HSC 180 Test 1 Study Guide
HSC 180 Test 1 Study Guide HSC 180 - 1
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chanel Mcclay on Monday September 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HSC 180 - 1 at Ball State University taught by Erica Payton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Intro to Community Health in Nursing and Health Sciences at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Principles in Community Health ExamI Chapters 14 Study Objectives Chapter 1 I Be able to define the following terms Health community public health community health population health and global health 0 Health A dynamic state or condition of the human organism that is multidimensional in nature a resource for living and results from a person s interaction to his or hers environment therefore it can exist in varying degrees and is specific to each individual and his or her situation 0 Community A collective body of people identified by common characteristics such as location interests experiences occupation age or common bonds 0 Public Health actions that society takes collectively to ensure that the conditions in which people can be healthy can occur most inclusive term 0 Community Health health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions to promote protect and preserve their health 0 Population Health health status of people who are not organized have no identity as a group 0 Global Health health problems issues and concerns that transcend national boundaries May be in uenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries Best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions I Be sure that you can explain the difference between personal health activities and community health activities Be able to provide examples 0 Personal Health Activities Individual actions and decision making that affect the health of an individual or his or her immediate family members or friends This DOES NOT directly affect others I Examples Choosing to eat wisely wear a seat belt and visiting the doctor regularly 0 Community Public Health Activities Activities aimed at protecting or improving the health of a population or community I Examples Maintaining birth and death records protecting food and water supply participating in fund drives for voluntary health organizations I Differentiate between the physical social and cultural factors that affect the health of a community 0 Physical Include the in uences of geography the environment community size and industrial development I Examples Urban communities experience more stress related illnesses Rural communities may not have access to the same quality of health as urban areas 0 Social and Cultural Social factors are those that arise from the interaction of individuals or groups within the community Cultural factors arise from guidelines that individuals inherit from being a part of a particular society I Examples Parents not getting their children vaccinated economy politics religion Socioeconomic Status 0 Be able to define Community Organizing and the Individual Behavior involved 0 Community Organizing A process through which communities are helped to identify common problems or goals mobilize resources and in other ways develop and implement strategies for reaching their goals they have collectively set I Step 1 Address goals I Step 2 Get resources I Step 3 Create a plan and act on it Individual Behavior The behavior of individuals contributes to the health Of the entire community I Herd Immunity The resistance of a population to the spread of an infectious agent based on the immunity of a high proportion of individuals I Be able to name the specific time periods in the history of community and public health 0 Earliest Civilizations Many community health practices went unrecorded Archeological evidence of community health activities dating back to 2000 BC 18th century 18th century was characterized by industrial growth Living and work conditions were unsafe and unhealthy At the end of the 18th century in 1796 Dr Jenner demonstrated the process of vaccination against small pox 19th century Dr John snow started studying epidemiology by figuring out why people were getting a disease from a specific water pump Shattuck report was made in 1850 A health report that outlined public health needs for the state The Modern Era of Public Health began in 1850 and is still going on today 20th century In 1900 the life expectancy was less than 50 years old It also started the heath resource development period where there was an increase of health care facilities and providers Period of social engineering Between 1960 and 1973 when the federal government became active in health matters In 1965 Medicare and Medicaid was established There was an improvement of standards in health facilities and an in ux of federal dollars that accelerated the rate of cost of health care Period of health promotion It was identified that premature death was traceable to lifestyle and health behaviors Healthy People was established Healthy people 2020 is the fourth set goals and objectives for the US that defines the nation s health agenda and guides its health policy 21St Century Communicable diseases poor sanitation unsafe drinking water hunger were all prevalent However there was reduction in child mortality vaccinepreventable deaths There was access to safe water and sanitation malaria and HIV prevention and control etc Chapter 2 0 Be able to define health agencies including the key functions at each level and be able to provide examples 0 Governmental Health Agency International National State and Local International World Health Organization WHO most widely recognized international governmental health organization It s headquartered in Switzerland with six regional offices around the world It s not the oldest but it is the largest Their goal is for all people to have highest possible level of health National Department of Health and Human Services HHS was formed in 1980 and is the largest department in the federal government It is organized into 11 operating agencies and 10 regional offices A department of people serVing people from newborns to people with health needs to elderly citizens State State wide departments that aim to promote protect and maintain the health and welfare of their citizens Consist of 10 Core Functions Monitor health Diagnose and investigate Inform educate and empower Mobilize community partnerships Develop policies Enforce laws Link to Provide care Assure competent workforce and Evaluate Local There are local level health organizations departments One example are Coordinated school health programs where they have an organized set of policies procedures and activities designed to protect promote and improve the health and wellbeing of students and staff thus improving a student s ability to learn 0 QuasiGovernmental Health They have some official health responsibilities but operate more like voluntary health organizations They do receive some government funding and some of their tasks are government related but they operate independently of government supervision Examples American Red cross National Academy of Sciences National Science Foundation 0 Nongovernmental Health Agencies Organizations funded by private donations or membership dues They arose due to an unmet health needs They operate free from governmental interference as long as they meet IRS guidelines with tax status There are many types Voluntary professional religious social philanthropic corporate and service 0 Be able to identify the core functions of public health 0 Be able to identify the basic objectives of voluntary health agencies 0 Four basic objectives Raise money to fund programs andor research Provide education to professionals and the public Provide services to those af icted I Advocacy Speaking on someone s behalf requiring something to promote change I Be able to explain Corporate Involvement in Community Health Chapter 3 0 They play the biggest role is provision of health care benefits Also worksite health promotion programs are aimed at lowering health care costs and reducing absenteeism They do this by safety counseling education courses and physical fitness centers 0 Be able to define key terms including specific rates such as attack incidence and prevalence rates 0 O O Epidemiology Study of distribution and determinants of healthrelated states or events in specified populations why things happen more often in certain areas Attack Rate Incidence rate calculated for a particular population for a single disease outbreak expressed as a percentage Incidence Rate Number of new healthrelated events or cases of a disease in a population exposed to that risk during a particular period of time divided by total number in same population Prevalence Rate Number of new and old cases in a given period of time divided by total number in that population I Useful in study of chronic disease diseases that usually last three months or longer because it answers the question of how many people are suffering from this disease than rather than when I Be able to distinguish between endemic pandemic and epidemic O O O Epidemic unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness specific health related behavior or event in a particular population Example H1N1 Endemic disease that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course catching colds in the winter Pandemic outbreak over wide geographic area Ebola 0 Be able to recognize the importance of rates 0 O O 0 Rates allow for comparison of outbreaks at different times and or in different places Cases People af icted those who are sick Rates Number of events in a given population over a given period of time or given point in time I Natality Birth Morbidity Sickness Mortality Fatality Death Population at Risk Those susceptible to particular disease or condition Crude Rates Denominator includes the total population Age Adjusted Rates Used to make comparisons of relative risks across groups and over time when groups differ in age structure Specific Rates Measure morbidity and mortality for particular populations or diseases O CauseSpecific Mortality Rate Measures death rate for a specific disease Case fatality rate percentage of cases of a particular disease that result in death Proportionate mortality ratio percentage of overall mortality in a population that is attributable to a particular cause Be able to explain the different types of epidemiological studies 0 Analytic Studies Test hypothesis about relationships between health problems and possible risk factors I Observational Studies Investigator observes natural course of events noting exposed vs unexposed and disease development I Experimental studies Investigator allocates exposure and follows development of disease Carried out to identify cause of disease or determine effectiveness of vaccine drug or procedure Case Control Studies Compares those with disease to those without but with similar background andor with prior exposure to certain risk factors The odds Crosssectional Study A study where information about exposure and disease are collected at the same time Cohort Studies Cohort is classified by exposure to one or more risk factors and observed to determine rate of disease development The relative risk I Cohort group of people who share important demographic characteristic Be able to distinguish between the different standardized measurements of health Life expectancy DALYs and HALE 0 Life expectancy average number of years a person from a specific cohort is projected to live from a given point in time DisabilityAdjusted Life Years DALYS Measures burden of disease One DALYone lost year of healthy life HealthAdjusted Life Expectancy HALE Number of years of healthy life expected on average in a given population or region of the world Understand the difference between commonsource vs propagated epidemics O 0 Common Source When each case can be traced to a single source of exposure I Incubation Period The time between exposure and first sign of symptoms I Point source exposure at the same time I Continuous source exposure a common source over time Propagated Epidemics A distribution of cases traceable to multiple SOUFCES Of EXPOSUFE I Primary One person gets sick I Secondary The friend who gets sick I Tertiary The friend who infects other people Understand the terms control groups randomization blinding O O 0 Control Groups The group that s not affected Randomization When your role is random Blinding When the researcher doesn t know which role people are playing O Placebo Blank treatment 0 Criteria of Causation 0 Strength How strong is the association between the sicknesses 0 Consistency Does it affect a diverse group of people 0 Specificity Is there only one exposure to cause the disease 0 Temporality If you do this will it always lead to the disease 0 Biological plausibility Common sense Chapter 4 I Be able to define and provide examples of acute vs chronic communicable and noncommunicable illnesses O Communicable infectious diseases Those diseases for which biological agents or their products are the cause and that are transmissible from one individual to another 0 Noncommunicable noninfectious diseases Those illnesses that cannot be transmitted from one person to another I Nation s leading cause of death I Diseases of heart and blood vessels Cancer Diabetes Mellitus I Has many causes multicausation 0 Acute Diseases in which peak severity of symptoms occurs and subsides within 3 months 0 Chronic Diseases or conditions in which symptoms continue longer than 3 months I Be able to list and describe the steps in the chain of infection 0 Pathogen Disease causing agent virus bacterium etc 0 Reservoir Favorable environment for infectious agent to live and grow human animal etc I Zoonoses Diseases for which the reservoir resides in animal populations I Anthroponoses Diseases for which humans are the only known reservoir 0 Portal of exit Path by which agent leaves host Transmission how pathogens are passed from reservoir to next host 0 Portal of entry Where agent enters susceptible host 0 New host Susceptible to new infection being established 0 Describe and provide examples of direct and indirect transmission 0 Direct transmission Immediate transfer of disease agent between infected and susceptible individuals I Touching biting kissing sexual intercourse 0 Indirect transmission Transmission involving an intermediate step I Airborne vehicle borne vector borne biological 0 Vehicles Nonliving objects by which agents are transferred to susceptible host 0 Describe and provide examples of prevention at the m levels 0 Prevention Planning for and taking action to prevent or forestall onset of disease or health problem 0 Intervention effort to control disease in progress taking action during an event 39 Control Containment of a disease prevention and intervention measures 0 Eradication total elimination of disease from human population 0 Primary Prevention Forestall onset of illness or injury during prepathogenesis period EX Breast Cancer Prevention 39 Communicable Diseases 0 Individual Hand washing using condoms properly cooking food 0 Communities Chlorinating water supply immunizations etc I Non Communicable Diseases 0 Individuals Education about health and disease prevention eating right and driving safely 0 Communities Adequate food and energy supplies efficient community services opportunities for education employment and housing 0 Secondary Prevention Early diagnosis and prompt treatment before disease becomes advanced and disability severe 39 Communicable Diseases 0 Individuals Selfdiagnosis selftreatment w home remedies 0 Communities Controlling extent of an epidemic investigating cases isolation disinfection l Non Communicable Diseases 0 Individuals Personal screenings mammogram pap test PSA test regular medical and dental checkups pursuit of diagnosis and prompt treatment 0 Communities Provision of mass screenings for chronic diseases casefinding measures provision of adequate health personnel equipment and facilities 0 Tertiary Prevention Aimed at rehabilitation following significant pathogenesis retrain reeducate rehabilitate 39 Communicable Diseases 0 Individual Recovery to full health after infection return to normal activity 0 Community Preventing recurrence of epidemics arrangements of the dead reapplying primary and secondary measures I Non Communicable Diseases 0 Individuals Significant behavioral or lifestyle changes adherence to prescribed medications following rehabilitation requirements after surgery 0 Communities Adequate emergency medical personnel and services hospitals surgeons nurses ambulance services 0 Be able to state the criteria of Prevention 0 Number of people who will die from a disease I Leading causes of death 0 Number of years of potential life lost 39 Captures issues affiliated With various groups 0 Economic costs associated with disease I Money spent at various levels of government ex alcohol and other drugs
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