Note-Taking Study Guide form for Cooper Chapters 1 and 2
Note-Taking Study Guide form for Cooper Chapters 1 and 2
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Chapter 1 Basic Characteristics of Science Systematic approach for ____________ & _____________ knowledge about the natural world Purpose –To achieve a thorough understanding of the phenomena under study •ABA – __________ important behaviors –Seeks to discover the _________ truths (not those held by certain groups, organizations, etc.) Three different types of investigations provide different levels of understanding: –Description –Prediction –Control Each level contributes to the overall knowledge base in a given field Description –Collection of facts about _____________ events that can be ________________, classified, & examined for possible relations with other known facts –Often suggests ______________ or questions for additional research Prediction –Relative _______________ that when one event occurs, another event will or will not occur –Based on repeated observation revealing _______________ between various events –Demonstrates ______________ between events –No causal relationships can be interpreted –Enables _________________ Control –Highest level of scientific understanding –_________________ relations can be derived •Specific change in one event (________________ variable)… •Can reliably be produced by specific manipulations of another event (____________________ variable)… •And the change in the dependent variable was unlikely to be the result of other extraneous factors (_________________ variables) – Events can only really be “___-_____________” – Nearly impossible to factor out all other possible “causes” Attitudes of Science •Science as a _____ of attitudes (Skinner, 1953) •Definition of science lies within the ______________ of scientists, not the _________________ or materials they use •Only known as science due to an overriding idea of “scientific method” – Fundamental assumptions about the nature of events •Scientific attitudes that guide the work of all scientists include: – Determinism – Empiricism – Experimentation – Replication – Parsimony – Philosophic doubt Determinism •Assumption upon which science is ___________________ •Presumption that the universe is a ___________ and ___________ place in which all phenomena occur as the result of other events •Events do not just occur at will •Events are related in ________________ ways Empiricism •Practice of ______________ _______________ of phenomena of interest •What all scientific knowledge is built upon •“Objective” is the key to gaining a better understanding of what is being studied Experimentation •Basic ____________ in most sciences •Experiment: –__________________ comparison of some measure of the phenomenon of interest (________________ variable) under two or more different conditions in which only one factor at a time (___________________ variable) differs from one condition to another Replication •The __________________ of experiments to determine the _______________ and usefulness of findings •Includes the repetition of independent variable conditions within experiments •Method for which ______________ are discovered Parsimony •The idea that __________________, logical explanations must be ruled out, experimentally or conceptually, before more _______________ or abstract explanations are considered •Helps scientists fit findings within the field’s existing knowledge base Philosophic Doubt •The ______________________ questioning of the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge •Involves the use of scientific evidence before implementing a new practice, then constantly ___________________ the effectiveness of the practice after its implementation A Definition of Science •Science is… –A ____________ approach to the understanding of natural phenomena… –As evidenced by _______________, and control… –That relies on _________________ as its fundamental assumption… –__________________ as its prime directive… –__________________ as its basic strategy… –__________________ as its necessary requirement for believability… –__________________ as its conservative value… –And _________________ _____________ as its guiding conscience. Development of Applied Behavior Analysis •Behavior analysis is comprised of three major branches – Behaviorism •_________________ of the science of behavior – ___________________ analysis of behavior (EAB) •Basic research – Applied behavior analysis (ABA) •Development of a technology for __________________ behavior •Can only be understood in the context of the ________________ & basic research traditions & findings •Psychology in the early 1900s was dominated by the study of states of _________________________, images, & other mental processes •Watson is recognized as moving the field of psychology in a new direction – Argued that subject matter for psychology should be the study of ____________________ behavior, not states of mind or mental processes – Early form of behaviorism known as __________-_____________ (S-R) psychology (Watsonian behaviorism) – Created foundation for the study of behavior as a natural science •B.F. Skinner’s The Behavior of Organisms (1938/1966) – Formally began the __________________ branch of behavior analysis – Summarized his laboratory research from 1930-1937 – Discussed two types of behavior •___________________ •___________________ Respondent behavior –_____________________ behavior –Ivan Pavlov (1927/1960) –Respondents are _______________ (“brought out”) by stimuli that immediately precede them –Antecedent stimulus & response it elicits form a functional unit called a ______________ –Involuntary responses –Occur whenever ___________________ stimulus is present –S-R model Operant behavior –Behavior is shaped through the _________________________ that immediately follow it –Three-term contingency –___-___-____ model –Behaviors are influenced by stimulus changes that have followed the behavior in the __________ Experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) – Named as a new science by __________________ – Outlined specific methodology for its practice: •The rate or __________________ of response is the most common dependent variable •____________________ or continuous measurement is made of carefully defined response classes •___________-___________ experimental comparisons are used instead of designs comparing the behavior of experimental & control groups •Visual analysis of _________________ data is preferred over statistical inference •A description of ________________ relations is valued over formal theory testing Skinner & colleagues conducted many laboratory experiments between the 1930s and 1950s –Discovered & verified __________ principles of _______________ behavior –Same principles continue to provide the empirical foundation for behavior analysis today B.F. Skinner –Founder of ______________ __________ of behavior –Wrote extensively •Very influential in the guiding practice of the science of behavior & in proposing the application of the principles of behavior to new areas •Walden Two (1948) •Science and Human Behavior (1953) •About Behaviorism (1974) –Philosophy of science became known as ______________ ____________________ Radical behaviorism –Attempts to explain _____ behavior, including _________ behavior (e.g., thinking & feeling) ________________ behaviorism –Philosophical position that considers behavioral events that cannot be __________ observed to be outside the realm of the science Mentalism –Approach to understanding behavior that assumes that a ___________ or “inner” dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension & that phenomena in this dimension either directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior –Relies on ________________ constructs and explanatory fictions –Dominated Western intellectual thought & most psychological theories (e.g., Descartes, Freud, Piaget) –Relies on the premise of ________________ _______________ (e.g., “knowledge”) •A fictitious variable that often is simply another name for the observed behavior that contributes nothing to an understanding for the variables responsible for developing (or maintaining) the behavior •__________________ view of the cause & effect Structuralism –Rejects all events that are not ___________________ defined by objective assessment –Restrict activities to ____________________ of behavior –Makes no scientific manipulations; does not address causal questions Methodological behaviorism –Rejects all events that are not operationally defined by objective assessment •Deny existence of “________ ________________” or consider them outside the realm of scientific account •_______________________ the existence of mental events but do not consider them in the analysis of behavior –Use scientific manipulations to search for _________________ relationships between events –___________________ view since it ignores major areas of importance •Skinner did not object to cognitive psychology’s concern with thoughts & feelings (i.e., events taking place “inside the skin”) •Referred to these as “private events” •They are behavior to be analyzed with the same conceptual & experimental tools used to analyze publicly observable behavior Radical behaviorism (Skinner’s behaviorism) makes three assumptions about the nature of private events –Private events such as thoughts and feelings are ______________ –Behavior that takes place within the skin is distinguished from other (“public”) behavior only by its ________________________ –Private behavior has no special properties & is influenced by (i.e., is a function of) the same kinds of variables as publicly accessible behavior Radical behaviorism (Skinner’s behaviorism) – Includes & seeks to understand _______ human behavior – Far-reaching & ___________________________ – Dramatic departure from other conceptual systems Fuller (1949) – One of the first studies to report the ________________ application of operant behavior – Participant: 18-year-old boy with profound mental retardation – Arm-raising response was ___________________ by injecting a small amount of a warm sugar-milk solution into participant’s mouth every time he moved his right arm Ayllon & Michael (1959) – “The Psychiatric Nurse as a Behavioral Engineer” –Formed the basis for branch of behavior analysis that would later be called ____________ _____________ _______________ (______) –Described techniques based on principles of behavior to improve the functioning of chronic psychotic or mentally retarded residents 1960s – Researchers began to apply principles of behavior in an effort to improve _____________________ important behavior – Techniques for measuring behavior & controlling & manipulating variables were sometimes unavailable, or __________________ – Little _____________________ was available – No ready outlet for publishing studies •Difficult to __________________ findings Despite limitations in the 1960s many applications of behavior principles were made Application of behavior principles to _______________ is a major area of impact Provided the foundation for: – behavioral approaches to curriculum design – instructional methods – classroom management – generalization and maintenance of learning 1960s & 1970s –Many new __________________ programs were developed in applied behavior analysis –________________ & _________________ conducted in these programs made major contributions to the rapid growth of the field 1968 – Formal beginning of contemporary applied behavior analysis –Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) began publication –“Some Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis” (Baer, Wolf, & Risley) Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) –First journal in U.S. to deal with ________________ problems & gave researchers using methodology from the experimental analysis of behavior an ______________ for publishing their findings –Flagship journal of ABA “Some Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis” (Baer, Wolf, & Risley) –_____________ _______________ of the new discipline (ABA) –Defined the criteria for judging adequacy of _____________ & _________________ in ABA & outlined the scope of work for those in the science –Most widely ________________ publication in ABA –Remains standard description of the discipline Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) recommended the following ____________ defining __________________ for research or behavior change programs: –Applied –Behavioral –Analytic –Technological –Conceptual –Effective –Generality Applied –Investigates ___________________ significant behaviors with immediate importance to the participant(s) –Examples include behaviors such as: •Social •Language •Academic •Daily living •Self-care •Vocational •Recreation and/or leisure Behavioral – Precise measurement of the ________________ behavior in need of improvement & documents that it was the __________________ behavior that changed •The behavior in need of improvement and it is a study of behavior (not about behavior) •The behavior must be _____________________ •Important to note whose behavior has changed Analytic – Demonstrates _________________________ control over the occurrence and non-occurrence of the behavior (a functional relation is demonstrated) – __________________ & ___________________ relationships Technological – Written description of all procedures in the study is sufficiently ________________ and ________________ to enable others to replicate it – All operative procedures are identified and described in detail & clarity – ______________________ technology Conceptually systematic – Behavior change interventions are derived from ____________ principles of ________________ – Better enable research consumer to derive other similar procedures from the same principle(s) – Assist in ______________________ discipline into a system instead of a “collection of tricks” Effective – Improves behavior sufficiently to produce __________________ results for the participant(s) – Improvements in behavior must reach ____________ or _____________ significance – Extent to which changes in the target behavior(s) result in ______________ changes Generality – Produces behavior changes that last over _____________… – Appear in other ____________________ (other than the one in which intervention was implemented)… – Or spread to other _____________________ (those not directly treated by the intervention) Additional Characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis Offers society an approach toward solving problems that is: – Accountable – Public – Doable – Empowering – Optimistic Accountable – Created by the focus on: •_______________________ environmental variables that reliably influence behavior •Reliance on direct & ____________ measurement to detect changes in behavior –Detect successes and failures –Allow changes to be made Public – ______________, explicit, & _______________________ – Of value across a broad spectrum of fields Doable – Not prohibitively complicated or _____________________ – Variety of individuals are able to implement principles and interventions – Does involve more than learning to do some procedures Empowering – Provides practitioners with real ________ that work – Raises ______________________ – Increases confidence for _____________ challenges Optimistic – Possibilities for _________ individual (Strain et al., 1992) – Detect small ____________________ – Positive outcomes yield a more optimistic attitude about future successes – Peer-reviewed ________________ provides many examples of success Definition of Applied Behavior Analysis Applied behavior analysis is: –A ____________ approach to improving socially significant behavior… –In which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are _____________________ applied to improve _______________ significant behavior… –And to demonstrate ___________________ that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement in behavior Six key components: –Guided by attitudes of methods of _________________ inquiry –All behavior change procedures are ______________ & implemented in a systematic, ____________________ manner –Only procedures _______________________ derived from the basic principles of behavior are circumscribed by the field –Focus is ____________ _______________ behavior –Seeks to make meaningful improvement in important behavior –Seeks to produce an analysis of the factors responsible for ___________________ Domains of Behavior Analytic Science Four domains –Behaviorism –Experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) –Applied behavior analysis (ABA) –Professional practice Behavior analysts may work in _______ or _______ of the four domains Domains are interrelated & influence one another Behaviorism –Theoretical & __________________ issues –Conceptual basis of behavior principles as they relate across many spectrums Experimental analysis of behavior (EAB) –___________ research –Experiments in __________________ settings with both human participants and _________________subjects –Goal of discovering & clarifying fundamental principles of behavior Applied behavior analysis (ABA) – _____________ research – Experiments are aimed at discovering & clarifying _______________ relations between socially significant behavior & its controlling variables – Desire to contribute to further development of a ______________ & ___________________ technology of behavior change Professional practice – Providing behavior analytic services to ____________________ – Design, implement, & ________________ behavior change programs that consist of behavior change tactics derived from fundamental principles of behavior •Discovered by ________________ researchers •Experimentally validated for their effects on socially significant behavior by ___________________ researchers Chapter 2 Definition of Behavior “The behavior of an organism is that portion of an organism’s _________________ with the ____________________ that is characterized by detectable displacement in space through time of some part of the organism and that results in _________________ _________________ in at least one aspect of the environment” (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980, 1993a) Behavior of an Organism •Portion of the organism’s interaction with the ____________________ •_______________________ in space through time –Temporal _________________ –Temporal extent –________________________ •Results in a ____________________ _______________ in some aspect of the environment Behavior or Response •Behavior in reference to a larger set of _________________ __________ _______________ sharing certain –_____________________ characteristics –Functions •Response –Specific ____________________ of behavior Descriptions of Behavior Structural and functional •Response _______________________ –Form –Physical characteristics •__________________ –Effects of behavior on ____________________ Response Class •A group of responses with the _________________ _________________ –Each ____________________ in the group produces the same effect on the environment Repertoire •All ______________________ a person can do •Set or collection of _______________________ ______________ ________________ a person has learned that are relevant to a particular setting or tasks –_________________________ with respect to language skills, academic tasks, everyday routines, recreation, & __________________ ________________ _________________ Environment •All behavior occurs within an ____________________ __________________ •______________________ cannot be emitted in an environmental void or vacuum •Johnston & Pennypacker (1993a) definition •Complex, dynamic universe of events that differ from ________________ ________________ _________________ •Stimulus “an ____________________ _________________ that affects an organism through its receptor cells” (Michael, 2004, p. 7) Description of Stimulus Events •______________________ –Physical features •Temporally –Occur with respect to a __________________ ______________ _________________ •Functionally –Effects on behavior Stimulus Class •Any group of ___________________ sharing a _______________________ ________________ of common elements in one or more of these dimensions –Formal dimensions of stimuli –Temporal ______________________ of stimuli –Behavioral functions of _______________________ ___________________ Formal Dimensions of Stimuli •Descriptions, measurements, ______________________ –Based on size, color, ________________________, etc. •Stimuli can be –Social –_______________________ –Temporal Locus of Stimuli •_______________________ is affected by stimulus changes that –occur prior to (_____________________) –Immediately after the behavior (_______________________) •Antecedent –Environmental conditions or stimulus changes that exist or occur _______________ ____________ the behavior •Play a critical part in ___________________ and ____________________ •Learners do not need to be aware of antecedents for antecedents to __________________ ___________________ •___________________________ –Stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest •Especially those that are _____________________ •Relevant to current __________________________ states •Influence on ______________________ behavior –Other consequences have little effect Temporal Locus of Stimuli – Big Idea •Consequences ______________________ ___________________ the antecedent conditions to determine what is learned –True, whether or not individual is aware of or systematically plans the ______________________ •It’s happening all around us! _______________________ functions of stimulus changes •Stimulus changes are best understood through a ____________________ __________________ of their effects on behavior –________________________ control –_____________________, or no apparent effect Behavioral Functions of Stimulus Changes •Stimulus changes –An immediate but _______________________ effect of increasing or decreasing the current ____________________ of the behavior –A delayed but relatively _______________________ effect in terms of the frequency of that type of behavior in the future (Michael, 1995) Stimulus Changes: Social & Nonsocial •See Table 2-1, pg. 28 in text Respondent Behavior •Behavior that is elicited by ________________________ ____________________ –_____________________, brought out by the stimulus that ____________________ it •Something in your eye elicits eye blink (__________________) •Ready-made behaviors protect against ____________________ stimuli •_________________________ relations –Reflex •_________________________ –Gradually ________________________ response strength Respondent Conditioning •Experimental demonstrations of _____________________ ___________________ –Ivan Petrovich Pavlov –Digestive systems of ____________________ –Animals _______________________ every time lab assistant opened the cage door to feed them •See Figure 2-1, pg. 31 in text Operant Behavior •Any behavior whose future frequency is determined primarily by its __________________ ____________________ ____________________ –Selected –____________________ –_______________________ by consequences •Defined functionally, by its effects Selection by Consequences •All forms of life, from single cells to complex cultures, evolve as a result of ___________________ with respect to ___________________ (Pennypacker, 1994, pp. 12 -13) •_______________________ –Operates during the _____________________ of the individual •__________________________ –Natural selection in the _______________________of a species Operant Conditioning •Process and selective effects of _______________________ on behavior •“Functional consequence” –Stimulus change that ____________________ a given behavior in a relatively immediate temporal sequence and alters the ___________________of that type of behavior in the ____________________ •“Strengthen” an _____________________ –Response more ____________________, more frequent (Skinner, 1953, p. 65) •________________________ has taken place when –Operant conditioning consists of an increase in _____________________ ______________________ Type of Stimulus Change •See Figure 2-2, pg. 37 in text Operant Conditioning •Consequences can only affect _______________________ behavior •Consequences select ___________________ ____________________, no individual responses •________________________ consequences have the greatest effect •Consequences select any behavior –______________________ and ________________________ are equal opportunity selectors –Importance of ____________________ relations •Operant conditioning occurs ____________________ Reinforcement •Most important ___________________ _________________ ___________________ •Key element to most _______________________ _________________ programs Reinforcement - Defined •If behavior is followed closely in time by a stimulus event and as a result the future frequency of that type of behavior __________________ in similar conditions, _____________________ has taken place Stimulus Changes Functioning as Reinforcers •___________________ Reinforcement (Adding) –A new stimulus added to the environment (or __________________ in intensity) •____________________ Reinforcement (Withdrawing) –An already present stimulus ____________________ from the environment (or reduced in intensity) •See Figure 2-2, pg. 37 in text •See Figure 2-3, pg. 42 in text Reinforcement – Big Ideas •Always means an increase in _____________________ _________________ •The modifiers positive (adding) and negative (withdrawing) –Describe the __________________ of stimulus change operation that best characterizes the consequence Punishment •If behavior is followed ___________________ _______________ ________________ by a stimulus event and as a result the future frequency of that type of behavior decreases in similar conditions, _______________________ has taken place Stimulus Changes Functioning as Punishers •Positive Punishment (Adding) –Punishment by _______________________ stimulation –A _________________ _________________ added to the environment (or increased in intensity) –Type I •Negative Punishment (Withdrawing) –Punishment by contingent withdrawal of a __________________ _________________ –An already present stimulus __________________ from the environment (or reduced in intensity) –Type II •See Figure 2-2, pg. 37 in text •See Figure 2-3, pg. 42 in text Punishment – Big Ideas •Always means a ______________________ in response rate •The modifiers positive (adding) and negative (withdrawing) – Describe the ____________________ of stimulus change operation that best characterizes the consequence Principles and Behavior Change Tactics •Principle of behavior – Describes a functional relation between _____________________ and one or more of its controlling ________________________ (b = fx) •Thorough ______________________ across individual organisms, species, settings, behaviors •Empirical _______________________ inferred from many experiments •Describe how behavior works •Reinforcement, punishment, ______________________ •________________________ _____________________ tactic – __________________________, technologically consistent method for changing behavior that has been derived from one or more basic principles of behavior •Sufficient generality across subjects, settings, and/or behaviors to warrant its ________________________ & _______________________ – Technological aspect of ______________________ Principles and Behavior Change Tactics – Big Idea •Principles –Describe how behavior ________________________ –Lawful relationship between behavior, •An immediate consequence, and an ____________________ __________________ of the behavior in the future under similar conditions •Behavior change tactics –Are how __________________ __________________ ____________________ put the principles to work to help people learn and use ______________________ ___________________ behaviors What kinds of stimulus changes function as reinforcers and punishers? •___________________________ reinforcement and punishment –Function irrespective of prior ______________________ _____________________ •__________________________ reinforcers and punishers –Function as such based on previous pairings with other _____________________ and __________________________ Motivating Operations •Function –Alters the current value of _______________________ _____________________ as reinforcement or punishment •Satiation •__________________________ Discriminated Operant •Occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than it does under others •__________________________ _______________________ –_______________________ rates of operant responding observed in the presence or absence of antecedent stimuli –Due to pairings (antecedent/consequence) in the past, antecedents acquire the ability to _________________________ ____________________ _____________________ Three-Term Contingency •____________________(A) – ___________________(B) – ___________________ (C) –Basic unit of analysis in the analysis of ____________________ _________________ –All ABA procedures involve the _________________________of one or more components of the three-term contingency The Complexity of Human Behavior •Highly complex variables governing _________________ ___________________ •Human capabilities –Large repertoires of __________________ ___________________, verbal behavior •Analysis of control complicated by –Individual differences in __________________ _______________ _________________________ –Practical, _______________, logistical, etc., issues
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