Fabian PSYC 1000: Exam 2 Study Guide
Fabian PSYC 1000: Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 1010
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
CH 5: Developing Through Life Span Major Issues of Developmental Psych Nature and nurture – how do our inherent traits interact with our experiences Continuity and stages – what parts of development happen abruptly vs. which parts happen over time Stability and change – which traits are stable through our whole life and which are not Fetal Life Teratogens – substances such as viruses and chemicals that can damage the developing embryo or fetus (alcohol, smoking, drugs, STDs, illnesses) Inborn Skills (Competent Newborn) Reflexes – responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned (rooting reflex, sucking reflex, crying) Habituation – a way to ask infants what they see and remember, your brain shifting attention away from things you do not need to notice, unconscious, “getting used to it” (babies became bored with red triangle then got excited when they saw a yellow triangle; confirms that babies can see color) Babies have an inherently strong attraction to human faces Newborns can distinguish their own mother’s smell Infancy and Childhood Maturation – referring to biologically-driven growth In general, sequence of motor development is universal Brain cortex overproduces neurons, connections among neurons proliferate, pruning process eliminates unused connections Jean Piaget Cognitive development theory – children are internally motivated to make sense of their experiences, children grow by maturation and learning through interacting with their environments Had a stage theory of cognitive development that it was a discontinuous process Felt that kids in their sensorimotor stage (newborn to 2 years old) did not think abstractly but there was no technology to improve it Now there is evidence that kids can notice violation in physics (gravity) and babies stare longer and with surprise when numbers do not make sense Maturing beyond egocentrism Theory of mind – the ability to understand that others have their own thoughts and perspective Autism spectrum disorders Children with disorders on the autism spectrum have difficulties establishing mutual social interaction, use language and play symbolically, displaying flexibility with routines Have trouble mental mirroring Social development Attachment – emotional tie to a person Origins of attachment – experiments with monkeys suggest that attachment is based on physical affection and comfortable body contact, not being rewarded with food (babies need physical touch) Adolescence Transition period from childhood to adult Puberty – brain stops automatically adding new neural connections and “rewires” to become more efficient (pruning, coating well-used connections in myelin to speed up nerves) Emotional limbic system gets wired for puberty before frontal judgment center of the brain gets wired for adulthood Adolescents may understand risks and consequences but give more weight to potential thrills and rewards Adolescence: Parent and Peer Relationships Peer relationships take center stage during adolescence Adolescents still see parents as primary influence in career, religion, and politics Most parent-adolescent conflict is over minor daily life issues (like cleaning room) Attachment relationship changes but is still needed Well-Being Across Lifespan Life-satisfaction is a pretty stable trait Older people attend less to the negative and more to the positive, more likely to have accumulated many mildly positive memories, increased state of competence and control CH 7: Learning Associative Learning Classical conditioning – Watson, learning that two stimuli go together Operant conditioning – BF Skinner, behavior and consequence Cognitive learning Mental learning Occurs when observing events and behaviors of others, using language to acquire information (like in class) Behaviorism Mental life less important than behavior Ivan Pavlov Salivation in dogs Before conditioning – neural stimulus (ring a bell, no salivation) unconditioned stimulus and response During conditioning – ringing bell and giving dogs food After conditioning – begin to salivate upon hearing the bell, attracted to sound Acquisition Initial stage of learning/conditioning Association between neural stimulus (NS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) – food is given when bell rings Unconditioned response (UR) gets triggered by CS (conditioned stimulus) – drooling is triggered by bell NS must be before US Extinction Diminishing of a conditioned response If food stops appearing with bell, CR decreases Spontaneous Recovery Return of CR despite lack of further conditioning Generalization and Discrimination Generalization – tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related stimuli, MORE stuff makes dogs drool (scratching triggered drooling) Discrimination – learned ability to respond only to specific stimuli, LESS stuff makes dogs drool (slightly different pitches did not make dogs drool) Pavlov’s Legacy Insight about conditioning – it occurs in all creatures Studying objectively Idea of triggers John B Watson Classical Conditioning Nine month old not afraid of white rat White rat brought out with scary clanging sound Nine month old then developed fear of rats and other soft and furry things Operant Conditioning Adjusting to the consequences of our behavior so we can learn what works and what doesn’t work Act of chosen behavior (“response”) is followed by a reward or punishment Reinforced behavior is more likely to be tried again; punished behavior is less likely Thorndike’s Law of Effect Puzzle box – cats were rewarded with food if they solved the puzzle Cats took less time to escape after repeated trials Law of effect – behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning Chamber Extended Thorndike’s principles Pioneered more controlled methods of studying conditioning “skinner box” – allowed detailed tracking of rates of behavior change in response to different rates of reinforcement Reinforcement Only feedback from environment that makes a behavior more likely to occur Positive (adding) reinforcement – adding something desirable Negative (taking away) reinforcement – ending something unpleasant, NOT punishment Shaping Behavior When a creature is not likely to randomly perform an exact behavior, you can reward any behavior that is close to the one desired Discrimination Ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response How Often to Reinforce? Skinner experiments with reinforcements in different patterns or schedules to determine which worked best to establish and maintain a target behavior Continuous reinforcement – reward every time, subject acquires desired behavior quickly, good to establish but not maintain behavior Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement – give rewards part of the time, target behavior takes longer to be established but persists longer without reward, good to maintain but not establish Operant Effect: Punishment Punishments – opposite effect of reinforcement, consequences make target behavior less likely to occur in the future Positive punishment – adding something unpleasant Negative punishment – take away something pleasant When is punishment effective? Punishment works best when it approximates the way we naturally encounter immediate consequences Less well when the only consequence we encounter is a distant, delayed, possible threat Severity of punishments is not as helpful as making immediate and certain punishments Problems with Physical Punishment Punished behavior may restart when punishment is over Children may learn to discriminate among situations (avoiding those only where a punishment would occur instead of learning behavior) Punishment can teach fear Physical punishment models aggression as a method of dealing with problems Problem Punishing focuses on what NOT to do It doesn’t guide people to a desired behavior If undesirable behaviors stop, another problem behavior may emerge that serves the same purpose Lesson – to teach desired behavior, reinforce what is right more often than punishing what is wrong Applications of Operant Conditioning Parents and School - Rewarding small improvements toward desired behaviors is more effective than expecting complete success and punishing problem behaviors Sports – athletes improve most in the shaping approach, reinforced for performance that comes close to target goal Work – some companies pay as a result of performance not seniority, targeting specific behaviors to reinforce Self-improvement – reward yourself for steps you take toward your goals Role of Biology in Conditioning Biology constraints – one animal cannot be trained for the same behavior as another animal An animal’s capacity of conditioning is restrained by biology Classical conditioning – John Garcia found it was easier to learn associations if it makes sense for survival, can still be placed far apart, males in one study were more attracted to a woman in a picture with a red border (red = ovulation) Cognitive process Classical conditioning – when the dog salivates at the bell it may be due to cognition, knowing that our reactions are caused by conditioning gives us the option of mentally breaking the association Operant conditioning – in fixed interval reinforcement animals do more target behaviors around the time that a reward is more likely (as if expecting it), humans can respond to delayed reinforces such as a paycheck, setting goals for the self Learning, Rewards, and Motivation Intrinsic motivation – desire to perform a behavior for its own sake Extrinsic motivation – doing a behavior for rewards Intrinsic motivation can sometimes be reduced by external rewards Few rewards as possible and decrease over time Learning and Behavior Observational learning – watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning from their experience Behavior of others serves as a model Vicarious conditioning Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment Kids saw adults punching an inflated doll while narrating their aggressive behaviors Kids were then put in a toy-deprived situation and acted out the same behaviors they had seen Mirroring in the Brain Mirror neurons – when watching others doing or feeling something, mirror neurons fire in patterns that would fire if we were doing the action or having the feeling ourselves Our brain simulates and vicariously experiences what we observe We can grasp others’ state of mind From mirroring to imitation Overimitate – from 18 months of age, routinely copy adult behaviors that have no function and no reward Reflects an evolutionary adaptation that is essential to the transmission of human culture Children with autism – less likely to cognitively mirror and less likely to follow someone’s gaze Prosocial effects of observational learning Prosocial behavior – actions which benefit others Antisocial effects of observational learning Antisocial behavior – actions that are harmful to individuals and society Children who witness violence in their homes but are not physically harmed might hate violence but still may be more violent than the average child Under stress we do what has been modeled for us Media models of violence Viewing media violence leads to increased aggression and diminishes prosocial behavior Violence viewing effect explained by: imitation (mirror neurons, modeling) and desensitization toward others’ pain Watching cruelty fosters indifference CH 8: MEMORY Studying memory Memory – persistence of learning over time, through the storage and retrieval of information and skills Three behaviors show that memory is functioning: recall, recognition, relearning How does memory work? Encoding – getting information into your brain Storage – keeping the information in your brain Retrieval – reactivating and recalling the information Exception to computer analogy: our memories less literal and more fragile, our brains process many things simultaneously (some things unconsciously) by parallel processing Atkinson-Shiffrin Model (1968) Stimuli are recorded by our senses and held briefly in sensory memory Some of this information is processed into short-term memory Information then moves into long-term memory Modifying the model: short-term memory is now called working memory, automatic processing (some information seems to go straight from sensory experience into long-term memory) Working memory It holds information not just to rehearse it but to process it (ex: hearing a word problem in math and doing it in your head) Makes sense of new input and links it with long-term memories Dual Track Processing Explicit/ “declarative” memories – facts and experiences that we consciously know and recall, our minds acquire this information through conscious effortful processing (studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing) Implicit memories – processed automatically, skips conscious encoding track and goes directly into storage Automatic processing Procedural memory – automatic skills and well-practiced knowledge such as word meanings Conditioned associations – information about space, time, and frequency Encoding Without active processing, short term memories disappear Effortful processing strategy – a way to encode information into memory to keep it from decaying and make it easier to retrieve Effortful processing – also known as studying Rehearsal and Distributive Practice Massed practice – cramming information all at once Spacing effect – you will develop better retention and recall if you use the same amount of study time spread over many short sessions Testing effect – best way to study Deep/semantic processing We are most likely to retain information if we deeply process even a simple word list by focusing on the semantics (meaning) of the words “shallow” unsuccessful processing – memorizing the appearance or sound of the words Processing Strategy: Making Information Personally Meaningful Memorizing meaningful material takes less effort than memorizing nonsense syllables Self-reference effect – relating material to ourselves, aids encoding and retention Memory Storage Memories are NOT in isolated files but in overlapping neural networks distributed throughout the brain Brain’s long term memory storage does not get full, gets more elaborately rewired and interconnected Explicit Memory Processing Frontal lobes – retrieval and use of explicit memories Hippocampus – encoding and storage of explicit memories, held for a couple days before consolidating and moving to the cortex (this process occurs during sleep) A good night’s sleep improves recall of previous day’s events Implicit Memory Processing Cerebellum – forms and stores implicit memories created by classical conditioning (we can store a phobic response even if we do not remember how we acquired the fear) Basal ganglia – controls movement, forms and stores procedural memory and motor skills Infantile Amnesia Implicit memory from infancy can be retained Explicit memories, our recall for episodes, only goes back to age 3 for most people Explanation: Encoding (memories not stored well because hippocampus is not fully developed at this time), Forgetting/Retrieval (the adult mind thinks in a more linear verbal narrative and has trouble accessing preverbal memories as declarative memories) Emotions, Stress Hormones, the Amygdala, and Memory Strong emotions especially stress can strengthen memory formation 1. Emotions can trigger a rise in stress hormones 2. These hormones trigger activity in the amygdala 3. Amygdala increases memory-forming activity and engages the front lobes and basal ganglia to tag memory as important Memories are stored with more sensory and emotional details that can trigger rapid, unintended recall Synaptic Changes Synapses – neurotransmitters than are released from neurons when people or sea slugs form memories Long term potentiation – signals are sent across the synapse more efficiently after repetition Synaptic changes – reduction in the prompting needed to send a signal and an increase in the number of receptor sites Memory Retrieval Memory is stored as a web of associations: conceptual, contextual, emotional Power of Priming Priming – triggers a thread of associations and can affect us unconsciously Study: people primed with money related words were less likely to help another person, priming with an image of Santa Claus led kids to share more candy, people primed with a missing child poster misinterpreted adult-child interactions as kidnapping Context-Dependent Memory Encoding specificity principle – we retrieve a memory more easily when in the same context as when we formed the memory State-dependent memory Mood congruent memory - memories can also be tied to the emotional state we were in when we formed the memory Brain and Two Track Mind: Case of Henry Molaison Removal of his hippocampus to stop seizures He could learn new skills but could not recall the lessons Encoding failure Failure to create a memory link Storage Decay Material encoded into long term memory will decay if it the memory is never used, recalled, and restored Decay is like LTP in reverse (or like pruning) Retrieval Failure: Tip of the Tongue Sometimes, the memory itself does not decay The association and links decay Forgetting Forgetting can occur at any memory stage Why is our memory full of errors? Memory gets constructed (imagined, selected, changed, and rebuilt) Memories can be continuously revised (reconsolidation) Even repeatedly imagining nonexistent memories can create false memories The Misinformation Effect Participants watched a video of a minor car accident, one group was asked how fast the cars were going when they hit each other and another group was asked how fast the cars were going when they crashed into each other The second group recalled faster speeds and broken glass that was not there Source Amnesia/Misattribution Memories from a movie or book, a story, a dream, or a sibling’s experience Misattributing the source to your own experience Constructed Memories in Court and in Love Mistaken testimony People are overconfident about their fallible memories, not realizing that memoires are constructions Unreal memories feel like real memories Constructed Memories and Children Kids are more prone to implanted memories because they have underdeveloped frontal lobes Imagined events are hard to distinguish from experienced events When interviewing kids, do not lead but instead be neutral and nonsuggestive in questions Recovered Memories of Past Abuse Abuse memories are more likely to be “burned in” to memory than forgotten An active process of searching for such memories is more likely to construct detailed memories that feel real (guided imagery, hypnosis, dream analysis -> recovered memories are especially unreliable) Questioners inadvertently implant memories in others, unjust false accusations can sometimes happen CH 10 INTELLIGENCE Overall question Does each of us have an inborn level of talent or ability that can be measured and represented by a test score? “Definition” of Intelligence Intelligence – whatever intelligence tests measure Generate scores, allows us to compare individuals College entrance test measures how good you are at scoring well on that test Beyond the test Intelligence – the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations There is not an agreement over whether intelligence is one construct or different abilities General intelligence or g Charles Spearman performed a factor analysis of different skills and found that people who did well in one area also did well in another These people have a high “g” (general intelligence) Thurstone’s Seven Clusters of Abilities These distinct seven abilities make up intelligence, not just one Found that these abilities tend to correlate Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences 8 relatively independent intelligence Sternberg’s Intelligence Triarchy A lot of research support for his theory 3 intelligences: practical, analytical, and creative Intelligence and Success “success in life” is more than high intelligence Wealth tends to be related to intelligence test scores PLUS daily effort/practice, social support/connections, and hard work/persistence Success – gift of nature plus a lot of nurture Social and Emotional Intelligence Being socially aware and self-aware Components of Emotional Intelligence Perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions Benefits – ability to delay gratification while pursuing long-term goals (not be driven by immediate impulses), contributes to success in career marriage and parenting situations Aptitude vs. Achievement Achievement tests – measure what you have already learned Aptitude tests – attempt to predict your ability to learn new skills SAT, ACT, GRE – supposed to predict your ability to do well in future academic work Origins of Intelligence Testing Problem – Paris schools needed to identify children in need of special classes Solution – Alfred Binet devised tests The goal was to measure each child’s mental age Binet -> Stanford-Binet Lewis Terman (Stanford professor) modified Binet’s test for American children He called it the Stanford-Binet intelligence test William Stern’s scoring of the test resulted in intelligence quotient (IQ) IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100 What do scores mean? Lewis Terman thought intelligence was inherited Later, he saw that scores can be affected by level of education and their familiarity with language and culture used in the test. Low scores – Binet would say study and develop self-discipline and attention span, Terman would say remove genes from population David Wechsler’s Tests: Intelligence PLUS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WSC) measure “g”/IQ and have subscores for: verbal comprehension, processing speed, perceptual organization, working memory Principles of Test Construction In order for intelligence or any psychological tests to be accurate, tests and scores must be standardized and reliable Standardization To evaluate performance, we need to compare a score to other individual’s scores Average IQ score is 100 Reliability and Validity A test is reliable when it generates consistent results Split-half reliability – test split in half has same results Test-retest reliability – retesting gets relatively the same score as before Validity – a test accurately measures what it is supposed to measure Content validity – test is not doing what it is supposed to Predictive validity – test does not predict what it is supposed to Predictive validity: broad ranges Predictive power of aptitude scores diminishes as students move up the educational ladder At higher range of weights and success, weight is less of a valid predictor of success of football linemen Studies of Twins Raised Apart Difference in intelligence between identical twins raised together and identical twins raised apart which is proof of nurture Then, difference in intelligence between identical twins and fraternal twins which is proof of nature Adoption Studies With age, IQ scores of adoptees look more and more like their biological parents Environmental Influences on Intelligence Environment has more influence on intelligence in extreme situations such as abuse, neglect, extreme poverty, and malnutrition (depresses cognitive development) Schooling and Intelligence Schooling and intelligence interact, and both boost children’s chances for success What predicts college students’ academic achievement – study motivation and study skills Fixed mindset – intelligence is biologically set and unchanging Growth mindset – intelligence is changeable Praise EFFORT not ability Understanding Group Differences in Test Scores Boys are more likely than girls to be at the high or low end of the intelligence score spectrum Male-Female Ability Differences Girls are better at locating objects, detecting emotions, and tend to be more verbally fluent Boys tend to perform better on spatial ability tests In overall math performance, girls and boys are very similar Within-group vs. between-group differences Group differences including intelligence test score differences between “racial groups” can be caused by environment factors Racial groups are not genetically different More differences within groups than between groups CH. 11 Motivation and Work Motivation – a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal Instinct theory Instinct – fixed pattern of behavior that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be rooted in genes and the body Humans are motivated by instincts Drive Reduction Theory Drive – an aroused/tense state related to a physical need (hunger, thirst) Humans are motivated to reduce these drives which restores homeostasis Drives come from within and push us to do something Incentives are external and pull us into our actions Seeking Optimal Arousal Some behavior is not directly linked to a biological need Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal Hierarchy of Needs/Motives Abraham Maslow – proposed that humans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied before they find motivation to pursue goals that are higher on the hierarchy People need to satisfy hunger and thirst BEFORE satisfying their self-identity Physiology of Hunger Research shows that when we are hungry, thoughts about food dominate our consciousness Stomach contractions when hungry Receptors throughout the digestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain Hypothalamus can send out appetite-stimulating hormones or appetite-suppressing hormones Regulating Weight Set point – a stable weight to which most mammals keep returning When a person’s weight drops or increases, the body adjusts hunger and energy use Basal metabolic rate – rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when at rest How much do we eat? Eating depends in part on situational influences Unit bias – we may eat only one serving/unit of food but will eat more if the serving size is larger Buffet effect – we eat more if more options are available Obesity and Weight Control Obesity has risen in the US Fat is an ideal form of stored energy Once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it Eating less slows metabolism A formerly obese person who lost weight will have to eat less than the average person just to prevent weight gain Social psychology of obesity Weight discrimination is stronger than race and gender discrimination People who are obese are more likely to be depressed or isolated Genetics and Obesity Weight resembles biological parents Identical twins (even when raised apart) are more similar in weight than fraternal twins Many genes involved – burning calories, converting calories to fat, when intestines send “full” signal, how much to fidget, etc. Lifestyle factors and obesity Restlessness, fidgeting Inadequate sleep affects appetite hormones Obese friend, sedentary lifestyle, fast food Another human motivation: sex Sexual motivation enables our species’ survival Sexual arousal depends on the interplay of internal and external stimuli Hormones and sexual motivation Sexual desire and response is not as tied to hormone levels in humans as it is in animals Increase in sexual arousal <-> increase in testosterone (two-way streak) During ovulation, women show a rise in estrogen and testosterone As this happens, sexual desire rises in women and also in men around them (whose testosterone level rises) Effect of External Stimuli The brain is our most significant sex organ Men and women become aroused when they see, hear, or read erotic material (effects are stronger for men) Psychological and social-cultural factors play a bigger role in sexual motivation than biological factors Sexuality in the media (TV, internet, magazines, etc.) – extremely stereotypical in portrayal of the sexes especially females, women as sexual objects, with repeated exposure to any erotic stimulus response lessens (habituates), adolescents (perception of peers, permissive attitudes, and early sex) Sexual Orientation Having a homosexual orientation puts one at risk for anxiety and mood disorders (because of discrimination, rejection, isolation) Causes of homosexuality? – domineering mother?, absent father?, hatred of other sex?, molested as a child by adult homosexual? None of these Differences appear to begin in the prenatal period -> genetic or exposure to hormones or antigens in the womb Fraternal birth order effect – the more older brothers a male has, the more likely he is to be homosexual (doesn’t apply to women or left-handed men) Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed Biological Differences associated with sexual preference Brain differences, genetic influences, prenatal influences (seem to be pretty significant) Prenatal hormones In mammals, female fetuses exposed to extra testosterone and male fetuses exposed to low levels of testosterone often grow up with bodies, brains, and faces with traits of the opposite sex and/or same sex desires Another motivation: “to belong” We have a need to affiliate with others, even to become strongly attached to others in enduring, close relationships People in every society on Earth belong to groups Evolutionary psychology – seeking bonds with others aids survival in many ways Balancing Bonding with other needs What makes life meaningful – close satisfying relationships with family, friends, or romantic partners
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