History 1200 Study Guide
History 1200 Study Guide Hist 1200
Popular in Survey of American History Since 1865
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Albers on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
TERMS REVIEW First Lecture Market revolution (1790-1830): was a transformative event that profoundly changed the nature of American life; happened roughly about 1790-1830; changed both economic and social structure of our society Household economy very localized economy, self sustaining, goods are produced in consumed in households, most of the time farms; subsistence farming very community oriented; predominantly agricultural Task oriented work agriculture economy required task oriented work, the task at hand is all that matters at the time, labor goes up and down Time oriented work (time is money, working hours for a wage) Paternalism based on the family, colonial people thought about society as an extension of the family with the paternal figure of the household at the top of the hierarchy (man took the lead on the farm, took the lead of the household) Self-made man individual who used his labor, brains, time and money in some enterprise and pulled himself ahead by his bootstraps Self-control controlling your own destiny of life (fate); repressing your emotion or impulses) Sylvester Graham invented graham cracker; writing advice literature to young men and telling them how and how not to act to get ahead (Favorite theme of his was sexual self control: they had to get their sexual appetites under control) Domesticity family life and home life Catherine Beecher: Treatise on Domestic Economy home was the moral center where love and kindness would be instilled in children and husband; woman’s goal to instill moral values Christian gentleman guy who does everything to get ahead in the market place but when at home knuckles under to the moral leadership of the wife True woman sweet asexual morally commanding figure who would never dream of competing in market place but at home is the commander St. Monday skipping work on Monday because of hangover Temperance consumption of alcohol, working class resisted the temperance crusade of the Victorians Second Lecture Republican party formed in early 1850s as a northern political party, a party of Christian gentlemen Free labor a kind of notion that northerners believed that the individuals capacity to use their own labor was the basis of getting ahead in life Ostend manifesto came to life in the 1950s and was by and large a plan put together by southern leaders; was a blueprint for expanding southern slavery into Mexico and South America, needed to expand to be even more successful (became great controversy in the north) Plantation novels fictional works about life on southern plantations, without fail you always saw a picture of the southern plantation being happy, stable, a sort of paternal utopia Uncle Tom’s Cabin was a novel written in 1850s by Harriet Beecher Stowe; written as a story about plantation life in the south but it pushed every button the northerners had about slavery in southern society, it was about the hard lives of slaves and their families broken up with instances of abuse and beatings George Fitzhugh: Cannibals All! Fitzhugh was a southern intellectual who wrote this book as a critique of the north saying that northern society was a society of cannibals, cannibals of the market place, you would be run under at any opportunity; so he supported paternalism and the strong protecting the weak Slavery in the territories will the new states be slave states or free states Bleeding Kansas mid 1850s a mess erupted in Kansas and southerners and northerners poured into Kansas to try and influence the vote and you had armed mobs/gangs for pro slavery or anti slavery Mass production The war was devastating to the south and to human life but the north was a boost to economic growth in the north because of the need for supplies and factories Singer sewing company making uniforms for the northern troops, explosion of demand so they rose very high on the economic ladder Total war Lecture 3 Andrew Johnson and bring him to trial and try to remove him from office and Johnson is a terrible politician and therefore didn’t help his case Radical republicans thought reconstruction should look a little different, the leader of the radical republicans in congress Thaddeus Stevens was leader of radical repulicans Freedman’s bureau private agency partly funded by the government, was aimed at aiding ex-slaves in the south, setting up healthcare and medicine to ex-slaves as well as setting up schools for rudimentary education Rutherford B. Hayes (general of civil war nominated union man) Samuel Tilden won popular vote against republican candidate and then seemed to win the electoral college vote but the northerners didn’t want this to happen so the electoral vote of three southern states (Mississippi Alabama and?) these votes were due to corruption and illegitimate Compromise of 1877 hammered out a deal in hotel room with whiskey and cigars, agreed to go along with Hayes if the military governments in the south were ended, and if Hayes agreed to appoint several southern democrats to the cabinet The new south In aftermath of the compromise a new southern leadership emerged composed of commercial figures (doctors, lawyers, etc.) established a new power structure devoted to Industrialization and White supremacy Henry Grady Ku Klux Klan emerged to intimidate the blacks into not voting and into keeping them in their place Crop lien system a shared crop system, black farmers give large sum of crops to white land owner Jim Crow laws great web of legal statues, one way or another kept black citizens in a legal second class system Lecture 4 Transcontinental railroad completed in 1869 and involved the railroad system of the US completing a connection between the pacific ocean to the Atlantic Oklahoma land rush 1889; the last chunk of land that had been set aside for native American Indians and in 1889 they had been pushed to smaller territory and the land was opened to settlers and 100,000 gathered on the borders of Oklahoma and government officials set off guns for people to go and claim land Horatio Alger began to write in the civil war period and his books were very popular; usually involved a young man countryside who went to the big city and climbed to success by hard work and good moral character Andrew Carnegie Horatio Alger figure come to life; was the son of poor Scottish farmer immigrants, but Carnegie was more interest in business and proved to be very smart and a good businessmen and starts in the railroad industry and shrewdly sees that the steel industry is going to be were the profit is and by the turn of the century Carnegie’s steel is the top steel company in the country Gospel of wealth a little talk Carnegie gave that was so popular that he turned it into a pamphlet and it said Confidence man the self made man flipped over, because in a market society people don’t always play by the rules in order to climb ahead, a shaggy fearful figure of a con-man Jay Gould in many ways was a self made man (came from poor Midwest family) was a very smart wall street business man, but then he veered off the tracks and headed towards fraud and became known as a con-man New York gold conspiracy (a scheme where they bought all the gold up and then when the price began to rise they dumped it back on the market and drove a lot of business men to bankruptcy) Industrial capitalism Tramp culture hobos who took off and left their families and jobs and illegally rode trains and traveled Kosher food riot in a Jewish area of New york was a kind of uprising of Jewish women who were bitterly angry at stores raising meat prices, these women broke into the stores took the food and burned it in the streets Pullman strike 1894 against the railroads; very angry against wage cuts and the strike began to spread from city to city in America and the president evidentially imposed a junction so the strike was a failure Lecture 5 Sharecropping big land owners who owned hundreds of acres and they would rent land out to smaller farmers and provided seeds and implements but at the end of the season the landowner gets a high % of product (slave to the land) The grange Cluster of organizations that farmers rushed to join and all together they had about 1 ½ million farmers; basically an agricultural cooperative for buying and selling goods (i.e. buying cut rate of seeds) National farmer’s alliance Alliances all about grange agenda and cooperatives but on top of that they went further, NFA pushed hard for government regulation of the railroads (rates), also pushed hard for a reduction in the tariff The people’s party (Populist Party) This was the culmination of the rural revolt in the early 1890s Tom Watson emerging; put together one of the first third parties National railroad strike there were a series of wage cuts in the railroad industry and what you see is a wave of strikes against the railroad and these strikes turned violent Haymarket riot big labor strike in Chicago with hundreds of laborers in Haymarket square and the police were called to keep people calm and a series of bombs were set off and you had a resulting clash between strikers and police and 7 people had been killed Homestead strike famous because it involved Andrew Carnegie, Carnegie Steel had created homestead steel mill and was coming along and in 1892 wages were cut, Carnegie wanted nothing to do with this and sailed away and left it in the hands of the managers, so they hired the Pinkerton protection agencies to protect the factory; a battle erupted involving guns and there was a battle where 3 or 4 guards were killed as well as strikers Coxey’s army result of the depression of 1893 which put a bunch of business in trouble of cutting wages and lay offs; people put on their old army uniforms and made their way to DC under the leadership of Jason Coxey, as they walked to DC people joined them and there were thousands of people camped out in DC Knights of labor a reform union, they pushed for the eight hour work day, they pushed for the abolition of child labor Eugene Debs lined up with socialist party and ran for president and the socialist began to push worker control of industry American Federation of Labor pushed forward by Samuel Gompers, and the AFL is important because it rejects the reform union approach as well as socialist approach as well and it focuses on collective bargaining, the more people it gets under its umbrella the more leverage they can get with asking for higher wages, lower hours, better conditions Samuel Gompers Lecture 6 Scientific racism certain biological theories begin to argue that Slavic & Latin roots could/should not be assimilated into American culture because they were biologically inferior Henry Cabot Lodge (senator) restricted by number of southern and eastern Europeans as a result of scientific racism Racial suicide the birth rate of immigrants is rising dramatically so conclusion was race suicide that will result in Americans being run over by immigrants; Solution to this was to fight birth control, Victorians should give up birth control and have big families, (Teddy Roosevelt had a ton of kids) Theodore Roosevelt was a kind of up and coming politician in New York, young Theodore ended up being both politician and intellectual running around 1880s building his reputation and part of it he used race suicide Monopoly capitalism Capitalism market run by big corporations Charles Schwab 1901 Andrew Carnegie sold his company to big corporate conglomerate US Steel, US Steel is run by CEO Charles Schwab Standard time was created by the railroad companies and only later adopted by the government, set up standard time in order to make their trains match up to get to market destinations more efficiently, establishing clock in time th Hebert Spencer was an Englishman and in the later part of 19 century he became a hero to American businessmen because a series of books he wrote where he argued human history is a story of progress and in this story the apex of high point was modern business Liberal Protestantism that if hell is not real why is it that we are behaving ourselves so strictly? There was a moral drift that crept into Victorian culture Neurasthenia identified by George M. Beard was a neurologists in NYC and had a prosperous clientele and a lot of his patients were complaining about insomnia, not wanting to move, a desire for stimulants and fearing of society and complained about a paralysis of will so Beard ended up writing a book and coined the term Neurasthenia and everyone begins talking about it George M. Beard Lecture 7 Depression of 1893 Spanish-American war Men of Dartmouth Civil religion Theodore Roosevelt Yellow press William McKinley The Philippines Admiral George Dewey Emilio Aguinaldo Rough riders William James Mark Twain Lecture 8 Credit mobilier trust (1870s) railroad companies who were very keen to get land and subsidies so they paid off senators to past legislation in their interest Bossism Is referring to urban politics, the politics in the big cities; Immigrants are pouring in and cities are growing enormously so urban machines were popping up which were run by political bosses Tammany hall By the turn of the century the Urban Machines were running politics, Tammany Hall was most dominant at turn of the century George Washington Plunkitt was a mid level operator in Tammany Hall but as he got older some journalist convinced him to write a book called Plunkitt of Tammany Hall, which talked about the boss structure in NYC Muckrakers Named after Teddy Roosevelt, they began to go out into American politics and investigate and expose the corporate corruption Ida Tarbell was the first big woman journalist and gained a big reputation for writing the history of standard oil (originally series of magazine articles) a muckraking expose of Rockefeller and his domination of the oil industry Lincoln Steffens focused of boss politics wrote Shame of the Cities and exposed the corrupt machine politics in each of those cities Initiative and referendum comes out of small town progressivism and was to get process of legislation out of the bodies of government and put it in the hands of voters (referendum items on ballot is a direct result) Robert Lafollette “fighting Bob” was from Wisconsin, governor and senator of Wisconsin and ran for president a few times but was a kind of national symbol of local progressivism and went on in great length about breaking up trusts Square deal Pushed forward the national progressive agenda National civil federation around 1900 and is a national organization devoted to American life and was made up of people who represented business, government, and labor New nationalism Teddy Roosevelt in 1912 where he decided to run again and talks about the need of big government, big business, and big labor that will put forward public good and put the country forward Lecture 9 Consumer capitalism consumption drives capitalists economy, corporate manipulation of good Corporate liberalism both owners of corporations and high up government officials are elite class Self-fulfillment both marital partners fulfill themselves in marital love Bureaucracies most decisions made by state officials Woodrow Wilson – president 1912 democratic, the election was a 3 way race, Roosevelt, Taft, Wilson won, he was progressive War industries board regulated production of things they had for war Selective service act the draft to create a real army 24 million were registered for draft 3-4 million were in the army George Creel: Committee on Public Information committee on public info get people to endorse the war, publicity would get rid of anything antiwar League of Nations representatives from countries around the world would get together and solve conflict Treaty of Versailles – treaty that ended the war, was very harsh on Germany Chicago race riots f ights broke out blacks and whites killing each other Red scare fear of rise of communism Mitchell Palmer palmer red raids against foreign anarchists, communists and radical lefts Lecture 10 Scientific management Frederick Winslow Taylor Time and motion studies Hawthorne experiments Industrial psychology Elton Mayo Samuel Gompers American Federation of Labor Protective legislation Triangle shirtwaist fire National labor board Industrial Workers of the World Lecture 11 Henry Ford is a pioneer figure who popularizes the automobile in Detroit Self-fulfillment In the culture of self-fulfillment the stress is on fulfilling your desires not suppressing your desires Personality instead of firm moral character that internalized by Victorians, you start to see personalities Abundance every where you look you see emphasis of abundance; everthing has to be bigger and better and in bigger quantitiy Dale Carnegie: How to Win Friends and Influence People Eventually writes a book with his lectures and articles How to Win Friends and Influence People, sold somewhere between 40million copies and is a runaway best seller; Argues that in the modern world (white collar work) the key to everything is personality, the key is human relations Domestic science In colleges and in high schools you start to see slow development of domestic science which is the notion of bringing experts into the family to help the family move more efficiently Good Housekeeping Domestic scientists begin to look at the home and see how everything is done and they begin to restructure it along scientific methods Bruce Barton: The Man Nobody Knows Advertiser in NYC, but shifts to write this book, a biography of Jesus of Nazareth Crafted by an ad man, the Jesus who appears in his book is so amazing because of his personality, he understood the need for advertising He says is a popular person because he sparkles when other people see him Lecture 12 Sinclair Lewis: Babbitt Prohibition shouldn’t drink because Germany drinks so we don’t want to be like them; speak easys which were illegal bars Billy Sunday religious speaker with an entertainment dynamic, attacked selffulfillment Spokes Trial Ku Klux Klan came back in the 1920s and began critizing jews and catholics, they were anti-modernism but very Americanism Sacco and Vanzetti trial, accused of breaking into warehouse and killing a security guard; were convicted and raised political tensions Lost generation many people left country to go to paris because they felt alienated from the mainstream Flappers young women rejecting the victorian ideals, short hair and shorter hems of the dresses, jazz dancing Marcus Garvey a black leader, “universal negro improvement”; Black nationalism argues rich blacks should return to Africa, Harlem Renaissance music is emerging, there is a emergence of vibrant black culture and blacks are collaborators of culture Langston Hughes poet Louis Armstrong Bessie Smith jazz singer
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