have the strongest positive correlation with job performance and training performance 0 Job performance 1 High quantity of work 2 High quality of work 3 High level of skill Cautions about using Personality Testing in the workplace 0 Use a professional 0 Supplement 0 Be alert for bias 0 Integrity tests work Proactive personalitv someone who is more apt to take initiative and persevere to in uence the environment Five Traits Important in Organizations 0 Locus of control Indicates how much people believe they control their fate through their own efforts Internal resists close supervision External thrives in highly structured jobs Forces or sources Expect different degrees of structure and compliance for each type Employ different reward systems for each type Reward merit pay Reward standards achieved 99 0 Selfefficacy Belief in one s ability to do a task Learned helplessness Improve through experiences mentoring rolemodeling High I know I can Job autonomous challenging Low I know I can t Job routine repetitive lots of feedback positive constructive 0 Selfesteem The extent to which people like or dislike themselves their overall self evaluation High okay with failure but too forceful in crisis Low not okay with failure dwell better in position of dependence not independence 0 Selfmonitoring The extent to which people are able to observe their own behavior and adapt it to external situations High selfmonitoring correlated to career success High selfguided learn by themselves but too chameleon Low repeat mistakes need guidance on improvement too insensitive 0 Emotional intelligence Ability to cope empathize with others and be selfmotivated More important than your IQ Some ways That Managers can boost Employee SelfEsteem 0 Reinforce employees positive attributes and skills 0 Provide positive feedback whenever possible 0 Break larger projects into smaller tasks and projects 0 Express confidence in employees abilities to complete their tasks 0 Provide coaching whenever employees are seen to be struggling to complete tasks Empathy II Narcissism The Traits of Emotional Intelligence 1 Selfawareness ability to read your own emotions and gauge your moods accurately 2 Selfmanagement ability to control your emotions and act with honesty and integrity in reliable and adaptable ways 3 Social awareness empathy 4 Relationship managemen ability to communicate clearly and convincingly disarm con icts and build strong personal bonds Organizational Behavio tries to help managers not only explain workplace behavior but also to predict it so that they can better lead and motivate their employees to perform productively 0 Individual group behavior Values abstract ideals that guide one s thinking and behavior across all situations 0 Set by early teens reshaped later by life altering event 0 Values are things which a person is willing to work hard for 0 Workplace values compensation recognition status 0 Young worker value work life balance Attitude a learned predisposition toward a given object 0 Beliefs and feelings Three Components of Attitudes 0 Affective consists of feelings or emotions one has about a situation Ex I hate being given the runaround at Mediacom 0 Cognitive beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation Ex Mediacom doesn t take care of customers 0 Behavioral refers to how one intends or expects to behave toward a situation Ex I will never go back to Mediacom again Coanitive Dissonance the psychological discomfort a person experiences between his or her cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior 0 Importance control rewards 0 How important are the elements creating the dissonance 0 How much control do you have over the dissonance 0 What rewards are at stake at dissonance Ways to Reduce Cognitive Dissonance 0 Change attitude or behavior 0 Belittle importance of the inconsistent behavior 0 Find consonant elements that outweigh dissonant ones 0 3 reactions 1 Change behavior 2 Justify behavior by changing cognition 3 Justify behavior by adding new cognition Perception process of interpreting and understanding one s environment The Four Steps in the Perceptual Process Selective attention Did I notice something Interpretation and evaluation What was it I noticed and what does it mean Storing in Memory Remember it as an event concept person or all three Retrieving from memory to make judgments and decisions What do I recall about that PP N Distortions in Perception positive or negative 0 Stereotyping tendency to attribute an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs Sexrole age raceethnicity 0 Halo effect forming an impression of an individual based on a single trait Attractive people 3 positives 1 Better personality than a normal person 2 Better skills than a normal person 3 More successful that a normal person 0 Recency effect tendency to remember recent information better than earlier information 0 Causal attributions activity of inferring causes for observed behaviors Fundamental attribution bias others failure is internal not external Selfserving bias own success if internal own failure is external Internal or external cause SelfFulfilling Prophecy the phenomenon in which people s expectations of themselves or others lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true 0 Also called the Pygmalion effect 0 Ex if you expect to perform bad you will and if you expect to perform great you will WorkRelated Attitudes 0 Employee engagemen an individual s involvement satisfaction and enthusiasm for work More committed More effort High job rating More optimistic More proactive More conscientious Feel and benefit from higher job security NQP PPPE Than the average employee Job Satisfaction extent to which you feel positively or negatively about various aspects of your work The more job satisfaction the higher job performance Positive correlation The less job satisfaction the lower job performance 7 components 1 The work itself responsibility interesting challenging Supervisor task help social support Coworkers harmony respect friendly Opportunities promotion learning growth Pay compensation actual and perceived fair Conditions comfort safe support 7 Security job employment secure Organizational commitment re ects the extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals Strong positive relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction 99 Important Workplace Behaviors Performance and productivity measuring it easy or hard Absenteeism and turnover Organizational citizenship behaviors Employee behaviors that are not directly part of an employees job description that exceed their work role requirements constructive comments suggestions to improve care of property punctuality high correlation between job performance job satisfaction organizational citizenship Counterproductive work behaviors Unjustified absenteeism sexual harassment violence whitecollar crime intellectual attack affective con ict passive aggressive behavior privacy concerns Diversity represents all the ways people are unlike and alike The differences and similarities in age gender race religion ethnicity sexual orientation capabilities and socioeconomic background The Diversity Wheel factors you cancan t control 3 layers 1 Internal human differences sustained in every stage of life Considered primary beyond our control Age race gender sexual orientation physical ability ethnicity 2 External elements of choice acquired or discarded or modified through life Geographic location income personal habits recreational habits religion educational background work experience appearance parental status marital status 3 Organizational elements of the organization Functional levelclassification work contentfield divisiondepartmentunit group seniority work location union affiliation management status Trends in Workforce Diversity 0 Age more older people in the workforce 0 Gender more women working 0 Race and ethnicity more people of color in the workforce 0 Sexual orientation gays and lesbians become more visible 0 People with differing physical and mental abilities 0 Educational levels mismatches between education and workforce needs College graduates in jobs they are overqualified for High school dropouts illiteracy prevents them from jobs Barriers to Diversity 0 Stereotypes and prejudices 0 Fear of reverse discrimination 0 Resistance to diversity program priorities 0 Unsupportive social atmosphere 0 Lack of support for family demands 0 Lack of support for careerbuilding steps Stress the tension people feel when they are facing or enduring extraordinary demands constraints or opportunities and are uncertain about their ability to handle them effectively Sources of J obRelated Stress 0 Demands created by individual differences 0 Individual task demands 0 Individual role demands 0 Group demands 0 Organizational demands 0 Nonwork demands Symptoms of Stress 0 Physiological backaches headaches sweaty palms nausea 0 Psychological boredom irritability nervousness anger anxiety depression 0 Behavioral sleeplessness changes in eating habits increased smokingalcoholdrug abuse Consequences of Stress 0 Burnout state of emotional mental and even physical exhaustion Reducing Stressors in Organizations 0 Roll out employee assistance programs 0 Recommend a holistic wellness approach 0 Create a supportive environment 0 Make jobs interesting 0 Make career counseling available Type APersonality 0 High achievement orientation 0 Creates own stress 0 Always moving walking and eating rapidly 0 Impatient dislike waiting 0 Trying to do several things at once 0 Guilt in relaxing 0 Overscheduling 0 Interrupting hurrying others Type B Personality 0 Less competitive avoids stress 0 Enjoy exploring and re ection 0 Lack sense of urgency 0 Relaxed controlled when introduced to stress 0 May under schedule Constructive Stress a positive in uence energizes enhances performance Destructive Stress a negative in uence lowers physical and mental capabilities impairs performance CHAPTER 12 Motivation the psychological processes that arouse and direct goaldirected behavior 0 Inferred from behavior 0 Unfulfilled need Motivation I Behaviors I Rewards I Feedback Extrinsic rewards payoff a person receives from others for performing a particular task Intrinsic rewards satisfaction a person receives from performing the particular task itself You want to motivate people to Join your organization Stay with your organization Show up for work at your organization Be engaged while at your organization Do extra for your organization U PP Ni 0 Stewardship highest level of organization you can reach Content perspectives theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people Needs and wants the physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior Maslow s Hierarchv of Needs proposes that people are motivated by 5 levels of needs 1 Physiological 2 Safety 3 Love 4 Esteem 5 Selfactualization 13 lower order needs gt 45 higher order needs Order important vs essential ERG Theory assumes that three basic needs in uence behavior existence relatedness growth 0 Maslow Hierarchy of needs 1 and 2 Existence needs 0 Maslow Hierarchy of needs 3 Relatedness needs 0 Maslow Hierarchy of needs 4 and 5 Growth needs ERG Needs 0 Existence needs desire for physiological and material wellbeing 0 Relatedness needs desire to have meaningful relationships with people who are significant to us 0 Growth needs desire to grow as human beings and to use our abilities to their fullest potential Frustration regression the inability to fulfill higher level needs will retrigger lower level needs Acquired Needs Theorv states that three needs achievement affiliation and power are major motives determining people s behavior in the workplace 0 Achievement accomplish tasks 0 Affiliation create relationships 0 Power control decision making and control resources 0 Negative power personal power to dominate others Power over 0 Positive powe institutional power to solve problems and reach organizational goals Power to McClelland s Acquired Needs 0 Need for achievement desire to achieve excellence in challenging tasks Like working alone in technical task 0 Need for affiliation desire for friendly and warm relations with other people Like social approval 0 Need for power desire to be responsible for or control other people Like control and recognition McClelland 1 Varying levels in everyone 2 Good manager high level of needs in all 3 3 Great manager 23 needs dominate Need for achievement and power high TwoFactor Theorv proposed that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors work satisfaction from socalled motivating factors and work dissatisfaction from socalled hygiene factors 0 HVgiene factors associated with job dissatisfaction which affect the job context in which people work Unhappy factors Work conditions company policies supervisor coworker relations pay 0 Motivating factors associated with job satisfaction which affects the job content or the rewards of work performance Happy factors Work itself achievement responsibility growth 0 Step 1 decrease dissatisfaction 0 Step 2 increase satisfaction Do both steps at the same time but focus on Step 2 Equity Theory focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others 0 Inputs time effort intellectual capital transportation 0 Outputs pay experience networking job satisfaction relationships 0 Comparison Practical Lessons from Equity Theory 0 Employee perceptions are what count 0 Employee participation helps 0 Having an appeal process helps Expectancv Theorv suggests that people are motivated by two things 1 How much they want something 2 How likely they think they are to get it 0 Expectancy belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance Can I perform well enough to be promoted 0 Instrumentalitv expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the desired outcome Will my high performance be noticed for promotion 0 Valence the value a worker assigns to an outcome Will I enjoy the promotion Motivation to Performance E x I x V Manager Raise Expectancy of Individual 0 Make individual feel competent capable of goals 3 ways 1 Right individual with high abilities 2 Train to use abilities 3 Set honest goals Manager Raise Instrumentality of Individual 0 Make individual confident in understanding which outcomes follow performance 2 ways 1 Communicate performance vs goals they have 2 Provide constructive and critical feedback Manager Raise Valence of Individual 0 Make individual understand the value of possible rewards 2 ways 1 Identify individual preferences 2 Adjust rewards to match preferences GoalSetting Theory 1 Goals should be specific Goals should be challenging but achievable Goals should be linked to action plans Goals need not be jointly set to be effective Feedback enhances goal attainment 9593 Job Design division of an organization s work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance 0 Job simplification reduce number of tasks worker performs 0 Job enlargement increasing number of tasks and variety of tasks 0 Job enrichment building job content Reinforcement Theorv attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated 0 Behavior has consequences that reinforce behavior Types of Reinforcement 0 Positive reinforcement use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior Good behavior gets good thing 0 Negative reinforcement process of strengthening a behavior by withdrawing something negative Good behavior removes bad thing 0 Extinction weakening of behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced Bad behavior removes good thing 0 Punishment process of weakening behavior by presenting something negative or withdrawing something positive Bad behavior gets bad thing Motivation Behavior I Consequence Or reinforcement gt The most effective reinforcement is simple sincere appreciation or gratitude Positive Reinforcement 0 Reward only desirable behavior contingent 0 Give rewards as soon as possible immediate 0 Be clear about what behavior is desired goalsetting 0 Have different rewards and recognize individual differences valence Popular Incentive Compensation Plans 0 Piece rate more work more play 0 Sales commission more sell more money 0 Bonuses high performance extra pay 0 Profitsharing percentage of company profits to employees 0 Gainsharing percentage of saved costs or increased productivity gains to employees 0 Stock options employees buy stock at discount price 0 Pav for knowledge pay correlates to job skills education certification Nonmonetary Ways of Motivating Employees 0 Flexible workplace part time positions compressed work week job sharing telecommuting 0 Thoughtfulness 0 Worklife benefits daycare medical and dental services fitness 0 Surroundings 0 Skillbuilding and educational opportunities 0 Sabbaticals 4 Reasons Members are motivated to Acguire to obtain tangible items car house and intangibles respect status Bond to seek membership in groups work teams and form connections with individuals friendships Comprehend to understand the world and thus develop a personally meaningful and coherent view of one s social and work environment Defend protect what is important to the individual and ensure fairness to those who form part of ones world CHAPTER 15 Communication the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another The transfer of message with intended meaning 81 of a manager s time in a typical workday is spent communicating Communication Process Sender person wanting to share information called a message Receiver person for whom the message is intended Encoding translating a message into understandable symbols or language Decoding interpreting and trying to make sense of the message Medium the pathway by which a message travels Feedback the receiver expresses his reaction to the sender s message Noise any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message Medium richness indicates how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning Rich medium best for nonroutine situations and to avoid oversimplification Lean medium best for routine situations and to avoid overloading Barriers to Communication Physical Barriers sound time space Semantic Barriers when words matter Semantics study of the meaning of words J argon terminology specific to a particular profession or group Personal Barriers individual attributes that hinder communication Variable skills in communicating effectively Variations in how information is processed and interpreted Variations in trustworthiness and credibility Oversized egos Faulty listening skills Tendency to judge others messages Inability to listen with understanding Stereotypes and prejudices Sender barrier no message gets sent Encoding barrie the message is not expressed correctly Medium barrier the communication channel is blocked Decoding barrier the recipient doesn t understand the message Receiver barrier no message gets received Feedback barrier the recipient doesn t respond enough Listening Barriers 0 Inattention 0 Prejudgment 0 Frame of reference 0 Closed mindedness 0 Pseudolistening fake listening 0 Hearing impairment 0 Noisy surroundings 0 Speakers appearance 0 Speakers mannerisms 0 Lag time Overcoming Listening Barriers 0 Stop talking 0 Control external and internal distractions 0 Active listening 1 What s in it for me find reason to listen 2 Eye contact 3 Drawn in body language 4 Affirmative body language 0 Practice empathy 0 Separate facts from opinions 0 Identify important facts 0 Ask clarifying questions 0 Paraphrase to increase understanding 0 Capitalize on lag time 0 Take notes to ensure retention 0 Be aware of gender differences Nonverbal communication consists of messages sent outside of the written or spoken word 0 Expressed through interpersonal space eye contact facial expressions body movements and gestures touch setting and time 0 Forms of Nonverbal communication Facial expressions Eye contact Posture gesture Vocal tone volume word choice Appearance Time Space territory use Documents appearance tone volume word choice Formal Communication Channels follow the chain of command and are recognized as official 0 Vertical horizontal external Informal Communication Channels develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command 0 Grapevine unofficial communication system of the informal organization 0 Management by wandering around term used to describe a manager s literally wandering around his organization and talking With people across all lines of authority Managers search for Reality vs perception and meaning of message through informal channels happenstance Barriers to Interpersonal Communication 1 Bypassing transfer of message With mixed meaning Limited Frame of Reference anything that has happened to you Lack of language skills learning the right words Lack of listening skills Emotional interference Physical and mental distractions QMPWP Overcoming Interpersonal Communication Barriers 0 Realize communication is imperfect 0 Adapt message to receiver 0 Improve listening language nonverbal skills 0 Question preconceptions 0 Plan for feedback 0 Realize communication is 2 way not 1 way 0 Be objective With negative information 0 Be subjective With positive information Barriers to Organizational Communication 1 Closed communication culture opospwnesnzv People don t share information with one another No critical information is shared only positive Top heavy organizational structures Long lines of communication Lack of trust between management and employees Competition for power status rewards Fear of reprisal for honest communication Differing frames of reference among communicators Lack of communication skills Ego involvement 10 Turf wars politics Overcoming Barriers to Organizational Communication Create open environment for feedback Flatten organizational structure Promote horizontal communication Allow for anonymous feedback Information through formal channels Train managers and employees in communication skills Equal rewards for individual and team achievements Teams Multicommunicating represents the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time Eight Norms of the millennial or Internet Generation WNQP PP PE39 Instant gratification vs ability to think long term Visual motor Ecstasy vs traditional communication technologies Freedom Customization Scrutiny Integrity Collaboration Entertainment Speed Innovation Videoconferencing uses video and audio links along with computers to enable people in different locations to see hear and talk with each other Telepresence Technologv highdefinition videoconference systems that simulate faceto face meetings between users Benefits of Telecommuting 0 Reduces capital costs 0 Increases exibility and autonomy for workers 0 Provides a competitive advantage when recruiting 0 Increases job satisfaction 0 Increases productivity 0 Ability to tap into nontraditional workers Security a system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters system failures and unauthorized access that result in damage or loss Identity Theft thieves hijack your name and identity and use your good credit rating to get cash or buy things Tips for Better Email handling 0 Treat all email as confidential 0 Be careful with jokes and informality 0 Avoid sloppiness but avoid criticizing others sloppiness 0 When replying quote only the relevant portion 0 Not every topic belongs on email Social Media internet based and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network Crowdsourcing the practice of obtaining needed services ideas or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community such as Facebook and Twitter users Downside of Social Media 0 Distraction 0 Leaving wrong impression 0 Replacing real conversation Listening Styles 0 Appreciative stvle listening to be amused For pleasure 0 Empathic style tuning into the speaker s emotions For feelings 0 Comprehensive stvle focusing on the speaker s logic For logic 0 Discerning style focusing on the main message For key point 0 Evaluative stvle challenging the speaker For error Six keys to Effective Listening 1 Don t rush to respond Judge content not delivery Ask questions summarize remarks Listen for ideas Resist distractions show interest Give a fair hearing QMPWP Being an Effective Reader 0 Realize that speed reading doesn t work 0 Learn to streamline reading 0 Do topdown reading SQ3R Learn to Streamline Reading 0 Be savvy about periodicals and books 0 Transfer your reading load 0 Make internal memos and email more efficient Five steps to Better Reading 1 Rate reasons to read 2 Question and predict answers 3 Survey the big picture 4 Skim for main ideas 5 Summarize Being an Effective Writer 0 Don t show your ignorance 0 Understand your strategy before you write 0 Start with your purpose 0 Write simply concisely and directly 0 Telegraph your writing with a powerful layout Being an Effective Speaker 1 Tell them what you re going to say 2 Say it 3 Tell them what you said One way communication 0 Fast and easy 0 Receiver is less confident in knowing what to do 0 Receiver is less accurate Two way communication 0 Slow and hard 0 Receiver is more confident in knowing what to do 0 Receiver is more accurate Effective communication receiver understands sender s message and meaning Efficient communication communication process minimizes cost and time Richness the ability of the medium to convey meaning 0 Low richness Impersonal One way Fast 0 High richness Personal Two way Slow Oral Communication Advantages 0 Immediate response 0 Nonverbal clues 0 Grateful forceful Written Communication Advantages 0 Mass distribution 0 Documentation 0 Carefulthoughtful 0 Convenient 0 Economical Why is listening so difficult 0 We missforget 75 information we hear or read and retain 25 because We talk 125250 me Think 10003000 wpm Why is listening so important 0 Those toward bottom of hierarchy spend 30 of time listening those toward top of hierarchy spend 70 of time listening CHAPTER 14 Leadership the ability to in uence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational gains 0 Leadership approaches 1 Traits 2 Behaviors 3 Contingencies 4 Full range Management is what you do Leadership is who you are Being a Manager means Planning organizing directing controlling Executing plans and delivering goods and services Managing resources Being conscientious Acting responsibly Putting customers first responding to and acting for customers Mistakes can happen when manager s don t appreciate people are they key resource underlead by treating people like other resources or fail to be held accountable Being a Leader means Being visionary Being inspiring setting the tone and articulating the vision Managing people Being inspirational charismatic Acting decisively Putting people first responding to and acting for followers Mistakes can happen when leaders choose the wrong goal direction or inspiration overlead or fail to implement the vision Being a Manager Coping with Complexity Determining what needs to be done planning and budgeting Targets goals allocate resources Creating arrangements of people to accomplish an agenda organizing and staffing Structure hire assign Ensuring people do their jobs controlling and problem solving Monitor alter fix Being a Leader Coping with Change Determining what needs to be done setting a direction Vision strategy Creating arrangements of people to accomplish an agenda aligning people Build coalition 0 Ensuring people do their jobs motivating and inspiring In uence instead of control Power 1 Controlling decision making 2 Controlling resources Five Sources of Power 0 Position Powers Legitimate powe results from managers formal positions within the organization Reward powe results from managers authority to reward their subordinates Coercive power results from managers authority to punish their subordinates 0 Personal Powers Expert powe results from one s specialized information or expertise Referent power derived from one s personal attraction Position power vs Personal power 0 Leadership mistake use personal power more People rely too much on position power and too less on personal power 0 Leadership perception vs reality 0 Leadership fear leaders fail because their afraid to be disliked Personal power helping yourself power over Social powe helping others power to Tactics for In uencing Others 0 Soft tactics Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Ingratiating tactics Personal appeals 0 Hard pressure tactics Exchange tactics Coalition tactics Pressure tactics Legitimating tactics Trait approaches to leadership attempt to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders Key Positive Leadership Traits 0 Task competence intelligence knowledge problemsolving skills 0 Interpersonal competence ability to communicate and ability to demonstrate caring and empathy 0 Intuition 0 Traits of character conscientiousness discipline moral reasoning integrity honesty 0 Biophysical traits physical fitness hardiness energy level 0 Personal traits selfconfidence sociability selfmonitoring extraversion self regulating selfefficacy Studies show that women executives score higher than their male counterparts on a variety of measures from producing high quality work to goalsetting to mentoring employees 0 Teamwork less personal glory social power Why lack of women leaders 0 Less willing to compete 0 Modesty 0 Lack mentor 0 Start lower Proiect GLOBE ongoing attempt to develop an empirically based theory to describe understand and predict the impact of specific cultural variables on leadership and organizational processes and the effectiveness of these processes Behavioral leadership approaches attempt to determine the distinctive styles used by effective leaders 0 Traits skills behaviors 0 Behaviors are more important than traits Michigan Leadership Model 0 Job Centered behavior principal concerns were with achieving production efficiency keeping costs down and meeting schedules 0 Employee centered behavio managers paid more attention to employee satisfaction and making work groups cohesive People or Task One or the other Ohio State Leadership Model 0 Initiating structure behavior that organizes and defines what group members should be doing 0 Consideration expresses concern for employees by establishing a warm friendly supportive climate People or Task on a continuum Contingency Leadership Model determines if a leader s style is task oriented or relationship oriented and if that style is effective for the situation at hand Dimensions of Situational Control Fiedler s LPC Model Leadermember relations re ects the extent to which the leader has the support loyalty and trust of the work group Task structure extent to which tasks are routine and easily understood Position power refers to how much power a leader has to make work assignments and reward and punish Task motivated for highlow control Relationship motivated for moderate control PathGoal Leadership Model holds that the effective leader makes available to followers desirable rewards in the workplace and increases their motivation by clarifying the paths or behavior that will help them achieve those goals and providing them with support Leadership Styles of the Revised PathGoal Theory Pathgoal clarifving here s what expected of you and here s how to do it Achievement oriented I m confident you can accomplish the following great things Work facilitation Here s the goal and here s what I can do to help you achieve it Supportive I want things to be pleasant since everyone s about equal here Interaction facilitation Let s see how we can all work together to accomplish our goals Grouporiented decision making I want your suggestions in order to help me make decisions Representation and networking I ve got a great bunch of people working for me whom you ll probably want to meet Revised PathGoal Theory Use more than one leadership style Help employees achieve their goals Modify leadership style to fit employee and task characteristics Applying Situational Theories 5 Steps 1 2 Identify important outcomes What goals am I trying to achieve SMART goal setting Identify relevant employee leadership behaviors What management characteristics are best Identify possible styles Identify situational conditions What particular events are altering the situation Identify possible settings 4 Match leadership to the conditions at hand How should I manage when there are multiple conditions Match style to setting 5 Determine how to make the match Change the manager or change the manager s behavior Change style or change setting to improve Transactional leadership focuses on clarifying employees roles and task requirements and providing rewards and punishments contingent on performance Transformational leadership transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over selfinterests 0 In uenced by individual characteristics and organizational culture Good manager bad leader Bad manager good leader Bad manager bad leader Good manager good leader
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