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Review Exam 1

by: Marissa Reyes-Hernandez

Review Exam 1 Psych 1301

Marissa Reyes-Hernandez
Introduction to Psychology
Randolph Taylor

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About this Document

Review for Exam 1
Introduction to Psychology
Randolph Taylor
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Monday September 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 1301 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Randolph Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/14/15
List of things you may want to know about for the exam Disclaimer This list is not meant to serve as an exhaustive study guide That is to say information included in this sheet is not guaranteed to be on the exam Also information not presented on this sheet is not guaranteed to be absent from the exam It is strongly suggested that students study from a comprehension first perspective In other words students should be more concerned with mastering comprehension of course material than with mastering a test The instructor of this course will not be held responsible for dissatisfaction with exam grades as a result of information listed on or left off of this sheet In clinical trials patients reported frustration boredom increased irritability intestinal distress spontaneous giggling lost time reevaluation of goals and increased knowledge among other symptoms Ask your instructor if studying is right for you 0 Critical thinking with psychology 0 Issues with the way humans think about problems ex hindsight bias 0 The need for psychological science 0 Humans cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense 0 Hindsight bias 0 Overconfidence 0 See patterns in random events 0 Did we know it all along 0 Hindsight bias 0 Tendency to believe after learning an outcome 0 That we could have predicted it 0 Also known as the I knew it all along phenomenon o The limits of intuition and Common Sense 0 Overconfidence 0 People tend to think they know more than they do 0 This occurs in academic and social behavior 0 Perceiving order in random events 0 People perceive patterns to make sense of their world 0 Even in random unrelated data people often see an order because sequences often don t look random 0 People trust their intuition but this is flawed 0 The scientific attitudemethod 0 What are the important components 0 The Scientific Attitude o Curiosity 0 Includes reason to explore and know the world withoutbeing misleading 0 Ask questions 0 Thinking critically o A more careful style of thinking not using intuition o Helps with developing better ways to figure out what people do think and feel 0 Skepticism 0 You can disagree when you believe in it or when you see it is flawed 0 But you make be able to back up argument o Humility o Involves awareness that mistakes are possible and willingness To be surprised 0 One of psychology39s early mottos The rat is always o If you39re scienceing right you39re going to be wrong Sometimes 0 Scientific Method 0 Scientific method is the process of testing ideas about the world by 0 Setting up situations that that test our ideas 0 Making careful organized observations 0 Analyzing whether the data fit with our ideas 0 Data does not fit modify data o It is a constant circle Theory Hypothesis Operational definition Replication 0 Descriptive correlational and experimental research methods 0 Examples pros and cons etc 0 Descriptive research is a systematic objective observation of people 0 Goal is to provide a clear accurate picture of peoples behaviors thoughts and attributes 0 Correlation 0 General Definition an observation that two traits or attributes are related to each other Corelated 0 Scientific definition a measure of how closely two factors vary together or how well you can predict a change in one from observing 0 Correlation coefficient 0 How does change with x affect y o Mag btw 0 100 o The closer to 100 the stronger the relationship is o Direction to 0 Negative x goes up y goes down this is telling us how it works inverse function 0 Positive x goes up y goes y up 0 Research strategies Regression toward the mean 0 Illusory correlation o Refers to the perception of a relationship between two variables when only a minor or no relationship actually exist 0 May be fed by regression toward the mean 0 Regression toward the mean 0 The trend top fall back towards the mean 0 Correlation and Causation o No matter how strong the relationship correlation does not 0 possible cause and effect relationships People low in selfesteem are more likely to report depression than are those in selfesteem One possible explanation of this negative correlation is that a bad selfimage causes depressed feelings But as the diagram indicates other cause effect relationship possible 0 Research Strategies experimentation 0 With experiments researchers can focus on the possible effects of one or more factors in several ways Manipulating the factors of interest to determine their effects Holding constantquotcontrollingquot other factors 0 Experimentation 0 Double blind procedure eliminating bias Neither those in the study nor those collecting the data know which group is receiving the treatment Treatment39s actual effects can separated from potential placebo effect 0 Placebo effect Effect involves results caused by expectation alone 0 Variables Independent variables in an experiment Factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied Confounding Variable Factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect Dependent Variable 0 Statistical analysis Factor that is measured the variable that may change when the independent Variable is manipulated 0 Descriptive vs inferential what are main measures used 0 Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life Describing Data Accurate statistical understanding is important Measures of central tendency includes a single score that represents a set of scores Mode Mean Median Variation tells us how spread out scores are from the central tendency mean median mode Variability measure of how much data points differ from each other 0 Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution 0 Standard deviation a standardized calculation of the average distance score from the mean 0 The normal curve 0 O A common distribution of data sets is a normal or bell curve For example scores on the most commonly used intelligence test the Wechsler adult intelligence scale form the shape of the normal curve 0 Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life Significant Differences 0 When is an observed difference reliable O 0 Biology of mind 0 Representative samples are better than biased samples 0 Lessvariable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable 0 More cases are better than fewer Generalizations based on a few unrepresentative cases are unreliable Different by chance or different for a reason 0 People are different from each other aka there is naturalchance variation whenever you collect data 0 Psychologists want to know if observed differences are due to this chance variation or if they are unlikely to be due to chance 0 When differences are unlikely to be due to chance we say they have statistical significance o In psychological research significance usually means that the probability of occurrence by chance are less than 5 percent 0 Neurons and neuronal communication 0 What are component parts and general process What are the important neurotransmitters we discussed and their associated functions 0 Neural and hormonal systems biology behavior and mind 0 0 Everything psychological every idea every mood every urge is biological o Psychologists working from a biological perspective study the links between biology and behavior 0 Humans are biopsychosocial and social cultural factors interact to influence behavior Understanding of relationship between the brain and mind has evolved over time Plato Mind located in spherical head Aristotle Mind found in heart Gall Phrenology idea that bumps on the skull indicated purpose of the brain area Know the structure of a neuron 0 Action Potential 0 Neural impulse that travels down an axon like a wave The synapse 0 Is a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron synaptic gap Neurotransmitter 0 Are chemicals used to send a signal across the synaptic gap Reuptake 0 Recycling Neurotransmitters NTs 0 After NTs stimulate the receptors on the receiving neuron thaw chemical are taken back up into the sending neuron to be used again Neuronal communication 0 O O O Neurons receives signals from other neurons Then threshold is reached action potential begins all or nothing response Then travels down the axon terminal branches Transmitted to another cell by releasing neurotransmitters across the synapse o How Neurotransmitters Activate Receptors 0 When the key fits the site is opened 0 Altering the process Agonist and Antagonist Molecules O Agonist o Mimics neurotransmitter O Antagonist 0 Blocks neurotransmitter Major brain structures and evolutionary organization Oldest systems to newest systems Associated functions of major brain structures Lobes and major function of cerebral cortex the difference between human brain and lowerorder mammals O Neural and Hormonal Systems The Nervous System 0 Nervous system 0 Body39s speedy network consisting of all the nerve cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems I Central CNS 0 Brain and spinal cord are body39s decision maker I Peripheral PNS o Sensory and motor neurons connecting the central nervous systems to the rest of the body for gathering and transmitting information 0 The central Nervous System 0 Adult brain has about 86 billion neurons 0 Brain accounts for 2 percent of body weight 0 The PNS 0 Main parts 0 Somatic NS 0 Autonomic NS 0 Areas of the brain and their functions 0 The brainstem and cerebellum o Coordinates the body 0 The limbic border system 0 Manages emotions and connects thought the body 0 The cortex the outer covering 0 Integrates information 0 The brainstem and Thalamus O The brainstem including the medulla and pons is an extension of our spinal cord The thalamus is attached to its top The reticular formation passes through both structures 0 The medulla I Controls the most basic functions such as heartbeat the breathing o The Pons I Help coordinate simple automatic and unconscious movements 0 The Thalamus I The sensory switchboard or router I Also sends messages from the cortex to the medulla and cerebellum o Reticular netlike Formation I The nerve network of the brain I It enables alertness from a coma to wide awake o Cerebellum little Brain I Helps with coordination and nonverbal learning memory muscle memory 0 Limbic System I Emotions like fear or getting mad I Drives hunger and sex I Helps form episodic memories 0 The hippocampus o Processes memories 0 Works with amygdala to form emotionally charged memories 0 The Amygdala o Consists of two lima beans sized clusters 0 Helps process emotions especially fear and aggression o The hypothalamus I Lies below the thalamus o Helps with body temp makes sure we eat enough food and enough water involved in sex drive The cerebral cortex 0 Sensory and association areas 0 Two hemispheres 0 Each hemisphere has four lobes frontal parietal occipital temporal O Hemispheres connected by corpus callosum Function of the cortex 0 More complex animals have more cortical space devoted to integrating associating information Motor and sensory functions 0 Motor Cortex o Involved in sending information to body parts 0 Somatosensory Cortex o More cortical area devoted to more sensitive body part and parts requiring finer control 0 Ex more area for thumb than toes Brain Computer Interaction O A patient with a severed spinal cord has electrodes implanted in a parietal lobe region involved with planning to reach out one39s arm 0 The resulting signal can enable the patient to move a robotic limb Navigate a wheelchair etc More Sensory Function The occipital lobe deals with visual information Auditory information is sent to the temporal lobe Association Area Frontal Lobes O The frontal Lobes are active in 0 Executive functions such as judgement and planning 0 And inhibition of impulses Phineas Gage O Rail road worker 0 Metal pole shot thus his front part of his head frontal lobe 0 Personality changed Parietal Lobe Association Area 0 This part of the brain has many function in the association areas behind the sensory strip 0 Managing input from multiple senses 0 Performing spatial and mathematical reasoning 0 Monitoring the sensation of movement Temporal Lobe Association Areas 0 Some abilities managed by association areas in this lobe Plasticity the brain is flexible O The Brain generally does not repair damaged neurons But it can restore some function 0 It can form new connections reassign existing networks and insert new neurons some grown from stem cell The corpus Callosum O This large band of neural fibers connects the two brain hemis O Responsible for sending information between hemi 0 Recall hemi are cross wired left controls right side 0 Thus corpus callosum allow for whole body coordination 0 Can be severed o Hemi operate independently o Psych disorders 0 General definition for psych disorders 0 0 When does an issue become a disorder Change of understanding over time Moral treatment medical model current clinical tools 0 Patterns of thoughts feelings or actions that are deviant distressful and dysfunctional 0 Terms from the Definition I Disorder refers to a state of mentalbehavioral ill health I Patterns refers to finding a collection of symptoms that tend to go together I For there to be distress and dysfunction symptoms must be sufficiently severe to interfere with one s daily life and wellbeing I Deviant means differing from the norm Deviant 0 To deviate in general means to vary from what typically would happen 0 A behavior or mental state is deviant when it is different from what would be expected in that culture Defining Deviance O The Role of context and Culture Understanding the Nature of Psychological Disorders 0 One reason to diagnose a disorder is to make decisions about treating the problem 0 To treat a disorder it helps to understand the naturecause of the psychological symptoms 0 Based on older understanding of psychological disorders treatments have include exorcising evil spirits beatings to get rid of the spirits o Philippe Panel sought to reform brutal treatment 0 Panel proposed that mental disorders 0 Not caused by demonic possession 0 But by environmental factors such as stress and inhumane conditions 0 Panels moral treatment improved many places 0 The medical Model 0 Psychological disorders can be seen as psychopathology and illness of the mind 0 Disorders can be diagnosed 0 Based on a collection of symptoms that tend to go together 0 Disorders can be treated I With a goal of restoring mental health 0 Classifying Psychological Disorders 0 Diagnoses create description of associated symptoms 0 Diagnoses allow us to statistically study similar cases learning to predict outcomes 0 Diagnoses can guide treatment choices 0 The five quotAxesquot of diagnosis 0 The DMS suggests describing someone not just with a label but with a five part picture 0 Axis 1 I Is a clinical syndrome present 0 Axis 2 I Is a personally disorder or mental retardation 0 Axis 3 I Is general medical condition such as diabetes arthritis or hypertension also present 0 Axis 4 I Are psychosocial or environmental such as school or housing issue also present 0 Axis 5 I What is the global assessment of this persons functioning o The more common disorders 0 Anxiety disorders mood disorders What are the main illnesses General clinical symptoms 0 insanity and Responsibility 0 Jared Loughery shot many people including US Reps in 2011 O Loughery had schizophrenia and substance abuse problems 0 To what degree if any should he be held responsible for his actions 0 What is the appropriate consequence 0 Anxiety Disorders 0 GAD Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 Emotional Cognitive symptoms I Worrying anxious feelings and thoughts about many subjects I Free floating anxiety with no attachment to any subject 0 Physical I Autonomic arousal trembling sweating fidgeting sleep problems 0 Recall that be psych disorder symptoms must be deviant distressful and dysfunctional 0 Panic Disorder I m dying o A panic attack may include O Phobia Many minutes of intense dread or terror Chest pains choking numbness Patients may feel certain that it s a heart attack Panic disorder refers to repeated and unexpected panic attacks as well as a change in behavior 0 A specific phobia 0 0CD Uncontrollable irrational intense Desire to avoid the object of the phobia Even just a photos can trigger o Obsessions are intense unwanted worries ideas and images that repeatedly pop up 0 A compulsion needing to carry out an action even if it doesn t feel like it makes sense 0 When is it a disorder 0 PTSD Distress you are frustrated with not being able to control the behaviors OR Dysfunctions time and energy spent on these thoughts and behaviors interfere with everyday life 0 May include Repeated intrusive recall of memories 0 Recall hippocampus and amygdala Nightmares and other reexperiencing Social withdrawal or phobic avoidance Jumpy anxiety or hypervigilance Insomnia or sleep problems 0 Which people get PTSD Less control Traumatized more times Brain differences Less resiliency Retraumatized 0 Biology and Anxiety Genes 0 Studies show that identical twins even raised separately develop similar phobias Genes and Neurotransmitters 0 Genes regulate levels of neurotransmitters 0 Anxiety linked with a certain genes and neurotransmitter o Serotonin a neurotransmitter involved in the brain39s alarm center 0 The Brain Traumatic experiences can lead to emotionally charged memories 0 Thus recall of memory also leads to bringing back the feeling Anxiety disorders include over arousal of brain areas involved in impulse control The OCD brain shows extra activity in the frontal lobe which monitors our actions and checks for errors Mood Disorders Major depressive disorder is o More than just feeling quotdownquot 0 More than just feeling sad about something Bipolar disorder is o More than quotmood swings39 0 Depression plus the problematic Overly quotupquot mood called mania Criteria of Major Depressive Disorders Major depressive disorder is not just one of these symptoms It is one or both of the first two PLUS three or more of the rest Symptoms must persist for weeks or more Major Depression Notjust a Depressive Reaction 0 An unfair criticism of themselves or others with major depression quotthere is nothing to be depressed aboutquot o If someone with asthma has an attack do we say quotWhat do you have to be gasping aboutquot o It is bad enough to have MDD the persists even under quotgoodquot circumstances 0 Don39t add criticism by implying the depression is an exaggerated response Depression is Everywhere Phobias are the most common frequently experienced disorder But depression is the 1 reason people seek mental health services o In western culture 0 Per year depressive episodes happen to about 6 percent of men and about 9 percent of women 0 Over the course of a lifetime 12 percent of Canadians and 17 percent of American experience depression Bipolar Disorder Contrasting Symptoms Depressed mood stuck feeling Mania euphoric giddy easily down with irritated with exaggerated pessimism exaggerated optimism social withdrawal hypersociality and sexuality lack of felt pleasure delight in everything inactivity and no initiative impulsivity and overactivity difficulty focusing racing thoughts the mind fatigue and excessive desire to won39t settle down sleep little desire for sleep Bipolar disorder was one called manic depressive disorder Bipolar disorder39s two polar opposite moods are depression and mania o Suicide and Self Injury I Every year 1 million people commit suicide giving up on the process of trying to cope and improve their emotional wellbeing I This can happen when people feel frustrated trapped isolated ineffective and see no end to these feelings I Nonsuicidal self injury has other functions such as sending a message or selfpunishment 0 Biology of Depression the Brain I Brain activity is diminished in depression and increased in mania I Brain cell communication neurotransmitters o More norepinephrine arousing in mania less in depression 0 Reduced serotonin in depression 0 Preventing or Reducing Depression I Using Knowledge of the Biology of Depression 0 Adjust neurotransmitter with medication Increase serotonin levels with exercise Reduce brain inflammation with a healthy diet Prevent excessive alcohol use Schizophrenia What are main symptom classifications and experiences Role of genetics What are the main courses of development for schizophrenia o Schizophrenia I The mind is split from reality eg a split from one s own thoughts so that they appear as hallucinations o Psychosis refers to a mental split from reality and rationality I Disorganized andor delusional thinking I Disturbed perceptions I Inappropriate emotions and actions 0 Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia 0 Positive 0 Presence of problematic behaviors I Hallucinations especially auditory I Delusions especially persecutory I Bizarre behaviors I Disorganized thought and nonsensical speech 0 Negative 0 Absence of healthy behaviors I Flat affect no emotion I Anhedonia no feeling enjoyment I Abolition less motivation I Logia speaking less I Catatonia moving less 0 Problems in Thinking and Speaking 0 Disorganized speech 0 Including the quotword saladquot of loosely associated Phrases o Delusions illusory beliefs I Often bizarre and notjust mistaken most common are delusions of grandeur and of persecution 0 Problems with Selective attention difficulty filtering thoughts and choosing which thoughts to believe and to say out loud 0 Disturbed Perceptions 0 People with S often experience hallucinations that is perceptual experiences not shared by others 0 The most common form of hallucination is hearing voices often with upsetting content 0 Hallucinations can also be visual olfactorysmell tactiletouch or gustatory taste 0 Inappropriate Emotions 0 Odd and socially inappropriate responses such as looking bored or amused while hearing of a death Flat affect no visible emotional content 0 Impaired perception of emotions including not quotreadingquot others39 intentions and feelings o Onset and Development of Schizophrenia O Onset Typically schizophrenic symptoms appear at the end of adolescence and in early adulthood later for women than men 0 Prevalence Nearly 1 to 100 people develop schizophrenia slightly more men than women 0 Development The course of schizophrenia can be acute reactive or chronic 0 Course of Schizophrenia 0 Acute Reactive o Schizophrenia in reaction to stress some people develop positive symptoms such as hallucinations I Recovery is like 0 Chronic Process 0 Develops slowly with more negative symptoms such as flat affect and social withdrawal I With treatment and support there may be periods of a normal life but not a cure I Without treatments this type of schizophrenia often leads to poverty and social problems 0 UnderstandingSchizophrenia 0 Too many dopamine D4 Receptors help to explain paranoia and hallucinations it s like talking amphetamine all the time 0 Poor coordination of neural firing in the frontal lobes impairs judgment and self control The Thalamus fires during hallucinations as if real sensations were being received 0 There is general shrinking of many brain areas and connections between them 0 Biological Risk Factors 0 Abnormal brain structure and activity I There is general shrinking of many brain areas 0 Schizophrenia is somewhat more likely to develop when one or more of these factors is present 0 Low birth weight 0 Maternal diabetes 0 Older paternal age o Famine o 02 deprivation during delivery 0 Maternal virus during mid pregnancy impairing brain development STOP


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