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Unit 5 Exam Guide

by: jdakini

Unit 5 Exam Guide RS 1301 - 0

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be covered on our next exam.
Introduct to Religious Studies - 14744
Robert A Patterson
Study Guide
Religious Studies. Ethics. Values. Morality.
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by jdakini on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to RS 1301 - 0 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Robert A Patterson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduct to Religious Studies - 14744 in Liberal Arts at University of Texas at El Paso.

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Date Created: 03/07/16
1. Ethics is the study of values and the moral choices made by a person. 2. A value is a principle, standard or quality considered worthwhile by an individual, a specific group, or a culture. 3. Morality is a standard of right and wrong conduct as determined by a religion or some other specific group. 4. Hedonism believes that personal pleasure and whatever brings such to the individual is good. Hedonism is considered by many as selfish/ self- centered ethical position. Philosophically, there is the problem of defining pleasure because what one person considers pleasure might not be considered pleasure by another. 5. Aristotle was concerned about ethics. He wrote a book about the subject that is often simply referred to as The Ethics of Aristotle. However, the book is also known as Nicomachean Ethics a title based on the fact that his son edited the work after the death of his father. Aristotle’s son’s name was Nicomarchus. 1 The experience of camp life show that man (a person) does have a choice of action… Man (a person) can preserve a vestige of spiritual freedom, of independence of mind, even in such terrible conditions of psychic and physical stress.” 2 “… in the final analysis it becomes clear that the sort of person the prisoner became was the result of an inner decision, and not the result of camp influences alone… It is the spiritual freedom--- which cannot be taken away--- that makes life meaningful and purposeful.” 3 Rabbi Kushner pointed out that Frankl believed that “The greatest task for any person is to find meaning in his or her life. Frankl saw three possible sources for meaning: in work… in love… and in courage. Suffering in and of itself us meaningless; we give our suffering meaning by the way in which we respond to it.” 4 Rabbi Kushner summarized “Frankl’s most enduring insight” that states, “Forces beyond your control can take away everything you possess except one thing, your freedom to choose how you respond to the situation”. 5 Aristotle believed that the highest good was when a person developed their talents and abilities to the fullest, what we call today self-realization. 6 Aristotle was convinced that the highest happiness could only be achieved by living a virtuous life. He believed that life required a rational decision about knowing the good. 7 The traditional source of ethics in Western civilization has been based upon the Hebrew Scriptures and the ethical teachings of Aristotle. 8 William Barclay stated that “the greatest contribution of Jewish religion to ethics is that Judaism insisted on a connection between religion and ethics. 9 The classic example of moral absolutes in western civilization is the Ten Commandments (Exodus, Ch. 20). List the 10: a No other gods beside God b Must not make carved images (idols) c Must not make wrong use of God’s name d Remember to keep the Sabbath Day holy e Honor your father and mother f Do not commit murder g Do not commit adultery h Do not steal i Do not accuse anyone falsely j Do not covet/ be envious. 1 If someone violates his (or her) moral and intellectual integrity he (or she) weakens or even paralyzes his (or her) total personality. He (or she) is unhappy and suffers. 2 “… underlying the thinking of Lao-tse, Buddha, the Prophets, Socrates, Jesus ,Spinoza and the philosophers of the Enlightenment, one is struck by the fact that in spite of significant differences there is a core of ideas and norms of these teachings… the following is an approximate description of this common core. a (A person) must strive to recognize the truth. b (A person) must be independent and free c (A person) must relate (to other people) lovingly. d (A person) must know the difference between good and evil. e (A person) must learn to listen to the voice of his (or her) conscience and to be able to follow it. 3 These are the three phases of a prisoner’s mental reaction to camp life. a Shock b Apathy and hopelessness c After liberation (the adjustment period) i Learning to enjoy freedom- no fear ii Learning to fell again with emotions iii Learning to express how one truly felt. 4 Situation ethics is a system of ethics that evaluates acts in light of their situational context rather than application of moral absolutes. 5 Life is made up of choices. As to our character, we are who we are today because of the choices we made in our yesterdays. 6 All choices involve judging. One course of thought/ action against some other course of though/action. 7 Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher stated “every person has a conscience and finds himself or herself observed by an inward judge. It is incorporated in his or her being. A person may try to escape from their conscience through pleasures and distractions and may pay no attention to it, but at some point cannot avoid hearing it. 8 Gordon W. Allport stated “conscience is by no means exclusively a religious phenomenon. Conscience is the indicator of the measure of agreement between our conduct and our values, whatever they may be. 9 When our thoughts and, or actions, do not reflect our values the result is the experience of guilt.


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