HSES 260 Exam 2
Popular in Personal and Community Health
Popular in Physical Education
verified elite notetaker
This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Areidbrydon on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HSES 260 at Kansas taught by Lowcock, Phillip in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Personal and Community Health in Physical Education at Kansas.
Reviews for HSES 260 Exam 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/07/16
EXAM Two Review exam = 100 points/ 75questions Chapter 1 [21 questions] Health terms, psychological health – Ch. 1 slide 46, 1012 o Health : State of complete physical, mental, social, and spiritual wellbeing. (Defined originally by World Health Organization WHO: 1947 as Physical, Mental, Social) o Traditionally: Free of symptoms of disease (i.e. not sick) …or, absence of disease or infirmity. o Physical Health: biological integrity of the individual. o Mental Health : emotional and intellectual capabilities of the individual. o Social Health : ability to interact effectively with other people and the social environment. o Spiritual Healt : the idea that people’s value systems and beliefs have an impact on their overall health. It does not require participation in an organized religion, but suggests that a belief or search for a higher power or purpose gives meaning to life. Spiritual Health involves a connectedness to self, to significant others, and to the community. Wellness / Public Health – Ch. 1 slide 7 o Wellness: process of adopting patterns of behavior that can lead to improved health and heightened life satisfaction and the highest possible quality of life. o Wellness is an active process through which people become aware of, and make choices toward, a more successful existence. Health factors under/outside your control Social determinants of health – Ch. 1 slide 30 o Economic and societal conditions in which people live o Examples: Interpersonal and community relationships, discrimination, poverty, educational and job opportunities, transportation, and public safety o Status syndrome: The disparity in health status and rates of premature mortality between the impoverished and the affluent. Being poor puts a person at elevated risk for early death. Health equity – Ch. 1 slide 18 o One of Healthy 2020 main goals: Health equity. Leading cause of death for 1524yr olds – Ch. 1 slide 15 o Accidents/unintentional injures o Suicide o Assault/homicide o Cancer o Heart disease Health literacy – Ch. 1 slide 34 o the ability to evaluate and understand health information and to make informed choices for your health care Health behaviors/effects of/on college students – Ch. 1 slide 19 & 20 o Often younger than the general population, students do not experience the high rates of chronic illnesses (such as heart disease and cancer) seen in older adults. o Behaviors that increase the risk of developing these chronic diseases are common among college students. 21.2% of students are overweight. 11% are obese. 54.5% do not meet physical activity guidelines. o Students overestimate how many of their peers are regularly using alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs. o When it comes to SEX, DRUGS & ALCOHOL, it simply is not true that “everyone else is doing it.” Transtheoretical Model (TTM) – Ch. 1 slide 40 o The focus is on decisionmaking steps and abilities. Also called the Stages of Change model. o You must progress through six states of change before achieving sustained behavior change. o TTM stages & characteristics – Ch. 1 slide 41 1. Precontemplation: Has no intention of addressing a problem. “Stop nagging me!” 2. Contemplation: Acknowledges a problem; thinking about making a change within the next 6 months. 3. Preparation: Intends to make a change within 1 month and has a plan in mind. 4. Action: Modifies a behavior in an observable way. 5. Maintenance: Has maintained a behavior for 6 months or more and works to prevent relapse. 6. Termination: Successful behavior change. Health Belief Model – Ch. 1 slide 42 & 43 o A model of behavior change emphasizing personal beliefs in the process of creating effective change. o Identifies factors instrumental in explaining or predicting health behavior. o Health Belief Model – states that people will change an unhealthy behavior only if they believe: They are at risk The threat is serious The benefits of changing outweigh the costs ($, effort, discomfort, etc) They are capable of making the change Their environment supports the change SelfEfficacy – Ch. 1 slide 43 o “I CAN do this!” Behavior change contracts – Ch. 1 slide 47 & 48 SMART goals – Ch. 1 slide 46 o Step 1: Get informed. Understand the problem. o Step 2: Set a SMART goal. Specific, Measureable, Attainable, Relevant, & Timely o Step 3: Make a plan. Develop action steps! o Step 4: Identify barriers to change and how you'll overcome them. “Set your ‘Locus of Control’ on the internal setting! o Step 5: Identify positive enablers – Self Efficacy! o Step 6: Recruit support. o Step 7: Promise yourself rewards. Why is the “NEW YOU” going to be better than the “old you” it is replacing? o Step 8: Commit Sign a Behavior Change Contract. o Step 9: GET YOUR ASS MOVING!!! Locus of control, internal/external – Ch. 1 slide 46 Chapters 2 & 3 [34 questions] Benefits of friendship/social connections (stress, self esteem,…) – Ch. 2 slide 17 o A sufficient quantity of relationships that provide emotional concern, help with appraisal, information, and even goods and services. Most common complaint of college students o Stress?? o Depression?? Benefits/Characteristics of Spirituality – Ch. 2 slide 18 & 19 o A sense of connection to a larger purpose, coupled with a system of core values that provide direction and meaning in life. o Religion is a system of beliefs and practices related to the existence of a transcendent power. o Approximately 67% of Americans aged 18–29 say they are affiliated with a particular religion. Altruism – Ch. 2 slide 19 o Seaward's Pillars of Spiritual WellBeing Personal Values: What is important to me? What principles do I want to live by? What do I stand for? Relationships: Self, Connectedness & Community Adopt an “Attitude of Gratitude”. Let it lead to altruism. Give back! o selflessness Meaning & Purpose: Why do you exist? Will your life make a difference? How can your unique gifts make a difference? Optimism – Ch. 2 slide 11 & 12 o Optimism the psychological tendency to have a positive interpretation of life's events. Believing that positive outcomes are more likely than negative outcomes, and balancing the negative with the positive, can help in a broad range of situations. An optimistic view on life is generally developed at a young age, but can be developed with work later in life. o Building Optimism: Notice when things go right – don’t take success for granted, learn from and appreciate your successes! Learn from mistakes – When things don’t go well, what can you do differently next time to get a better outcome? Give yourself time – When setbacks come, it is okay to take some time to figure out how you feel and what to do to fix it. Focus on action – If you are not happy with the way things are, then what steps can you take to help the situation? (Internal locusof control) Taking reasonable risks (healthy?) – Ch. 2 slide 9? o Take reasonable risks in order to grow (Universal Characteristics of Mentally Healthy People) Homeostasis – Ch. 3 slide 34 o a state of stability the body returns to once the stress response has been turned off. Teenage brain, brain development completion – Ch. 2 slide 14 o By the age of 6, 95% of the brain is formed. o A growth spurt in adolescence occurs in the frontal cortex, where the executive functions of planning, organization, and rational thinking are controlled. o By the early to mid 20s, a more mature adult brain results. o Incidence of mental health problems is highest among 1825 yearolds, yet they are least likely to seek help. Stress / stressors / eustress / distress – Ch. 3 slide 5 o Stress: The collective psychobiological condition that occurs in reaction to a disruptive, unexpected, or exciting stimulus. o Stressor: Any physical or psychological condition, event, or factor that we respond to with positive or negative stress. o Eustress: Stress resulting from positive stressors. o Distress: Stress resulting from negative stressors. When you appraise an event as positive, you experience eustress, or positive stress. When you appraise it as negative, you experience distress. Stress response / “fight or flight” (bear) – Ch. 3 slide 912 o All animals, including humans, have the ability to respond to emergencies they perceive as dangerous. o The sympathetic nervous system [½ of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)] responds to activate the body to respond to a possible threat. This response is known as the “stress response” o The stress response (“fight or flight” response) is a series of physiological changes that occur in the body A series of physiological reactions to a stressor designed to enable the body to stand and fight or to flee. Temporarily boosts strength and reflexes to physically enable avoidance or confrontation of danger. Can be unhelpful or even harmful. Most modernday stressors are not the extreme physical threats the fightorflight response is designed for. When experienced too often, the fightorflight response can take a powerful toll on the body and health. Sympathetic NS / Parasympathetic NS – Ch. 3 slide 9 & 34 o The other 1/2 of the ANS, parasympathetic nervous system, is responsible for deactivating the stress response once the stressful situation is over Effect of stress on systems – immune, cardiovascular, psyc wellness, mental health– Ch. 3 slide 1625 o Health Effects of Chronic Stress: Physical Fatigue Lying awake at night Headache Upset stomach Muscle tension Teeth grinding Dizziness Chest tightness Change in menstrual cycle (for women) Decrease in sex drive o Health Effects of Chronic Stress: Psychological Feeling angry, irritable, overwhelmed o Effects on the Cardiovascular System Increases one's risk of heart disease. Increases blood pressure and inflammation in one's cardiovascular system. May cause one to overeat and exercise less in response to stress, thereby increasing one's risk for heart disease and diabetes. o Effects on the Digestive System Can result in digestive problems (stomachache, constipation, diarrhea). Stress hormones affect the body's ability to regulate sugar, placing one at risk for diabetes. o Effects on Immune System Psychoneuroimmunology: study of the interactions among psychological processes, the nervous system, hormones, and the immune system. Stress may increase white blood cell production. It may leave you at risk for colds, the flu, cold sores, and asthma flareups, and place you at risk for developing more serious diseases. Stress effects on college students – Ch. 3 slide 22 o 6% of college students were diagnosed with insomnia. o 25% of college students selfreport that they experience a serious sleep difficulty. o Stress impacts sleep, and can impact quality of sleep. Mediators of the Stress Response, how to deal with stress (physical activity?) – Ch. 3 slide 37, Ch. 2 slide 55 o If feeling mentally or emotionally on edge, take the following actions: Eat well. Get the right amount of sleep. Exercise. Set realistic goals. Take steps to build your selfesteem. Don’t be negative with yourself!! Stress reduction strategies – Ch. 3 slide 3338 o Relaxation Techniques Breathe deeply Listen to music Meditation or prayer Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) Yoga T’ai Chi Visualization and guided imagery Positive Affirmations, Positive Rehearsal Massage Biofeedback Resiliency – Ch. 3 slide 36 o Resilience : being able to “weather” the storm. Looking at setbacks as temporary (“This too shall pass”) & motivation to improve in the future. o Hardiness : 1. Perceive the demands of living as a challenge rather than a threat. 2. Are committed to meaningful activities. 3. Have a sense of control over their lives (internal locusofcontrol). Potential mental disorder causes Mood disorders / BiPolar / Depression – Men vs Women – Ch. 2 slide 2732 o Mood disorder Known as depressive or affective disorders Among the most common mental disorders around the world More than 20 million adults in the United States suffer from a depressive illness, affecting more women than men. Examples include: Major depressive disorder (depression) Dysthymic disorder (low grade chronic depression of 2 years or more ) Bipolar disorder (includes manic episodes) o Depressive disorder A depressive disorder is usually characterized by profound, persistent sadness or loss of interest that interferes with daily life and normal functioning. Major depressive disorder can prevent normal functioning and can interfere with all aspects of life and relationships. More women (approximately twice as many—12 million) than men (about 6 million) suffer from depressive disorders in a given year. Causes and symptoms vary between the sexes. Until adolescence, the sexes experience depressive disorders at the same rate. Women After puberty, women's rates of major depressive disorder and dysthymia rise relative to men's rates. Women are more likely to experience depression at a younger age, for longer periods, and with more reoccurrences; they are also more likely to feel guilt or to have the depression associated with anxiety disorders and eating disorders. There are no definitive scientific answers as to why women have an increased rate of depressive disorders. o Hormonal changes associated with menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause can contribute. o Expectations of childcare, which must be juggled with a professional career, can increase stress levels. o Higher rates of poverty and sexual abuse, and lower socioeconomic status all can raise a woman’s risk. Men Depression in men is underdiagnosed and undertreated. o The disparity in rates of disorders in men and women may not be as great as reported. o Expression of depression as irritability, fatigue, or physical problems may prevent proper diagnosis. o Aspects of our current culture also imply that "real men" should not admit to feeling sad. Depressed men are more likely than women to selfmedicate or engage in risky behavior. Anxiety disorders / OCD, panic attack, social anxiety – Ch. 2 slide 3438 o Anxiety disorder Along with depression, anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders affecting more than 40 million Americans (aged 19 54) Examples include: Panic attack: apprehension or intense fear Panic disorder: recurrent unexpected panic attacks Phobias: intense fear of an situation/object, invoking immediate anxiety o An extreme, disabling, irrational fear of something that poses little or no actual danger. o The most common type of anxiety disorder. o Onset often occurs in childhood or adolescence. o Nearly 9% of adults experience some kind of phobia. Agoraphobia: anxiety about being in situations where escape may be difficult or embarrassing Social phobia: fear of certain kinds of social or performance situations Generalized anxiety disorder: worry about routine matters Obsessive compulsive disorder: persistent, intrusive thoughts, impulses, or images that cause intense anxiety or distress o OCD Repeated and unwanted thoughts (obsessions) that lead to rituals (compulsions) in an attempt to control anxiety. Rituals provide brief relief from anxiety but can end up controlling the individual's life. Checking or touching things, hoarding, or counting can disrupt normal living. Approximately 2.2 million men and women in the United States suffer from OCD. o Panic attack Episodes of sudden terror that strike without warning. Physical symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, weakness, and nausea. Symptoms generally go away on their own in less than 10 minutes Many people have one panic attack and never have another. Panic disorder: Reoccurring panic attacks and the fear of a panic attack occurring. Affects 6 million adults in the United States. o Social anxiety An intense fear of being judged by others and of being humiliated by your own actions. Physical symptoms include sweating, blushing, increased heart rate, trembling, and stuttering. Symptoms may arise only in certain situations, or they may happen in all social situations. Women and men are equally likely to be among the 15 million U.S. adults who suffer from social anxiety disorder. People's lives can be negatively impacted at every level. % of college students who consider/attempt suicide – Ch. 2 slide 43, 45 o Selfinjury occurs in the form of intentional, selfinflicted cuts, burns, bruises, or other injuries, without suicidal intent. Often performed in an effort to deal with negative or overwhelming feelings moments of calm after selfinjury are often followed by feelings of guilt and shame o More than 5% of college students in the United States admit to performing selfinjury in the past year. The reliability of these statistics is questionable because most who injure themselves conceal it. o Suicide is the 2 leading cause of death among college students. o From 7 10% of collegeaged students seriously considered suicide, and 1 2% attempted to kill themselves in the past year. o College students are more likely than the general population to attempt suicide. Emotional intelligence – Ch. 2 slide 7, 10 o Psychologists have expanded the concept of “intelligence” by including the idea of emotional intelligence. o Qualities such as selfawareness, selfdiscipline, persistence, and empathy are more important to mental health than IQ. o People who are emotionally intelligent can: Recognize, name, understand their emotions. Manage their emotions and control their moods. Motivate themselves. Recognize and respond to emotions in others. Are socially competent. Key characteristics of mental health & mentally healthy people (terms) – Ch. 2 slide 9 o Possess high selfesteem o Accept imperfections in themselves and others o Altruistic (selfless) o Have a sense of control over their lives o Show social competence in relationships o Able to rely on others o Not overwhelmed by emotions o Try to maintain a positive outlook on life o Capable of intimacy; no fear of commitment o Show creativity o Take reasonable risks in order to grow o Can bounce back from adversity Factors that can enhance mental health. Chapter 16 [20 questions] Sleep & Health relationship – Ch. 16 slide 3 o Sufficient sleep is strongly associated with overall health and quality of life. o Body restoration and growth take place during the deepest stages of sleep. o Natural immune system moderators increase during sleep and promote resistance to viral infections. o A lack of sleep can lead to a breakdown in the body’s health promoting processes. Is sleep important – effect of no sleep for 19+ hours – Ch. 16 slide 18 o Sleep deprivation is the lack of sufficient time asleep; a condition that impairs physical, emotional, and cognitive functioning. o Individuals with severe sleep deprivation (staying awake 19+ hours) score worse on mental performance tests and alertness scales than do people with BAC (blood alcohol concentration) of 0.10. Legally too drunk to drive in KS is 0.08 Conditions affected by sleep, Immunity, CVD,… – Ch. 16 slide 29 & 30 o Health effects: Insufficient sleep reduces your immune system's effectiveness, increases the risk of chronic diseases like Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes and other problems like Osteoporosis, Asthma, Obesity, and Depression. o Effects on academic performance: Sleep is closely related to college students' learning capacity. Sleep after studying dramatically improves recall in a process called memory consolidation. The more times you can sleep on “new” information the better your recall will be,especially under the stress of a test taking situation! o Risk for traumatic injury: Workplace, Athletics, others… Sleep debt / catching up on weekends – Ch. 16 slide 25 o Sleeping in on the weekends does not fully recapture lost sleep. o In fact, sleeping extra on the weekend can lead to even greater sleep debt down the road because the extra late wakeup time on the weekend tends to mess up the circadian rhythm. may have even greater trouble with sleep the next week Circadian rhythm – Ch. 16 slide 10 o Circadian Rhythms are readjusted every morning when you awake. o The body has increasing difficulty adjusting to more than an one hour difference in the start time of each clock cycle. Melatonin released from and effect – Ch. 16 slide 8 o Melatonin: a hormone that increases relaxation and sleepiness The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) signals the pineal gland to release melatonin as we prepare to sleep NREM & REM stages 15 – Ch. 16 slide 14 o NonREM (NREM) sleep: type of restful sleep during which the Rapid Eye Movement characteristic of dreaming does not typically occur o NREM sleep has four stages. Stage 1: Falling asleep; lasts just a few minutes. Stage 2: Light sleep; majority of time is spent in this stage. Stage 3: Beginning of deep sleep. Stage 4: Deep sleep; delta waves. o REM sleep: type of wakeful sleep during which Rapid Eye Movement and most dreaming occurs This fifth (5 ) stage of sleep is prompted by signals from the pons in the brain stem. REM sleep paralysis, initiated by? – Ch. 16 slide 15 & 16 o The brain (pons) inhibits muscle movement (REM Sleep Paralysis) in all but three groups: respiratory system, inner ear, and eyes. Movement is prevented to protect us from injury acting out our dreams! NREM & body restoration– Ch. 16 slide 20 o Body restoration and growth take place during the deepest stages of NREM sleep. o Deep sleep is most vital to the body. REM & the brain – Ch. 16 slide 20 o Brain restoration & memory construction take place during REM sleep. o REM sleep is most vital to the brain. Brain activity levels in stages Sleep cycles – Ch. 16 slide 21 Sleep disorders – dyssomnias & parasomnias [5+ questions] Sleep Apnea – Ch. 16 slide 3143 o Dyssomnias: Sleep disorders with difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or excessive sleepiness. Trouble with timing, quality, or quantity of sleep. Insomnia Difficulty falling or staying asleep. 75% of adults report difficulty in this area 1 or more times/week. Often caused by stress, anxiety, medical problems or poor sleep environment Sleep apnea Breathing related sleep disorder characterized bypause periods of nonbreathing. Usually follows a pattern of snoring, silence, then loud gasping/snoring as person jerks back to breathing. 40% in US have some form – 8090% undiagnosed &/or unaware (3632% of pop.) Usually related to obstruction of airway. Very rarely, the brain can fail to regulate the diaphragm and cause the breathing to stop. Most common in overweight, middle aged males. (Sagging tissue in throat) Smokers are at higher risk. ¼ of African Americans are at high risk. Also risk for Native Americans & Hispanics. Even though the person “jerks awake” to begin breathing again, they usually don’t completely awaken, and are unaware that they have the condition. The usual complaint is of sleepiness and lack of energy during the day. Sleep apnea can be fatal (rarely) but more commonly is associated with Heart problems, stroke, and high blood pressure. (due to CO2 buildup in the heart tissue) Alcohol & Sedatives amplify the problem!! Sleeping on their side rather than their back can be helpful for some sufferers. Narcolepsy Frequent irresistible “sleep attacks”. People with a family history of this are 60 times more likely to develop it. Restless Legs Syndrome Strange sensations in the limbs (legs). Hypersomnia Needing abnormally long sleep each night (10 – 12 hrs) Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Difficulty timing your sleep cycle Sleep paralysis Waking during REM sleep and briefly being unable to move How to get a good night sleep – Ch. 16 slide 4648 o Maintain a regular sleep schedule. o Create a sleepfriendly environment. Studies suggest that all of the following improve the sleep environment: Increased darkness. A warm bed. A cool room. Reasonably quiet. o Understand your brain’s desire to create habits…Where do you, sleep, eat, study? o Be smart about napping: Taking midday naps, especially long naps can lead to difficulties falling asleep at night. Taking a nap longer than 1530 minutes can cause you to wake very groggy (body has reached deep sleep only to be awakened). If forced to be awake for a long period, 15minute naps every 4 hours can improve your mental functioning. Sunlight effect, sleep environment – Ch. 16 slide 47 o Get SUN TIME during the day. Being outside under natural light helps your brain recognize the difference when night (and darkness) falls. Research suggests the more sun, the better. o Consider your bed partner? o Get regular exercise but not close to bedtime. o Manage stress – Confront your stressors ASAP! o Establish relaxing bedtime rituals. (no bright lights, TV or Computer screens 1 hr before bed) o If you have been in bed and unable to fall asleep in 20 minutes, get up and do something relaxing until you start to feel drowsy.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'