PSYC 3230 Abnormal Psychology Cyterski Exam 1 Study Guide UGA
PSYC 3230 Abnormal Psychology Cyterski Exam 1 Study Guide UGA Psych 3230
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Snyder on Monday September 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 3230 at University of Georgia taught by Trina Cyterski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 487 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Cyterski PSYC 3230 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1-4 CHAPTER 1: ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PAST AND PRESENT KEY TERMS abnormal psychology, p. 2 – The scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning deviance, p. 2 – variance from common patterns of behavior norms, p. 3 – a society’s stated and unstated rules for proper conduct culture, p. 3 – a people’s common history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology and arts distress, p. 4 – when abnormal functioning produces stress or physical symptoms dysfunction, p. 4 – when psychological abnormalities interfere with daily functioning treatment, p. 6 – a procedure designed to help change abnormal behavior (aka therapy) trephination, p. 8 – ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away circular sections of the skull to treat abnormal behavior humors, p. 8 – Greeks and Romans: bodily fluids that influence mental and physical functioning: black bile, yellow bile, blood and phlegm) asylum, p. 10 – an institution that first became popular in the sixteenth century to provide care for ppl with mental health disorders moral treatment, p. 10 – 19 century, approach to treating people with mental disorders with moral guidance and humane/respectful treatment state hospitals, p. 11 – public mental health institutions, run by individual states somatogenic perspective, p. 11 – view that abnormal functioning has physical causes psychogenic perspective, p. 11 – view that abnormal functioning is causes by psychological factors general paresis, p. 12 – caused by syphilis, irreversible disorder whose symptoms include psychological abnormalities and delusions hypnosis, p. 12 – sleepy, suggestible state that a person can be directed to act in unusual ways, experience unusual sensations, remember seemingly forgotten events or forget remembered events psychoanalysis, p. 13 – idea that psychological functioning is related to unconscious psychological processes psychotropic medications, p. 14 – drugs that mainly affect the brain and greatly reduce mental dysfunction symptoms deinstitutionalization, p. 14 – practice of releasing hundreds of thousands of people form mental hospitals private psychotherapy, p. 15 – when a person directly pays a therapist for counseling services prevention, p. 16 – key feature of community health programs, seeking to prevent or minimize psychological disorders positive psychology, p. 16 – study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits and multicultural psychology, p. 17 – field that examines the impact of culture, race, etc. on behavior and thoughts, normal OR abnormal managed care program, p. 17 – system of healthcare coverage in which the insurance company largely controls the nature, sope and cost of medical and psychological care and services scientific method, p. 20 – process of systematically gathering and evaluating information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a phenomenon case study, p. 21– detailed description of a person’s life and psychological problems correlation, p. 22 -- the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other correlational method, p. 22 – research procedure used to determine a “co- relationship” between variables epidemiological study, p. 24 – identify incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a population incidence: # of new cases that appear in a given amount of time prevalence: total # of cases in a given amount of time longitudinal study, p. 24 – researchers observe the same individuals over a long period of time experiment, p. 24 – procedure in which one variable is manipulated and the effect on the other variable is measures independent variable, p. 24 manipulated variable dependent variable, p. 24observed/measured variable confound, p. 25—variables other than the independent variable that might be affecting the dependent variable control group, p. 25—part of an experiment that is not exposed to the independent variable but have a similar experience as the experimental group, researchers then compare results of each group experimental group, p. 25 – group an experiment that receives treatment random assignment, p. 26 – a selection procedure that ensure participants in an experiment are randomly placed in the control group or the experimental group blind design, p. 26 – experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in the experimental or control group placebo therapy, p. 26 – sham treatment that a participant believes to be genuine double-blind design, p. 26 – experiment in which the experimenters AND participants aren’t aware of which group the participants are in quasi-experiment, p. 26—experiment in which investigators make use of control and experiment groups which already exist in the world at large natural experiment, p. 27 – experiment in which nature, rather than an experimenter, manipulates an independent variable analogue experiment, p. 27 – when an experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in lab participants and then conducts experiments on the participants single-subject experimental design, p. 28 – research method in which a single participant is observed and measured both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable MATERIAL STRESSED IN CLASS In any given year, 30% of adults and 19% of children display psychological disturbances, with a 50% lifetime prevalence rate Hippocrates ”father of modern medicine” – idea of 4 humors Psychotropic medications: drugs that mainly affect the brain and greatly reduce many mental dysfunction symptoms ex. Antipsychotic, antidepressant, antianxiety Outpatient care has become primary mode of treatment – short term institutionalization is used as a LAST resort Only 40-60% of people with severe disturbances receive treatments Positive psychology: study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits and abilities What do clinical researchers do? Search for nomothetic (general) understanding of the nature, causes and treatments of mental abnormalities The Correlational Method – Correlation Coefficient +1.00 (Perfectly positive)--------(weaker)------0.00-------------(perfectly negative) –1.00 # = Strength +/ – = direction OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION Correlation DOES NOT MEAN causation Directionality problem: you must establish that one change came before the other to establish a direction of the causation (called temporal precedence) Third variable problem: there could be a third, unseen or unacknowledged variable that is not being measured History Outline – “Basic information that you need to know for the test” Evil spirits Trephination and exorcism Greeks & Romans were better—Hippocrates Europe: Middle Ages – 500-1300 AD Church rejected science Return of evil spirits view -- witchcraft @ close of middle ages, decline in demonological views Renaissance – 1400-1700s Demonological views continued to decline Johann Weyer—mind could become sick, just like the body o Gheel: religious shrinecommunity care for mentally ill Rise of asylums: poooooor care Nineteenth Century: Reform and idea of Moral Treatment Pinel – La Bicetre / Asylum Reform Dorothea Dix – advocated for state hospitals In the end, state hospitals were short staffed/short cash, contributed to declining recovery rates, over-crowded and there was an emergence of stigmas surrounding mental health Early 20 Century Somatogenic Perspective o Physical causes o Result of new biological discoveries o Syphilis, left untreated, will result in schizophrenia-like symptoms (first time a psychological disorder was linked to a physical cause) o Start of medication/surgery development Psychogenic Perspective o Friedrich Mesmer / hysterical disorders Hypnosis o Freud’s Psychoanalysis theory Current Trends Survey: o 43% of ppl say that ppl bring mental disorders on themselves o 33% credit “sinful behavior” Development of psychotrophid medications Outpatient therapy is very popular now Deinstitutionalizationgreat potential, poor follow through 100,000 mentally ill people are homeless in the U.S. o 135,000 in jail/prison o “their abandonment is a national disgrace” CHAPTER 2: MODELS OF ABNORMALITY KEY TERMS model, p. 34 – a set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations neuron, p. 35 – nerve cell in the brain synapse, p. 35 – tiny space between the ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another neurotransmitter, p. 35 – chemical involved in action potentials, cross the synaptic space &is received at the receptors of dendrites of neighboring dendrites receptors, p. 35 – site on a neuron dendrite that receives a neurotransmitter endocrine system, p. 36 – system of glands throughout the body that help control activities such as growth and sexual activity hormones, p. 36 – chemicals released by endocrine glands into the blood stream gene, p. 36 – chromosome segments that control the characteristics of the traits we inheret psychotropic medications, p. 37 – drugs that mainly affect the brain and greatly reduce many mental dysfunction symptoms electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), p. 38 – treatment for depression, electrodes are attached to a patient’s head and an electrical current is sent through the brain, causing a seizure psychosurgery, p. 38 – brain surgery to correct mental disorders unconscious, p. 39 – deeply hidden mass of memories, experiences and impulses, source of behavior according to Freud id, p. 39 – Freud: psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives and impulses ego, p. 40 – Freud: psychological forces that employs reason, operates in accordance with the reality principle ego defense mechanisms, p. 40 – psychoanalytic theory, strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses, meant to reduce/avoid the anxiety they arouse superego, p. 40 – Freud: the psychological force that represents a person’s values and ideals fixation, p. 41—condition in which the id, ego and superego do not mature properly and are “stuck” in an early stage of development ego theory, p. 41 – psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the ego and considers it an independent force self theory, p. 41 – psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role to the self—a person’s unified personality object relations theory, p. 41 – psychodynamic theory that views the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior free association, p. 42 – psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thoughts, feelings or images that come to mind, even if it seems unimportant resistance, p. 42 – unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy transference, p. 42 – redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important figures in a patient’s life, now or in the past dream, p. 43 – series of ideas and images that form during sleep catharsis, p. 43 – reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal conflicts and overcome problems working through, p. 43 – psychoanalytic process facing conflicts, reinterpreting feelings and overcoming one’s problems short-term psychodynamic therapies, p. 43—psychodynamic theory in which patients chose a single problem (a dynamic focus) to work on. During therapy only this problem and the psychodynamic issues that relate to it are worked on relational psychoanalytic therapy, p. 43 – form of psychodynamic therapy that considers therapists to be active participants in the formation of patient’s feelings and reactions, and therefore calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients conditioning, p. 46 – simple form of learning operant conditioning, p. 46 – process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated modeling, p. 46 – process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others classical conditioning, p. 46 – process of learning in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become tied together in a person’s mind and so produce the same response systematic desensitization, p. 47 – behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread self-efficacy, p. 48 – the judgement that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary cognitive-behavioral therapies, p. 48 – therapy approaches that seek to help clients change both counterproductive behaviors and dysfunctional ways of thinking cognitive therapy, p. 49 – Aaron Beck, helps people identify and change maladaptive assumptions and ways of thinking that help cause their psychological disorders new wave of cognitive therapies, p. 52—recent emergence in the cognitive field, these therapists use techniques like ACT Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), p. 52—Cognitive therapy in which therapists help clients to be mindful of and accept their harmful thoughts rather than changing them or acting on them self-actualization, p. 53—humanistic process by which people fulfill their potential for goodness and growth client-centered therapy, p. 53 –Carl Rogers, humanistic therapy, clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing and conveying genuineness gestalt therapy, p. 54—Fritz Perls, humanistic therapy, clinicians actively move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques like role playing and self-discovery exercises existential therapy, p. 56—therapy that encourages clients to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and value family-social perspective, p. 57—argues that clinical theorists should focus on the broad forces that operate directly on their client – family relationships, social interactions and community events family systems theory, p. 58—theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules group therapy, p. 59—therapy format in which a group of people similar in problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems self-help group, p. 60 – group of people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician family therapy, p. 60 – therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways couples therapy, p. 61—therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a long-term relationship community mental health treatment, p. 62 multicultural perspective, p. 62 – a treatment approach that emphasizes community care culture-sensitive therapy, p. 63 – a treatment approach that seeks to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups gender-sensitive therapy, p. 63 – therapy format geared to the pressures of being a woman in Western Society diathesis-stress explanation, p. 66—biopsychosocial theory—people must first have a biological, psychological or sociocultural predisposition to develop a disorder and then must be subject to episodes of severe stress to actually develop it MATERIAL STRESSED IN CLASS Be able to identify different stimuli (UR CR US CS) in a classical conditioning example 3 features to guard against confounds o Control group o Random assignment o Blind design Brain Anatomy o 100 billion nerve cells called neurons—make up 10% of brain o Thousands of billions of support cells called glia—make up 90% of brain o Neurons don’t touch—synaptic gap ***know structure of neuron Biopsychosocial theory is emerging Diasthesis-Stress Approach o Diasthesis: predisposition for a disorder o Disorders that were brought on by stressors that there was a predisposition for o Protective factors: things that prevent disorders from surfacing, even though extreme stressors (church strong family relationships) When protective factors work for people they are exhibiting resiliency Know how action potentials work o Neurotransmitters released into synapse, picked up by receptor proteins on dendrites of next neuron, electrical impulse travels down axon/myelin sheath, releases neurotransmitters into synaptic gap Penetrance: % of people that will develop a disorder that they are genetically predisposed for Plasticity: brain is malleable—sometimes when people suffer brain injuries, a different area of brain tissue can be trained to resume duties previously governed by injured tissue o Ex from class: girl with epilepsy who had ½ of brain removed Freudian Slips / “Capture Errors” o Freud claimed slips of the tongue aren’t accidents o Research today shows they are a result of passing too closely to an old memory while in a distracted state of mind o Ex from class: Burger’s research with male students & fill-in-the- blank sentences, two different proctors Defense Mechanisms – Ego o Protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Denial Repression Reaction formation: admitting real feelings is upsetting so people react in the exact opposite way Psychodynamic Model: Behavior of any type is caused by underlying psychological forces that people are unaware of o ID: Operates on pleasure principle—always seeking satisfaction o EGO: Operates on reality principle—the knowledge that we acquire through experience that it is not always acceptable to express our id impulses, thereby guiding the expression of our impulses o SUPEREG: Our “conscious” – feelings of guilt, right and wrong, etc. Behavioral Model: bases treatments on principles of learning processes by which behaviors change in response to the environment o Operant Conditioning o Classical Conditioning o Modeling Cognitive Model: Beck – 1960s Humanistic Model: Rogers – 1940s o Client centered therapy OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION Models of Abnormality – SUMMARY 1 Cognitive: the way you think 2 Behavioral: the way you behave 3 Biological: genetics, body chemistry and medication 4 Psychodynamic: focuses on how past experiences affect you 5 Humanistic: “unconditional love and support” 6 Sociocultural: examines social, cultural and environmental background ***no single model can explain ALL aspects CHAPTER 3: CLINICAL ASSESSMENT, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT KEY TERMS idiographic understanding, p. 69 – specific details and background of an individual’s problem assessment, p. 69 – collecting of relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion standardization, p. 70 – setting up common steps to be followed whenever a technique is administered, scored and interpreted reliability, p. 70 – consistency of assessment measures – a good tool will always yield the same results in the same situation validity, p. 70 – accuracy with which a test measures what it is supposed to measure clinical interview, p. 71 – a face to face interaction between a client and a therapist mental status exam, p. 72 – a set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client’s abnormal functioning test, p. 73 – device for gathering information about some aspects of a person’s psychological functioning, from which broader information can be inferred projective test, p. 73 – Require clients to interpret vague stimuli (ink blots/ambiguous pictures) or follow open ended directions (“draw a person”) Rorschach test, p. 73 – projective test – when a person is asked to respond to inkblots Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), p. 74 – Pictorial projective test, 30 black and white pictures of individuals in vague situations, asked to make up a dramatic story about each card personality inventory, p. 76 – asks clients questions about their behavior, beliefs and feelings Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), p. 76 – 500 self- statements – answered “true,” “false,” or “cannot say,” tests 10 clinical scales response inventories, p. 78 – Ask respondents to provide detailed information about themselves, focus on one specific area of functioning at a time (social skills, emotion, etc) psychophysiological test, p. 78 – measures physical responses (heart rate, muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological problems neurological test, p. 79 – Ask respondents to provide detailed information about themselves, focus on one specific area of functioning at a time (social skills, emotion, etc) EEG, p. 79 – records brain waves CAT scan, p. 80 – X-rays the brains structure, taken at different angles neuroimaging techniques, p. 80 – neurological tests that provide images of brain structure or activity PET scan, p. 80 – computer produced motion picture of chemical activity MRI, p. 80 – uses magnetic property of certain brain atoms to create a detailed picture of the structure fMRI, p. 80 – detailed pictures of neuron activity (pics of functioning brain) neuropsychological test, p. 80 – measures brain impairment by testing cognitive, perceptual and motor performances battery, p. 81 – collection of multiple tests given to a client – Brain damage will likely affect visual perception, memory, visual-motor coordination, so tests focus on those things intelligence test, p. 81 – designed to measure a person’s intellectual ability intelligence quotient (IQ), p. 81 – score derived from intelligence tests that theoretically represents a person’s overall intellectual ability naturalistic observation, p. 82 – usually take place in homes, schools or institutions, focus on parent-child, sibling-child, teacher-child interactions, and fearful, aggressive or disruptive behavior analog observation, p. 82 — observations aided by equipment like video cameras, two way mirrors etc. self-monitoring, p. 82 – Client carefully observes themselves and report the frequency of certain behaviors, thoughts & feelings as the occur over time diagnosis, p. 84 – the determination of if a person’s psychological problems comprise a particular disorder syndrome, p. 84 – collection of symptoms classification system, p. 85 – list of categories, or disorders, with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for assigning individuals to the categories DSM-5, p. 85 – Newest edition of the DSM, published in 2013 – contains about 400 disorders categorical information, p. 85 – indicated by client’s symptoms—which category do they belong in? dimensional information, p. 85 – how severe the client’s symptoms are, how dysfunctional he/she is – usually a number scale empirically supported treatment, p. 90 – movement in clinical field, seeks to identify which therapies have clear research support, to develop corresponding treatments and distribute that info to clinicians therapy outcome study, p. 91 – measure the effects of various treatments —typically asks 1 of 3 questions: Is therapy in general effective? Are particular therapies generally effective? Are particular therapies effective for particular problems? rapprochement movement, p. 92 – tries to identify a set of common strategies that may run through the work of all effective therapists – basically, effective therapists practice more similarly to each other than they preach psychopharmacologist, p. 93 – psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medications MATERIAL STRESSED IN CLASS Clinical Assessments Standardize: setting up common steps to be followed whenever a technique is administered, scored and interpreted Reliability: consistency of assessment measures – a good tool will always yield the same results in the same situation o Test-retest reliability: when the same test, given some time apart, has a high correlation between results o Interrater (interjudge) reliability: when different judges independently agree on how to score/interpret test results Validity: accuracy with which a test measures what it is supposed to measure o Face validity: when results appear to be valid because they seem reasonable o Predictive validity: tool’s ability to predict future characteristics or behavior Elementary school kids example: likelihood of smoking in HS, retest in HS o Concurrent validity: degree to which the measures gathered from one tool agree with measures gathered from other assessment techniques Measuring depression with two different test types— do they both conclude the presence of depression? More than 500 clinical tests are currently used in the US—6 common types Clinical Observations Structured vs Unstructured o Unstructured: open ended questions, allows interviewer to follow client’s leads Often appeal to psychodynamic and humanistic clinicians More likely to be unreliable—people respond differently to different interviewers – gender, warm vs cold, age, race, religion etc o Structured: prepared questions, sometimes uses Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), standard set of questions designed for all interviews Sometimes include a Mental Status Exam: set of questions/observations that systematically evaluate the client’s sensorium (awareness, time and place orientation), attention span, memory, mood, judgement and insight, thought process and content and appearance “mental version of yearly physical” Video from class Very simple and broad subjective judgements Allows clinicians to cover same topics in all interviews and compare responses – increases the reliability of an assessment Often appeal to behavioral and cognitive clinicians o Semi-structured: having a set list of questions to ask, but not all questions will apply to every person and some will require different follow-up questions Neurological and Neuropsychological Tests Neurological tests: designed to measure brain structure and activity o EEG: records brain waves o Neuroimaging/brain scanning CAT scan: X-rays the brains structure, taken at different angles PET scan: computer produced motion picture of chemical activity MRI: uses magnetic property of certain brain atoms to create a detailed picture of the structure fMRI: detailed pictures of neuron activity (pics of functioning brain) sometimes unable to detect subtle abnormalities Neuropsychological Tests: measure cognitive, perceptual and motor performances o Brain damage will likely affect visual perception, memory, visual- motor coordination, so tests focus on those things o Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test Many Components One example: 9 cards with geometric designs, patients look then try to redraw from memory (perception) Personality Inventories Personality inventories asks clients questions about their behavior, beliefs and feelings o Indicate which of a long list of statements apply to them Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) o Two adult versions and one adolescent versions available o 500 self-statements – answered “true,” “false,” or “cannot say” o Made up of 10 clinical scales—scores above 70 (between 0-120) are considered deviant 1 Hypochondriasis: abnormal concern for bodily functions 2 Depression: extreme pessimism and hopelessness 3 Hysteria: physical or mental symptoms of unconsciously avoiding conflict/responsibilities 4 Psychopathic Deviate: repeated & gross disregard for social customs and emotional shallowness 5 Masculinity-femininity: items thought to separate male and female respondents 6 Paranoia: abnormal suspiciousness & delusions 7 Psychasthenia: obsessions, compulsions, abnormal fear, guild, indecisiveness 8 Schizophrenia: bizarre or unusual thoughts 9 Hypomania: emotional excitement, overactivity, behavior 10 Social introversion: shyness, little interest in people, insecurity Better than projective tests—do not take much time to administer or score, scored objectively, standardized, comparable, greater test-retest reliability, more valid Psychological Tests Measure physiological responses as possible indicators of psychological problems Polygraph—detects valid changes in breathing, perspiration, heart rate while answering questions, then compared to client answering “yes” to control questions o Hard to tell difference between emotions—nervousness, being upset, actually lying etc. Many require expensive equipment, can be inaccurate and unreliable, lab equipment is often elaborate and maybe intimidating—falsely exciting a person’s nervous system Clinical Observations Naturalistic observations usually take place in homes, schools or institutions o Focus on parent-child, sibling-child, teacher-child interactions, and fearful, aggressive or disruptive behavior o Observations are often made by participant Analog observations: observations aided by equipment like video cameras, two way mirrors etc. DSM-5 – published 2013 Lists ~400 disorders, criteria for diagnosing, sometimes-related symptoms, background info, and research findings o Categorical information: indicated by client’s symptoms o Dimensional information: how severe the client’s symptoms are, how dysfunctional he/she is – usually a number scale Effectiveness of Treatment Proper research procedures address some of those problems using random assignment, control groups etc. o Even well designed studies have limitations on the conclusions that can be drawn Rapprochement Movement: tries to identify a set of common strategies that may run through the work of all effective therapists – basically, effective therapists practice more similarly to each other than they preach People with different disorders may respond differently to various forms of treatment OTHER IMPORTANT INFORMATION Alternative Techniques to detect lies other than a polygraph (video in class) o Brain fingerprinting (Dr. Farwell) – record of crime is “stored in the brain” o Scientific technique measuring brain waves to detect information (of a crime) in the brain o When you recognize something, there are specific impulses that fire in the brain that can be detected called murmur (p300 – electrical activity) o Words and pictures flash on a screen, some relevant to crime and others not, when brain recognizes something it will be detected o What if this info was leaked? Highly publicized? – doesn’t prove that person was innocent or guilty, just demonstrates knowledge of info that (hopefully) only the perp would know – evidence, not proof o Form of EEG Neuropsychological tests—Usually a battery of test Continuous Performance Test (CPT) – attention, executive functioning etc. (ask someone to click a mouse for “ones” but not “twos”) Clicking lots of “ones” then still clicking a “two” – Error of commission—unable to restrict an impulse Not clicking for lots of “twos” and then missing a click for a “one” – Error of omission—lack of attentiveness TOVA (Test of Variables of Attention) For ADHD, measures attention and impulsivity CHAPTER 4: ANXIETY, OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE AND RELATED DISORDERS KEY TERMS fear, p. 98 – central nervous system’s physiological and emotional reaction to a serious threat to well-being anxiety, p. 98 – central nervous system’s physiological and emotional reaction to a vague threat to well-being generalized anxiety disorder, p. 98 – general and excessive anxiety ynder most circumstances and worry about most anything realistic anxiety, p. 100 – facing actual danger neurotic anxiety, p. 100 –when children are repeatedly prevented from expressing id impulses moral anxiety, p. 100 – results from children being punished for expressing id impulses unconditional positive regard, p. 101—a concept developed by the humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers, is the basic acceptance and support of a person regardless of what the person says or does, especially in the context of client-centered therapy client-centered therapy, p. 101— Carl Rogers, humanistic therapy, clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing and conveying genuineness maladaptive assumptions, p. 102 – Irrational beliefs that lead ppl to act and react in inappropriate ways basic irrational assumptions, p. 102 –inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems metacognitive theory, p. 103—suggests that people with GAD implicitly hold both positive and negative views about their worry intolerance of uncertainty theory, p. 104 – individuals cannot tolerate the knowledge that negative events may occur avoidance theory, p. 104 – people with GAD have a higher bodily arousal and worrying serves to reduce the arousal, perhaps by distracting the unpleasant feelings of anxiety rational-emotive therapy, p. 105— Therapists point out irrational assumptions held by clients, suggest more appropriate ones, and assigns clients homework that requires practice of applying new assumptions mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, p. 105—Therapists help clients become aware of their thoughts, including worries, and to accept the thoughts as mere events of the mind, with the idea that if a client accepts them instead of changing them, they will be less bothered by axiety-producing thoughts family pedigree studies, p. 106 – research design in which investigators determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have the same disorder benzodiazepines, p. 106 – most common group of antianxiety drugs, includes valium and Xanax gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), pp. 106—common neurotransmitter in the brain brain circuits, p. 107—network of brain structures that work together to trigger each other into action (with the help of neurotransmitters) to produce a particular emotional reaction sedative-hypnotic drugs, p. 107 – drugs that calm people in low doses and help them fall asleep in higher doses relaxation training, p. 108 – Treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations biofeedback, p. 108 – therapists use electrical signals from the body to train people to control physiological processes such as heart rate or muscle tension electromyograph (EMG), p. 108 – device that provides feedback about the level of muscular tension in the body phobia, p. 109 – persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity or situation specific phobia, p. 110 – intense and persistent fear of a specific object or situation agoraphobia, p. 110 – fear of venturing into public places or situations where escape might be difficult if one were to become panicky or incapacitated modeling, p. 112— The therapist confronts the feared object or situation while the client observes, after a few sessions the client is usually able to approach the feared object/situation calmly stimulus generalization, p. 112 – a phenomenon in which responses to one stimulus are also produced by similar stimuli preparedness, p. 113 – a predisposition to develop certain fears exposure treatments, p. 113 – treatments in which people are exposed to the objects or situations that they dread systematic desensitization, p. 114 – Joseph Wolpe, clients are trained to relax at will while facing the objects/situations they fear according to a fear hierarchy flooding, p. 114 – Repeated exposure to fears without gradual buildup or relaxation training social anxiety disorder, p. 117 – severe, persistent, and irrational anxiety about social or performance situations in which scrutiny by others or embarrassment may occur social skills training, p. 121 – therapy approach that helps people learn or improve social skills and assertiveness through role playing and rehearsing of desirable behaviors panic attacks, p. 121 – periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak within 10 minutes and pass gradually panic disorder, p. 122 – disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable panic attacks norepinephrine, p. 122 – a neurotransmitter that is linked to depression and PD locus ceruleus, p. 122— area of the brain that is rich in neurons that use norepinephrine. When stimulated, produces a panic-like reaction, suggesting that panic attacks stem from over stimulation of the locus ceruleus biological challenge test, p. 125 – procedure used to produce panic in participants by having them exercise vigorously or perform some other potentially panic-inducing task in the presence of a therapist or researcher anxiety sensitivity, p. 125 – tendency to focus on one’s bodily sensations, assess them illogically, and interpret them as harmful obsession, p. 127 – persistent thoughts, urged or images that seem to invade a person’s conscious compulsion, p. 127 – repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that people feel they must perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety obsessive-compulsive disorder, p. 127 – disorder characterized by recurrent and unwanted thoughts and/or a need to perform rigidly repetitive physical or mental actions exposure and response prevention, p. 129 – behavioral treatment for OCD that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents the client from performing compulsive acts neutralizing, p. 130 – attempting to eliminate thoughts that one finds unacceptable by thinking or behaving in ways that make up for those thoughts and so put matters right internally serotonin, p. 131 – neurotransmitter linked to OCD orbitofrontal cortex, p. 131 – area of the brain controlling impulses related to excretion, sexuality, violence and other primitive activities caudate nuclei, p. 131 – structure in the brain (in the basal ganglia) that helps convert sensory information into thoughts and actions obsessive-compulsive-related disorders, p. 133— disorders related to OCD but don’t exactly fir the criteria, new category in the DSM-5, includes hoarding, trichotillomania (hair-pulling), excoriation (skin-picking) disorder and body dysmorphic disorder hoarding disorder, p. 133— persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions because of a perceived need to save them. A person with hoarding disorder experiences distress at the thought of getting rid of the items. Excessive accumulation of items, regardless of actual value, occurs. hair-pulling disorder, p. 133— trichotillomania, compulsive pulling of hair from various parts of the body—most commonly the scalp excoriation disorder, p. 133— skin picking disorder, most commonly from fingers and cuticles body dysmorphic disorder, p. 133 – suffers become extremely preoccupied with the belief that they have a particular defect or flaw in their physical appearance, when the flaw is imagines or greatly exaggerated stress management program, p. 136 – cognitive techniques combined with relaxation training or biofeedback in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder MATERIAL STRESSED IN CLASS Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The Sociocultural Perspective o Dangerous social conditions o Poverty o Race African Americans: 30% more likely to suffer from GAD than white Americans GAD: The Cognitive Perspective o Dysfunctional ways of thinking o Cognitive bias Threat words o Maladaptive assumptions Anxiety o Fear & anxiety? Fear is more focused on object/emotional state o Anxiety is body’s physiological response to events Two pathways in the brain control where info is processed Higher centers of brain – processed rationally in cerebral cortex Directly to amygdala (faster) o Positive benefits but too much anxiety can hinder performance o Severity and frequency o Most common mental disorders in the US 18% of ppl in any given year o Positive benefits but too much anxiety can hinder performance o Severity and frequency o Most common mental disorders in the US 18% of ppl in any given year o Biological and psychological contributions Genetic inheritance is possible Tendencies to be “uptight” and “nervous”
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