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UGA / Psychology / PSYC 3230 / What is the idea that psychological functioning is related to unconsci

What is the idea that psychological functioning is related to unconsci

What is the idea that psychological functioning is related to unconsci


School: University of Georgia
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Cyterski
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC 3230 Abnormal Psychology Cyterski Exam 1 Study Guide UGA
Description: Study guide for Exam 1 in Cyterski's PSYC 3230 class
Uploaded: 09/14/2015
23 Pages 53 Views 15 Unlocks

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Cyterski PSYC 3230

What is the idea that psychological functioning is related to unconscious psychological processes?

Exam 1 Study Guide

Chapters 1-4


abnormal psychology, p. 2 – The scientific study of abnormal behavior in  order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of  functioning

deviance, p. 2 – variance from common patterns of behavior norms, p. 3 – a society’s stated and unstated rules for proper conduct

culture, p. 3 – a people’s common history, values, institutions, habits, skills,  technology and arts Don't forget about the age old question of When did ivy lee open his pr firm?

distress, p. 4 – when abnormal functioning produces stress or physical  symptoms

dysfunction, p. 4 – when psychological abnormalities interfere with daily  functioning

What is the study and enhancement of positive feelings and traits?

treatment, p. 6 – a procedure designed to help change abnormal behavior  (aka therapy)

trephination, p. 8 – ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used  to cut away circular sections of the skull to treat abnormal behavior

humors, p. 8 – Greeks and Romans: bodily fluids that influence mental and  physical functioning: black bile, yellow bile, blood and phlegm)  

asylum, p. 10 – an institution that first became popular in the sixteenth  century to provide care for ppl with mental health disorders

moral treatment, p. 10 – 19th century, approach to treating people with  mental disorders with moral guidance and humane/respectful treatment

state hospitals, p. 11 – public mental health institutions, run by individual  states

What is intelligence quotient/iq?

somatogenic perspective, p. 11 – view that abnormal functioning has  physical causes

psychogenic perspective, p. 11 – view that abnormal functioning is causes by psychological factors

general paresis, p. 12 – caused by syphilis, irreversible disorder whose  symptoms include psychological abnormalities and delusions

hypnosis, p. 12 – sleepy, suggestible state that a person can be directed to  act in unusual ways, experience unusual sensations, remember seemingly  forgotten events or forget remembered events We also discuss several other topics like What is idioculture?

psychoanalysis, p. 13 – idea that psychological functioning is related to  unconscious psychological processes

psychotropic medications, p. 14 – drugs that mainly affect the brain and  greatly reduce mental dysfunction symptoms

deinstitutionalization, p. 14 – practice of releasing hundreds of thousands of  people form mental hospitals

private psychotherapy, p. 15 – when a person directly pays a therapist for  counseling services

prevention, p. 16 – key feature of community health programs, seeking to  prevent or minimize psychological disorders

positive psychology, p. 16 – study and enhancement of positive feelings,  traits and  

multicultural psychology, p. 17 – field that examines the impact of culture,  race, etc. on behavior and thoughts, normal OR abnormal

managed care program, p. 17 – system of healthcare coverage in which the  insurance company largely controls the nature, sope and cost of medical and psychological care and services

scientific method, p. 20 – process of systematically gathering and evaluating  information through careful observations to gain an understanding of a  phenomenon

case study, p. 21– detailed description of a person’s life and psychological  problems

correlation, p. 22 -- the degree to which events or characteristics vary with  each other If you want to learn more check out What are the 6 ways nonverbal cues relate to verbal messages?

correlational method, p. 22 – research procedure used to determine a “co relationship” between variables

epidemiological study, p. 24 – identify incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a population

incidence: # of new cases that appear in a given amount of time prevalence: total # of cases in a given amount of time

longitudinal study, p. 24 – researchers observe the same individuals over a  long period of time

experiment, p. 24 – procedure in which one variable is manipulated and the  effect on the other variable is measures

independent variable, p. 24 manipulated variable

dependent variable, p. 24observed/measured variable

confound, p. 25—variables other than the independent variable that might  be affecting the dependent variable

control group, p. 25—part of an experiment that is not exposed to the  independent variable but have a similar experience as the experimental  group, researchers then compare results of each group Don't forget about the age old question of Who and what structures influence one's opinions about politics?

experimental group, p. 25 – group an experiment that receives treatment

random assignment, p. 26 – a selection procedure that ensure participants in an experiment are randomly placed in the control group or the experimental  group

blind design, p. 26 – experiment in which participants do not know whether  they are in the experimental or control group

placebo therapy, p. 26 – sham treatment that a participant believes to be  genuine

double-blind design, p. 26 – experiment in which the experimenters AND  participants aren’t aware of which group the participants are in  

quasi-experiment, p. 26—experiment in which investigators make use of  control and experiment groups which already exist in the world at large Don't forget about the age old question of What are exocrine glands?

natural experiment, p. 27 – experiment in which nature, rather than an  experimenter, manipulates an independent variable

analogue experiment, p. 27 – when an experimenter produces abnormal-like  behavior in lab participants and then conducts experiments on the  participants  

single-subject experimental design, p. 28 – research method in which a  single participant is observed and measured both before and after the  manipulation of an independent variable


∙ In any given year, 30% of adults and 19% of children display  psychological disturbances, with a 50% lifetime prevalence rate ∙ Hippocrates ”father of modern medicine” – idea of 4 humors ∙ Psychotropic medications: drugs that mainly affect the brain and  greatly reduce many mental dysfunction symptoms

ex. Antipsychotic, antidepressant, antianxiety

∙ Outpatient care has become primary mode of treatment – short term  institutionalization is used as a LAST resort

∙ Only 40-60% of people with severe disturbances receive treatments

∙ Positive psychology: study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits  and abilities  

What do clinical researchers do?

∙ Search for nomothetic (general) understanding of the nature, causes  and treatments of mental abnormalities

The Correlational Method – Correlation Coefficient  We also discuss several other topics like What is an administrative agency?

∙ +1.00 (Perfectly positive)--------(weaker)------0.00-------------(perfectly  negative) –1.00

# = Strength +/ – = direction


∙ Correlation DOES NOT MEAN causation

∙ Directionality problem: you must establish that one change came  before the other to establish a direction of the causation (called  temporal precedence)  

∙ Third variable problem: there could be a third, unseen or  unacknowledged variable that is not being measured

History Outline – “Basic information that you need to know for the test”

∙ Evil spirits

∙ Trephination and exorcism  

∙ Greeks & Romans were better—Hippocrates  

Europe: Middle Ages – 500-1300 AD

∙ Church rejected science

∙ Return of evil spirits view -- witchcraft

∙ @ close of middle ages, decline in demonological views Renaissance – 1400-1700s

∙ Demonological views continued to decline

∙ Johann Weyer—mind could become sick, just like the body o Gheel: religious shrinecommunity care for mentally ill

∙ Rise of asylums: poooooor care

Nineteenth Century:

∙ Reform and idea of Moral Treatment

∙ Pinel – La Bicetre / Asylum Reform

∙ Dorothea Dix – advocated for state hospitals

∙ In the end, state hospitals were short staffed/short cash, contributed to declining recovery rates, over-crowded and there was an emergence of stigmas surrounding mental health

Early 20th Century

∙ Somatogenic Perspective

o Physical causes

o Result of new biological discoveries

o Syphilis, left untreated, will result in schizophrenia-like symptoms (first time a psychological disorder was linked to a physical  cause)

o Start of medication/surgery development

∙ Psychogenic Perspective

o Friedrich Mesmer / hysterical disorders

 Hypnosis

o Freud’s Psychoanalysis theory

Current Trends

∙ Survey:

o 43% of ppl say that ppl bring mental disorders on themselves o 33% credit “sinful behavior”

∙ Development of psychotrophid medications

∙ Outpatient therapy is very popular now

∙ Deinstitutionalizationgreat potential, poor follow through ∙ 100,000 mentally ill people are homeless in the U.S.  

o 135,000 in jail/prison

o “their abandonment is a national disgrace”



model, p. 34 – a set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain  and interpret observations

neuron, p. 35 – nerve cell in the brain

synapse, p. 35 – tiny space between the ending of one neuron and the  dendrite of another

neurotransmitter, p. 35 – chemical involved in action potentials, cross the  synaptic space &is received at the receptors of dendrites of neighboring  dendrites

receptors, p. 35 – site on a neuron dendrite that receives a neurotransmitter

endocrine system, p. 36 – system of glands throughout the body that help  control activities such as growth and sexual activity

hormones, p. 36 – chemicals released by endocrine glands into the blood  stream

gene, p. 36 – chromosome segments that control the characteristics of the  traits we inheret

psychotropic medications, p. 37 – drugs that mainly affect the brain and  greatly reduce many mental dysfunction symptoms

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), p. 38 – treatment for depression, electrodes  are attached to a patient’s head and an electrical current is sent through the  brain, causing a seizure

psychosurgery, p. 38 – brain surgery to correct mental disorders

unconscious, p. 39 – deeply hidden mass of memories, experiences and  impulses, source of behavior according to Freud

id, p. 39 – Freud: psychological force that produces instinctual needs, drives  and impulses

ego, p. 40 – Freud: psychological forces that employs reason, operates in  accordance with the reality principle

ego defense mechanisms, p. 40 – psychoanalytic theory, strategies  developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses, meant to  reduce/avoid the anxiety they arouse

superego, p. 40 – Freud: the psychological force that represents a person’s  values and ideals

fixation, p. 41—condition in which the id, ego and superego do not mature  properly and are “stuck” in an early stage of development

ego theory, p. 41 – psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the ego and  considers it an independent force

self theory, p. 41 – psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role to the  self—a person’s unified personality

object relations theory, p. 41 – psychodynamic theory that views the desire  for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior

free association, p. 42 – psychodynamic technique in which the patient  describes any thoughts, feelings or images that come to mind, even if it  seems unimportant

resistance, p. 42 – unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy

transference, p. 42 – redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings  associated with important figures in a patient’s life, now or in the past

dream, p. 43 – series of ideas and images that form during sleep  

catharsis, p. 43 – reliving of past repressed feelings in order to settle internal  conflicts and overcome problems  

working through, p. 43 – psychoanalytic process facing conflicts,  reinterpreting feelings and overcoming one’s problems

short-term psychodynamic therapies, p. 43—psychodynamic theory in which  patients chose a single problem (a dynamic focus) to work on. During  therapy only this problem and the psychodynamic issues that relate to it are  worked on

relational psychoanalytic therapy, p. 43 – form of psychodynamic therapy  that considers therapists to be active participants in the formation of  patient’s feelings and reactions, and therefore calls for therapists to disclose  their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients

conditioning, p. 46 – simple form of learning

operant conditioning, p. 46 – process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated

modeling, p. 46 – process of learning in which an individual acquires  responses by observing and imitating others

classical conditioning, p. 46 – process of learning in which two events that  repeatedly occur close together in time become tied together in a person’s  mind and so produce the same response

systematic desensitization, p. 47 – behavioral treatment that uses relaxation  training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the  objects or situations they dread

self-efficacy, p. 48 – the judgement that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary  

cognitive-behavioral therapies, p. 48 – therapy approaches that seek to help  clients change both counterproductive behaviors and dysfunctional ways of  thinking

cognitive therapy, p. 49 – Aaron Beck, helps people identify and change  maladaptive assumptions and ways of thinking that help cause their  psychological disorders

new wave of cognitive therapies, p. 52—recent emergence in the cognitive  field, these therapists use techniques like ACT

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), p. 52—Cognitive therapy in  which therapists help clients to be mindful of and accept their harmful  thoughts rather than changing them or acting on them

self-actualization, p. 53—humanistic process by which people fulfill their  potential for goodness and growth

client-centered therapy, p. 53 –Carl Rogers, humanistic therapy, clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing and conveying genuineness  

gestalt therapy, p. 54—Fritz Perls, humanistic therapy, clinicians actively  move clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance by using techniques like role playing and self-discovery exercises  

existential therapy, p. 56—therapy that encourages clients to accept  responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and value

family-social perspective, p. 57—argues that clinical theorists should focus  on the broad forces that operate directly on their client – family relationships, social interactions and community events

family systems theory, p. 58—theory that views the family as a system of  interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules

group therapy, p. 59—therapy format in which a group of people similar in  problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems

self-help group, p. 60 – group of people with similar problems who help and  support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician

family therapy, p. 60 – therapy format in which the therapist meets with all  members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways

couples therapy, p. 61—therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a long-term relationship

community mental health treatment, p. 62

multicultural perspective, p. 62 – a treatment approach that emphasizes  community care

culture-sensitive therapy, p. 63 – a treatment approach that seeks to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups

gender-sensitive therapy, p. 63 – therapy format geared to the pressures of  being a woman in Western Society

diathesis-stress explanation, p. 66—biopsychosocial theory—people must  first have a biological, psychological or sociocultural predisposition to  develop a disorder and then must be subject to episodes of severe stress to  actually develop it


∙    Be able to identify different stimuli (UR CR US CS) in a classical  conditioning example

∙ 3 features to guard against confounds

o Control group

o Random assignment

o Blind design

∙ Brain Anatomy

o 100 billion nerve cells called neurons—make up 10% of brain o Thousands of billions of support cells called glia—make up 90%  of brain

o Neurons don’t touch—synaptic gap

***know structure of neuron

∙ Biopsychosocial theory is emerging

∙ Diasthesis-Stress Approach

o Diasthesis: predisposition for a disorder

o Disorders that were brought on by stressors that there was a  predisposition for

o Protective factors: things that prevent disorders from surfacing,  even though extreme stressors (church strong family  


 When protective factors work for people they are exhibiting resiliency

∙ Know how action potentials work

o Neurotransmitters released into synapse, picked up by receptor  proteins on dendrites of next neuron, electrical impulse travels  down axon/myelin sheath, releases neurotransmitters into  synaptic gap

∙ Penetrance: % of people that will develop a disorder that they are  genetically predisposed for

∙ Plasticity: brain is malleable—sometimes when people suffer brain  injuries, a different area of brain tissue can be trained to resume duties previously governed by injured tissue

o Ex from class: girl with epilepsy who had ½ of brain removed ∙ Freudian Slips / “Capture Errors”

o Freud claimed slips of the tongue aren’t accidents

o Research today shows they are a result of passing too closely to  an old memory while in a distracted state of mind

o Ex from class: Burger’s research with male students & fill-in-the blank sentences, two different proctors

∙ Defense Mechanisms – Ego

o Protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously  distorting reality

 Denial

 Repression

 Reaction formation: admitting real feelings is upsetting so  people react in the exact opposite way

∙ Psychodynamic Model: Behavior of any type is caused by underlying  psychological forces that people are unaware of  

o ID: Operates on pleasure principle—always seeking satisfaction o EGO: Operates on reality principle—the knowledge that we  acquire through experience that it is not always acceptable to  express our id impulses, thereby guiding the expression of our  impulses

o SUPEREG: Our “conscious” – feelings of guilt, right and wrong,  etc.  

∙ Behavioral Model: bases treatments on principles of learning processes by which behaviors change in response to the environment o Operant Conditioning

o Classical Conditioning

o Modeling

∙ Cognitive Model: Beck – 1960s

∙ Humanistic Model: Rogers – 1940s

o Client centered therapy


Models of Abnormality – SUMMARY

1 Cognitive: the way you think

2 Behavioral: the way you behave

3 Biological: genetics, body chemistry and medication

4 Psychodynamic: focuses on how past experiences affect you 5 Humanistic: “unconditional love and support”

6 Sociocultural: examines social, cultural and environmental  background

***no single model can explain ALL aspects


idiographic understanding, p. 69 – specific details and background of an individual’s problem  

assessment, p. 69 – collecting of relevant information in an effort to reach  a conclusion

standardization, p. 70 – setting up common steps to be followed  whenever a technique is administered, scored and interpreted

reliability, p. 70 – consistency of assessment measures – a good tool will  always yield the same results in the same situation

validity, p. 70 – accuracy with which a test measures what it is supposed to measure

clinical interview, p. 71 – a face to face interaction between a client and a  therapist

mental status exam, p. 72 – a set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client’s abnormal functioning

test, p. 73 – device for gathering information about some aspects of a  person’s psychological functioning, from which broader information can be  inferred  

projective test, p. 73 – Require clients to interpret vague stimuli (ink  blots/ambiguous pictures) or follow open ended directions (“draw a person”)

Rorschach test, p. 73 – projective test – when a person is asked to respond to inkblots

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), p. 74 – Pictorial projective test, 30  black and white pictures of individuals in vague situations, asked to make up  a dramatic story about each card

personality inventory, p. 76 – asks clients questions about their behavior,  beliefs and feelings

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), p. 76 – 500 self statements – answered “true,” “false,” or “cannot say,” tests 10 clinical  scales  

response inventories, p. 78 – Ask respondents to provide detailed  information about themselves, focus on one specific area of functioning at a  time (social skills, emotion, etc)

psychophysiological test, p. 78 – measures physical responses (heart  rate, muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological problems

neurological test, p. 79 – Ask respondents to provide detailed information  about themselves, focus on one specific area of functioning at a time (social  skills, emotion, etc)

EEG, p. 79 – records brain waves

CAT scan, p. 80 – X-rays the brains structure, taken at different angles

neuroimaging techniques, p. 80 – neurological tests that provide images  of brain structure or activity

PET scan, p. 80 – computer produced motion picture of chemical activity

MRI, p. 80 – uses magnetic property of certain brain atoms to create a  detailed picture of the structure

fMRI, p. 80 – detailed pictures of neuron activity (pics of functioning brain)

neuropsychological test, p. 80 – measures brain impairment by testing  cognitive, perceptual and motor performances

battery, p. 81 – collection of multiple tests given to a client – Brain damage  will likely affect visual perception, memory, visual-motor coordination, so  tests focus on those things

intelligence test, p. 81 – designed to measure a person’s intellectual  ability

intelligence quotient (IQ), p. 81 – score derived from intelligence tests  that theoretically represents a person’s overall intellectual ability

naturalistic observation, p. 82 – usually take place in homes, schools or  institutions, focus on parent-child, sibling-child, teacher-child interactions,  and fearful, aggressive or disruptive behavior

analog observation, p. 82 — observations aided by equipment like video  cameras, two way mirrors etc.

self-monitoring, p. 82 – Client carefully observes themselves and report  the frequency of certain behaviors, thoughts & feelings as the occur over  time

diagnosis, p. 84 – the determination of if a person’s psychological problems comprise a particular disorder

syndrome, p. 84 – collection of symptoms

classification system, p. 85 – list of categories, or disorders, with  descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for assigning individuals to the  categories

DSM-5, p. 85 – Newest edition of the DSM, published in 2013 – contains  about 400 disorders

categorical information, p. 85 – indicated by client’s symptoms—which  category do they belong in?

dimensional information, p. 85 – how severe the client’s symptoms are,  how dysfunctional he/she is – usually a number scale

empirically supported treatment, p. 90 – movement in clinical field,  seeks to identify which therapies have clear research support, to develop  corresponding treatments and distribute that info to clinicians

therapy outcome study, p. 91 – measure the effects of various treatments —typically asks 1 of 3 questions: Is therapy in general effective? Are  particular therapies generally effective? Are particular therapies effective for  particular problems?

rapprochement movement, p. 92 – tries to identify a set of common  strategies that may run through the work of all effective therapists –  basically, effective therapists practice more similarly to each other than they  preach

psychopharmacologist, p. 93 – psychiatrist who primarily prescribes  medications


Clinical Assessments

∙ Standardize: setting up common steps to be followed whenever a  technique is administered, scored and interpreted  

∙ Reliability: consistency of assessment measures – a good tool will  always yield the same results in the same situation

o Test-retest reliability: when the same test, given some time  apart, has a high correlation between results

o Interrater (interjudge) reliability: when different judges  independently agree on how to score/interpret test results

∙ Validity: accuracy with which a test measures what it is supposed to  measure

o Face validity: when results appear to be valid because they seem reasonable

o Predictive validity: tool’s ability to predict future characteristics  or behavior

 Elementary school kids example: likelihood of smoking in  HS, retest in HS

o Concurrent validity: degree to which the measures gathered from one tool agree with measures gathered from other assessment  techniques  

 Measuring depression with two different test types— do  they both conclude the presence of depression?

∙ More than 500 clinical tests are currently used in the US—6 common  types

Clinical Observations

∙ Structured vs Unstructured  

o Unstructured: open ended questions, allows interviewer to follow  client’s leads

 Often appeal to psychodynamic and humanistic clinicians  More likely to be unreliable—people respond differently to  different interviewers – gender, warm vs cold, age, race,  

religion etc

o Structured: prepared questions, sometimes uses Diagnostic  Interview Schedule (DIS), standard set of questions designed for  all interviews

 Sometimes include a Mental Status Exam: set of  

questions/observations that systematically evaluate the  

client’s sensorium (awareness, time and place orientation), attention span, memory, mood, judgement and insight,  

thought process and content and appearance

∙ “mental version of yearly physical”

∙ Video from class

∙ Very simple and broad subjective judgements

 Allows clinicians to cover same topics in all interviews and  compare responses – increases the reliability of an  


 Often appeal to behavioral and cognitive clinicians

o Semi-structured: having a set list of questions to ask, but not all  questions will apply to every person and some will require  different follow-up questions

Neurological and Neuropsychological Tests

∙ Neurological tests: designed to measure brain structure and activity o EEG: records brain waves

o Neuroimaging/brain scanning

 CAT scan: X-rays the brains structure, taken at different  angles

 PET scan: computer produced motion picture of chemical  activity

 MRI: uses magnetic property of certain brain atoms to  

create a detailed picture of the structure

∙ fMRI: detailed pictures of neuron activity (pics of  

functioning brain)

 sometimes unable to detect subtle abnormalities

∙ Neuropsychological Tests: measure cognitive, perceptual and motor  performances

o Brain damage will likely affect visual perception, memory, visual motor coordination, so tests focus on those things

o Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test

 Many Components

∙ One example: 9 cards with geometric designs,  

patients look then try to redraw from memory  


Personality Inventories

∙ Personality inventories asks clients questions about their behavior,  beliefs and feelings

o Indicate which of a long list of statements apply to them ∙ Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

o Two adult versions and one adolescent versions available  o 500 self-statements – answered “true,” “false,” or “cannot say” o Made up of 10 clinical scales—scores above 70 (between 0-120)  are considered deviant

1 Hypochondriasis: abnormal concern for bodily functions 2 Depression: extreme pessimism and hopelessness

3 Hysteria: physical or mental symptoms of unconsciously  avoiding conflict/responsibilities  

4 Psychopathic Deviate: repeated & gross disregard for social customs and emotional shallowness

5 Masculinity-femininity: items thought to separate male and  female respondents

6 Paranoia: abnormal suspiciousness & delusions

7 Psychasthenia: obsessions, compulsions, abnormal fear,  guild, indecisiveness

8 Schizophrenia: bizarre or unusual thoughts

9 Hypomania: emotional excitement, overactivity, behavior 10 Social introversion: shyness, little interest in people,  


∙ Better than projective tests—do not take much time to administer or  score, scored objectively, standardized, comparable, greater test-retest reliability, more valid

Psychological Tests

∙ Measure physiological responses as possible indicators of psychological problems

∙ Polygraph—detects valid changes in breathing, perspiration, heart rate  while answering questions, then compared to client answering “yes” to control questions

o Hard to tell difference between emotions—nervousness, being  upset, actually lying etc.  

∙ Many require expensive equipment, can be inaccurate and unreliable,  lab equipment is often elaborate and maybe intimidating—falsely  exciting a person’s nervous system

Clinical Observations  

∙ Naturalistic observations usually take place in homes, schools or  institutions

o Focus on parent-child, sibling-child, teacher-child interactions,  and fearful, aggressive or disruptive behavior

o Observations are often made by participant  

∙ Analog observations: observations aided by equipment like video  cameras, two way mirrors etc.

DSM-5 – published 2013

∙ Lists ~400 disorders, criteria for diagnosing, sometimes-related  symptoms, background info, and research findings

o Categorical information: indicated by client’s symptoms o Dimensional information: how severe the client’s symptoms are,  how dysfunctional he/she is – usually a number scale

Effectiveness of Treatment

∙ Proper research procedures address some of those problems using  random assignment, control groups etc.

o Even well designed studies have limitations on the conclusions  that can be drawn  

∙ Rapprochement Movement: tries to identify a set of common strategies that may run through the work of all effective therapists – basically,  effective therapists practice more similarly to each other than they  preach

∙ People with different disorders may respond differently to various  forms of treatment


∙ Alternative Techniques to detect lies other than a polygraph (video in  class)

o Brain fingerprinting (Dr. Farwell) – record of crime is “stored in  the brain”

o Scientific technique measuring brain waves to detect information (of a crime) in the brain  

o When you recognize something, there are specific impulses that  fire in the brain that can be detected called murmur (p300 –  electrical activity)

o Words and pictures flash on a screen, some relevant to crime  and others not, when brain recognizes something it will be  detected

o What if this info was leaked? Highly publicized? – doesn’t prove  that person was innocent or guilty, just demonstrates knowledge  of info that (hopefully) only the perp would know – evidence, not  proof

o Form of EEG

∙ Neuropsychological tests—Usually a battery of test

 Continuous Performance Test (CPT) – attention, executive  functioning etc. (ask someone to click a mouse for “ones”  but not “twos”)

∙ Clicking lots of “ones” then still clicking a “two” –  Error of commission—unable to restrict an impulse ∙ Not clicking for lots of “twos” and then missing a  click for a “one” – Error of omission—lack of  


 TOVA (Test of Variables of Attention)

∙ For ADHD, measures attention and impulsivity



fear, p. 98 – central nervous system’s physiological and emotional reaction to a serious threat to well-being

anxiety, p. 98 – central nervous system’s physiological and emotional  reaction to a vague threat to well-being

generalized anxiety disorder, p. 98 – general and excessive anxiety ynder  most circumstances and worry about most anything

realistic anxiety, p. 100 – facing actual danger

neurotic anxiety, p. 100 –when children are repeatedly prevented from  expressing id impulses

moral anxiety, p. 100 – results from children being punished for expressing id impulses

unconditional positive regard, p. 101—a concept developed by the  humanistic psychologist Carl Rogers, is the basic acceptance and support of  a person regardless of what the person says or does, especially in the  context of client-centered therapy

client-centered therapy, p. 101— Carl Rogers, humanistic therapy, clinicians  try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing and conveying  genuineness

maladaptive assumptions, p. 102 – Irrational beliefs that lead ppl to act and  react in inappropriate ways

basic irrational assumptions, p. 102 –inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs  held by people with various psychological problems  

metacognitive theory, p. 103—suggests that people with GAD implicitly hold  both positive and negative views about their worry

intolerance of uncertainty theory, p. 104 – individuals cannot tolerate the  knowledge that negative events may occur

avoidance theory, p. 104 – people with GAD have a higher bodily arousal and worrying serves to reduce the arousal, perhaps by distracting the unpleasant feelings of anxiety

rational-emotive therapy, p. 105— Therapists point out irrational  assumptions held by clients, suggest more appropriate ones, and assigns  clients homework that requires practice of applying new assumptions

mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, p. 105—Therapists help clients become aware of their thoughts, including worries, and to accept the thoughts as  mere events of the mind, with the idea that if a client accepts them instead  of changing them, they will be less bothered by axiety-producing thoughts

family pedigree studies, p. 106 – research design in which investigators  determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have  the same disorder

benzodiazepines, p. 106 – most common group of antianxiety drugs, includes valium and Xanax

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), pp. 106—common neurotransmitter in the brain

brain circuits, p. 107—network of brain structures that work together to  trigger each other into action (with the help of neurotransmitters) to produce a particular emotional reaction

sedative-hypnotic drugs, p. 107 – drugs that calm people in low doses and  help them fall asleep in higher doses

relaxation training, p. 108 – Treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations

biofeedback, p. 108 – therapists use electrical signals from the body to train  people to control physiological processes such as heart rate or muscle  tension

electromyograph (EMG), p. 108 – device that provides feedback about the  level of muscular tension in the body

phobia, p. 109 – persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object,  activity or situation

specific phobia, p. 110 – intense and persistent fear of a specific object or  situation  

agoraphobia, p. 110 – fear of venturing into public places or situations where  escape might be difficult if one were to become panicky or incapacitated

modeling, p. 112— The therapist confronts the feared object or situation  while the client observes, after a few sessions the client is usually able to  approach the feared object/situation calmly

stimulus generalization, p. 112 – a phenomenon in which responses to one  stimulus are also produced by similar stimuli

preparedness, p. 113 – a predisposition to develop certain fears

exposure treatments, p. 113 – treatments in which people are exposed to the objects or situations that they dread

systematic desensitization, p. 114 – Joseph Wolpe, clients are trained to relax at will while facing the objects/situations they fear according to a fear  hierarchy

flooding, p. 114 – Repeated exposure to fears without gradual buildup or  relaxation training  

social anxiety disorder, p. 117 – severe, persistent, and irrational anxiety  about social or performance situations in which scrutiny by others or  embarrassment may occur

social skills training, p. 121 – therapy approach that helps people learn or  improve social skills and assertiveness through role playing and rehearsing of desirable behaviors

panic attacks, p. 121 – periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly,  reach a peak within 10 minutes and pass gradually

panic disorder, p. 122 – disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable  panic attacks  

norepinephrine, p. 122 – a neurotransmitter that is linked to depression and  PD

locus ceruleus, p. 122— area of the brain that is rich in neurons that use  norepinephrine. When stimulated, produces a panic-like reaction, suggesting  that panic attacks stem from over stimulation of the locus ceruleus

biological challenge test, p. 125 – procedure used to produce panic in  participants by having them exercise vigorously or perform some other  potentially panic-inducing task in the presence of a therapist or researcher

anxiety sensitivity, p. 125 – tendency to focus on one’s bodily sensations,  assess them illogically, and interpret them as harmful

obsession, p. 127 – persistent thoughts, urged or images that seem to invade a person’s conscious

compulsion, p. 127 – repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that  people feel they must perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety

obsessive-compulsive disorder, p. 127 – disorder characterized by recurrent  and unwanted thoughts and/or a need to perform rigidly repetitive physical  or mental actions

exposure and response prevention, p. 129 – behavioral treatment for OCD  that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then  prevents the client from performing compulsive acts

neutralizing, p. 130 – attempting to eliminate thoughts that one finds  unacceptable by thinking or behaving in ways that make up for those  thoughts and so put matters right internally

serotonin, p. 131 – neurotransmitter linked to OCD

orbitofrontal cortex, p. 131 – area of the brain controlling impulses related to  excretion, sexuality, violence and other primitive activities

caudate nuclei, p. 131 – structure in the brain (in the basal ganglia) that  helps convert sensory information into thoughts and actions

obsessive-compulsive-related disorders, p. 133— disorders related to OCD  but don’t exactly fir the criteria, new category in the DSM-5, includes  hoarding, trichotillomania (hair-pulling), excoriation (skin-picking) disorder  and body dysmorphic disorder

hoarding disorder, p. 133— persistent difficulty discarding or parting with  possessions because of a perceived need to save them. A person with  hoarding disorder experiences distress at the thought of getting rid of the  items. Excessive accumulation of items, regardless of actual value, occurs.

hair-pulling disorder, p. 133— trichotillomania, compulsive pulling of hair  from various parts of the body—most commonly the scalp

excoriation disorder, p. 133— skin picking disorder, most commonly from  fingers and cuticles

body dysmorphic disorder, p. 133 – suffers become extremely preoccupied  with the belief that they have a particular defect or flaw in their physical  appearance, when the flaw is imagines or greatly exaggerated

stress management program, p. 136 – cognitive techniques combined with  relaxation training or biofeedback in the treatment of generalized anxiety  disorder


∙ Generalized Anxiety Disorder: The Sociocultural Perspective

o Dangerous social conditions

o Poverty

o Race

 African Americans: 30% more likely to suffer from GAD than  white Americans

∙ GAD: The Cognitive Perspective

o Dysfunctional ways of thinking

o Cognitive bias

 Threat words

o Maladaptive assumptions

∙ Anxiety

o Fear & anxiety? Fear is more focused on object/emotional state o Anxiety is body’s physiological response to events

 Two pathways in the brain control where info is processed

∙ Higher centers of brain – processed rationally in cerebral  


∙ Directly to amygdala (faster)

o Positive benefits but too much anxiety can hinder performance o Severity and frequency

o Most common mental disorders in the US

 18% of ppl in any given year

o Positive benefits but too much anxiety can hinder performance o Severity and frequency

o Most common mental disorders in the US

 18% of ppl in any given year

o Biological and psychological contributions

 Genetic inheritance is possible

∙ Tendencies to be “uptight” and “nervous”

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