Chapter 3 Study Guide
Chapter 3 Study Guide PSY 223
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley J Schuhl on Monday September 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at Illinois State University taught by Glenn Reeder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 603 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Study Guide for Chapter 3 The Social Self LEARNING OBJECTIVES GUIDELINES FOR STUDY You should be able to do each of the following by the conclusion of Chapter 3 1 Explain the idea of the selfconcept and how it relates to the ways in which we attend to interpret and remember the world around us Understand the ways in which studying the brain can shed light on the nature of the selfconcept pp 5557 A person39s selfconcept is made up of their selfschemas beliefs about oneself that guide the processing of selfrelevant information This is what allows us to hear our names in a noisy room people are able to be selective in their attention Scientists have even been able to see in brain scans that different parts of the brain will become more active when the subjects see a picture of them or see their name or address 2 Explain what is meant by describing the self as relational Discuss the social factors that contribute to the selfconcept p 57 Describing the self as quotrelationalquot means that we draw our sense of who we are from our past and current relationships with the significant others in our lives Our perceptions of what others think of us match our selfconcept Some people can also realize there39s a difference in how they see themselves and how others see them called metainsight 3 Discuss the limitations of introspection when it comes to achieving selfinsight Explain the relevance of affective forecasting to this issue pp 5759 In one scientific study found that participants were unable to accurately explain the causes for their own behavior Affective processing is being able to predict how you would feel in response to an emotional event This is something that many people struggle with they tend to overestimate the strength and duration of their emotional reactions 4 Describe selfperception theory and explain how it can be applied to human emotion behavior and motivation Define the over justification effect and discuss the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation pp 5964 Selfperception theory is when people draw inferences about themselves by observing their own actions but only when the situation doesn39t seem sufficient enough to have caused the behavior The over justification is the tendency for intrinsic motivation motivation within one39s self to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors such as money 5 Explain social comparison theory identifying when people tend to engage in social comparison and with whom they tend to compare themselves Explain the twofactor theory of emotion and its relevance to social comparison theory pp 6466 Social comparison is when people define rheir abili ries and opinions by comparing Themselves ro ofhers People engage in social comparison when They feel uncer rain abou r some rhing We will usually compare ourselves ro ofhers who are similar To us in relevan r ways The Two fac rory Theory is similar ro social comparison because if is The Theory rha r emo rion is based on physiological arousal and a cogni rive in rerpre ra rion of rha r arousal People will experience rhings differen rly based on how ofhers experience fhem 6 Discuss autobiographical memories and explain how they are in uenced by our self concept pp 6668 Au robiographical memories are ones rha r you recall abou r your own experiences People fend ro remember fheir firs rs and all fhese memories are an impor ran r par r of wha r shapes our iden ri ry People will also remember rhings more favorably for rhemselves 7 Describe the in uences of gender race and culture on our understanding of self pp 68 72 Cer rain cul rures value individualism independence selfreliance while o rhers value collec rivism coopera rion social harmony Cul rural orien ra rions can shape The way people perceive evalua re and presen r rhemselves in rela rion ro ofhers 8 Define selfesteem Explain the basis for the claim that people have a need for self esteem Discuss the potential costs associated With the pursuit of selfesteem pp 7275 Selfes reem is a componen r of rhe self consis ring of a person39s posi rive and nega rive self evalua rions The pursui r of selfwor rh is par r of human mofiva rion rha r runs deep wifhin us People will perceive even rs differen rly so rha r they can fhink posi rively abou r rhe even r and rhemselves 9 Explain how selfdiscrepancy theory accounts for the general level of and changes in people s selfesteem as well as how it impacts emotional states such as shame guilt and anxiety pp 7576 People have differen r frai rs rha r They would use To describe rheir ac rual self rheir ough r self and rheir ideal self who rhey are who they ough r ro be who rhey would like ro be and when rheir ac rual self is very differen r from rhe ofher rwo selves they will usually feel disappoin red frus rra red unfulfilled and sad 10 Identify different types of selffocusing situations and personality types Explain the self awareness trap pp 7679 Selffocusing si rua rions are ones rha r cause us To enfer a s ra re of heigh rened self awareness rha r leads us To na rurally To compare our behavior To some high s randard Si rua rions rha r could cause This are seeing ourselves on a video rape or ge r ring in fron r of an audience This can cause a nega rive effec r on The self es reem 11 Discuss the concept of God Like a Camera in the Sky pp 7980 For people of faith Thinking about God should Trigger a state of selffocus since he watches evaluates rewards and punishes people for their behavior People who described Themselves as religious gave more socially desirable answers than people who didn39t feel like there was anyone quotwatchingquot 12 Explain the limitations of selfregulation Explain What is meant by ironic processes of selfcontrol and how this concept relates to selfregulation pp 8082 Desires are constantly conflicting with motives goals and values which can cause people to falter in selfregulation It is thought that exercising self control is like flexing a muscle once used it becomes fatigued making it more difficult to exert control until the resource is replenished When we try to hard of think too much sometimes it can cause someone to choke and fail In sports many motions have become automatic through practice but thinking too much can cause you to disrupt the natural flow of performance 13 Identify four ways that people strive for selfenhancement ie positive illusions and discuss the implications of selfenhancement for mental health and the perception of reality Discuss the debate regarding Whether or not such selfenhancement is adaptive pp 8292 Ways people strive for selfenhancement raise in self esteem implicit egotism look at Key Terms section for definitions selfserving bias selfhandicapping and basking in reflected glory The result of these mechanism is the feeling that you are above average but people who are depressed or have low selfesteem will actually have a more realistic view of themselves People with high selfesteem often tend to be better adjusted in personality tests and in interviews with friends and strangers 14 Compare and contrast strategic selfpresentation and selfveri cation pp 9295 Self presentation has to do with the strategies people use to shape what others think about them However self verification is the desire to have other perceive us as we truly perceive ourselves 15 Describe the differences between people Who are high and low in selfmonitoring Explain how both of these strategies can be useful pp 9597 People who are high selfmonitoring will alter their behavior to reap the social rewards of Specific situations while people who are low in selfmonitoring tend to be more consistent in behavior they are the same person no matter the situation While it39s good to have a good sense of who you are it might not be appropriate for the situations and by altering your behavior you can get the social rewards of the situation which could be landing a job during a job interview Key Terms affective forecasting p 58 The process of predicTing how one would feel in response To fuTure emoTional evenTs bask in re ected glory BIRG p 87 To increase selfesTeem by associaTing wiTh oThers who are successful dialecticism p 71 An EasTern sysTem of ThoughT ThaT accest The coexisTence of conTradicTory characTerisTics wiThin a single person downward social comparisons p 88 The defensive Tendency To compare ourselves wiTh oThers who are worse off Than we are facial feedback hypothesis p 61 The hypoThesis ThaT changes in facial expression can lead To corresponding changes in emoTion implicit egotism p 84 A nonconscious form of selfenhancemenT overjustification effect p 62 The Tendency for inTrinsic moTivaTion To diminish for acTiviTies ThaT have become associaTed wiTh reward or oTher exTrinsic facTors private selfconsciousness p 78 A personaliTy characTerisTic of individuals who are inTrospecTive ofTen aTTending To Their own inner sTaTes public selfconsciousness p 78 A personaliTy characTerisTic of individuals who focus on Themselves as social objecTs as seen by oThers selfawareness theory p 76 The Theory ThaT selffocused aTTenTion leads people To noTice selfdiscrepancies Thereby moTivaTing eiTher an escape from selfawareness or a change in behavior selfconcept p 55 The sum ToTal of an individual39s beliefs abouT his or her own personal aTTribuTes selfesteem p 72 An affecTive componenT of self consisTing of a person39s posiTive and negaTive selfevaluaTions selfhandicapping p 86 Behaviors designed To saboTage one39s own performance in order To provide a subsequenT excuse for failure selfmonitoring p 95 The Tendency To change behavior in response To The self presenTaTion concerns of The siTuaTion selfperception theory p 59 The Theory ThaT when inTernal cues are difficulT To inTerpreT people gain selfinsighT by observing Their own behavior selfpresentation p 92 STraTegies people use To shape whaT oThers Think of Them selfregulation p 80 The process by which people conTrol Their ThoughTs feelings or behavior in order To achieve a personal or social goal selfschema p 55 A belief people hold obouT Themselves ThoT guides The processing of selfrelevonT informoTion social comparison theory p 64 The Theory ThoT people evoluoTe Their own obiliTies and opinions by comparing Themselves To oThers terror management theory p 73 The Theory ThoT humans cope wiTh The fear of Their own deoTh by constructing worldviews ThoT help To preserve Their selfesTeem twofactor theory of emotion p 65 The Theory ThoT The experience of emoTion is based on Two focTors physiologicol arousal and o cogniTive inTerpreToTion of ThoT orousol Sample Multiple Choice Questions keyed to each Learning Objective lThe ABCs of the self refer to affect behavior and cognition Which of these three concepts is most relevant to the idea of selfesteem b Behavior 0 Cognition d All of these ANS A REF Introductory Section OBJ 1 KEY Factual 2 While talking to a friend at a noisy party Julianna stops in the middle of a sentence and turns her head According to the cocktail party effect What did she probably hear a b Laughter c Uninhibited behavior 1 A funny joke ANS A REF The SelfConcept OBJ 1 KEY Applied 3 Beliefs about the self that guide the processing of selfrelevant information are called a selfawareness cues b autobiographical memories 0 ashbulb memories d ANS D REF The SelfConcept OBJ 1 KEY Factual 4Yulia stands in front of a mirror She notices a red spot on the forehead of the image she sees in the mirror She then brings her hand up to her own forehead and touches the red spot tryin to brush it off Yulia is demonstrating a h b selfverification c selfregulation d the lookingglass self ANS A REF The SelfConcept OBJ 2 KEY Applied 5 According to the lookingglass model of selfconcept development the selfconcept develops a from one s physical appearance b c slowly reaching its complete form only in old age d quickly but is quite fragile and subject to change ANS B REF The SelfConcept OBJ 2 KEY Factual 6 The process of re ecting on your own inner thoughts and feelings in order to gain self knowledge is called a b selfverification c selfmonitoring d autobiographical memory ANS A REF The SelfConcept OBJ 3 KEY Factual 7 According to research by Nisbett and Wilson 1977 introspection is a valid and accurate source of information about the self a b the develo ment of the selfconce tbe ins at birth c d people compare themselves with similar others for selfverification ANS C REF The SelfConcept OBJ 3 KEY Factual 8 During a discussion with some friends just prior to a school election Sandra states that she is certain she will be devastated for months if she isn t elected class president This is an example of a the over39ustif1cation effect b i c basking in re ected glory d implicit egotism ANS B REF The SelfConcept OBJ 3 KEY Applied 9 The rocess of redictin how one will feel in response to future events is called a H b anticipation c dialecticism d terror management ANS A REF The SelfConcept OBJ 3 KEY Factual NOT New 10 According to theories regarding selfperception of emotions what would be the likely effect of sitting at your desk slumped over in the chair with a bowed head a You would feel roud b i c You would make other people frown in response d You would buffer your selfesteem against potential future threats ANS B REF The SelfConcept OBJ 4 KEY Applied ll Dara loves to paint in her spare time Painting is an enjoyable activity for her Her desire to paint may best be explained by a needdriven motivation 13 c extrinsic motivation d selfverification motivation ANS B REF The SelfConcept OBJ 4 KEY Applied 12 The tendency for extrinsic rewards to undermine intrinsic motivation is called a selfdiscrepancy theory b implicit egotism c the durabili bias d ANS D REF The SelfConcept OBJ 4 KEY Factual l3 People s spontaneous selfdescriptions are most likely to include 14 a their age regardless of their social surroundings b their gender regardless of their social surroundings c d characteristics that make them seem similar to others in the immediate Vicinity OBJ 5 ANS C KEY Factual REF The SelfConcept According to social comparison theory people are most likely to compare themselves to others who are a friendly b lonely c popular d ANS D REF The SelfConcept OBJ 5 KEY Factual 15 According to the twofactor theory of emotion social context most directly affects 16 17 J omei feels that he cannot be happy if his family is not happy J omei has an a facial expressions of emotion b the h siolo ical com onent of emotion c amp d the selfverification of emotion ANS C KEY Conceptual REF The SelfConcept OBJ 5 Herman remembers exactly what he was doing and where he was when he first heard about the September 11th terrorist attacks Brown and Kulik 1977 would refer to this Vivid image as a the hindsight bias b a memory heuristic c memo in ation d h ANS D REF The SelfConcept KEY Applied OBJ 6 View of self a individualistic b inde endent c h d international ANS C KEY Applied REF The SelfConcept OBJ 7 18 19 20 21 Crosscultural research indicates that Americans are more likely than Asians to a b assume blame for failures c strive for community belonging d see themselves as others tend to see them ANS A KEY Conceptual REF The SelfConcept OBJ 7 In sociometer theory the sociometer is a a part of our brain that detects how social others are feeling at any given time b tool that measures one s level of social skill and uses that to predict social success in the work lace c r d measure of selfesteem that is traditionally used in most research ANS C REF SelfEsteem OBJ 8 KEY Factual William Swann and others 2007 found that people with specific domains of selfesteem benefit in what ways a They are likely to feel good about themselves b They are likely to do well in school c d They are likely to try new things ANS C REF SelfEsteem OBJ 8 KEY Conceptual According to selfdiscrepancy theory the disorder most likely to develop from a discrepancy between the actual self and the ought self is a de ression b c antisocial personality disorder d schizophrenia ANS B REF SelfEsteem OBJ 9 KEY Factual 22 23 24 25 26 According to selfawareness theory which of the following behaviors is least likely to draw attention to selfdiscrepancies a b Seeing one s re ection in a mirror c Posing for a photograph d Standing on stage in front of an audience ANS A REF SelfEsteem OBJ 10 KEY Conceptual When people are selffocused they a exhibit temporary increases in selfesteem b have a lower incidence of alcoholism anxiety and other clinical disorders c are less likely to nd themselves in a bad mood ANS D REF SelfEsteem OBJ 10 KEY Factual A highly religious person who is primed to think about God will a become less selfaware 13 c have higher selfesteem d have lower selfesteem ANS B REF SelfEsteem OBJ 11 KEY Conceptual The process by which we seek to control or alter our thoughts feelings behaviors and urges is called a selfhandicapping b selfverification c self resentation d h ANS D REF SelfEsteem OBJ 12 KEY Factual Which of the following statements is most consistent with Muraven and Baumeister s 2000 theory of selfcontrol a b Exerting selfcontrol in one situation makes it easier to exert control on a subsequent occasion c People have many inner sources of selfcontrol from which they can draw d Selfcontrol is simply an illusion used to maintain a positive selfimage ANS A REF SelfEsteem OBJ 12 KEY Conceptual 27 28 29 30 31 Which of the following statements about ironic processes of mental selfcontrol is false a They are more likely to occur when a person is cognitively busy b The result from a concern about failin to maintain mental selfcontrol c h d They may affect athletic performance ANS C REF SelfEsteem OBJ 12 KEY Factual People enhance their selfesteem in all of the following ways except a basking in re ected glory b selfserving cognitions c d selfhandicapping ANS C REF SelfEsteem OBJ 13 KEY Factual Research by Pronin and colleagues 2006 indicates that imagining an event before it occurs can lead eo le to a b exhibit more accurate memory for the event c overcome the illusion of mental causation d suppress unwanted thoughts about the event ANS A REF SelfEsteem OBJ 13 KEY Factual Someone victimized by a crime disease or other tragic life event is likely to a affiliate and compare themselves with others in the same situation b affiliate and compare themselves with others who are worse off c affiliate with others who are worse off but compare themselves to others in the same situation d ANS D REF SelfEsteem OBJ 13 KEY Conceptual Erving Goffman 1959 argued that life was much like a theater and that people act out various roles Goffman s ideas are clearly evident in the social psychological study of a selfawareness b c public selfconsciousness d norm formation ANS B KEY Conceptual REF SelfPresentation OBJ l4 32 33 34 When a person wants to be liked more than they want to be perceived as competent which self resentation strategy should be employed a i b Selfpromotion c Selfveri cation d Selfmonitoring ANS A KEY Conceptual REF SelfPresentation OBJ 14 Alex changes his behavior in response to selfpresentation concerns and various situations exhibiting a high level of a b selfcomplexity c selfveri cation d selfesteem ANS A KEY Applied REF SelfPresentation OBJ 15 Compared to high selfmonitors low selfmonitors are more likely to a gather information about others b c know the rules of appropriate action d adjust their behavior to t the situation ANS B KEY Conceptual REF SelfPresentation OBJ 15
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