Biology 111: Study Guide
Biology 111: Study Guide BIOL 111
Popular in Concepts of Biology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biological Sciences
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Giesler on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 111 at University of North Dakota taught by Christopher Felege in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Biology in Biological Sciences at University of North Dakota.
Reviews for Biology 111: Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/07/16
Biology 111: Concepts of Biology Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 8 8.1 A) Summarize the purpose of cellular reproduction a. The purpose of cellular reproduction is growth, repair, and reproduction b. Mitosis can be important for growth, and repair c. Meiosis can be important in sexual reproduction B) Understand the relationship between sister chromatids and chromosomes a. Sexually reproducing organisms are usually diploid. The cell that resulted from the fertilization of an egg by a sperm has grown and developed, reproducing thousands of times. Each cell that resulted from growth and reproduction needed to inherit exact copies of chromosomes contributed by the original egg and sperm. This means those chromosomes had to be copied or doubled, then divided. Sister chromosomes are the copied, but still joined, sets of those doubled chromosomes C) Why is DNA replication said to be “semi-conservative”? a. Because each new chromosome gets half the original strand from the parent cell, and half a strand of newly synthesized DNA 8.2 D) Summarize the activities that occur in interphase a. G1, S, and G2. b. G1 is growth where organelles are doubled c. S is synthesis where DNA is replicated d. G2 is growth, where the cell continues growing prior to dividing. E) Summarize the activities that occur in mitosis and cytokinesis a. Prophase: chromosomes pair up, nuclear membrane disappears b. Metaphase: chromosome line up at the equator c. Anaphase: sister chromatids are pulled apart d. Telophase/Cytokinesis: cell pinches in the middle and results in two daughter chromosomes F) Explain the significance of the stages of the cell cycle a. Prophase i. Chromosomes must condense and pair up so they can be separated b. Metaphase i. Chromosomes must line up at the equator of the cell or else chromosome have the possibility of not separating equally c. Anaphase i. The chromosomes are split apart. If they were not split and pulled to opposite sides one cell will have too many chromosomes while the other will not have enough d. Telophase/Cytokinesis i. The cell splits into two. If this split doesn’t happen it will become a large cell with two nuclei and two of all other organelles G) Compare and contrast cytokinesis in plant and animal cells a. Contrast: i. Plants have a cell wall which can’t be “pinched” in like a membrane. b. Compare: i. Both result in daughter cells that inherit exact copies of the parent cells genetic material, and equal cellular components. 8.3 H) What is the purpose of having checkpoints to regulate cell growth at various stages of the cell cycle? a. To prevent a cell that is not prepared from progressing, to prevent unnecessary cell growth, and to kill cells that are damaged through apoptosis. I) Summarize the role of checkpoints in the cell cycle a. Checkpoints are needed in the cell cycle to make sure that the cell is ready to move on to the next phase. Some checkpoints check for cell growth and size, DNA damage, DNA replication, and chromosomes being attached to spindles J) Describe the process of apoptosis a. The cell rounds up and loses contact with its neighbors b. Then the nucleus fragments and the plasma membrane develops blisters (blebs) c. Finally the cell breaks into fragments and are engulfed by white blood cells or neighboring cells 8.4 and 8.5 K) Distinguish between proto-oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes in regard to cancer a. Proto-oncogenes are like a gas pedal in a car i. If they mutate and become oncogenes, it is like pressing on the gas b. Tumor suppressor genes are like the brakes i. If they mutate, it is like the brakes wearing out L) Explain the role of telomerase in stem cells and cancer a. As cells divide, the telomeres at the end of chromosomes shortens, and as they get short, cells age and eventually die. In cancer, this doesn’t happen M) Summarize how chromosomal rearrangement may cause some forms of cancer a. If a cell doesn’t get all the genes it needs, or gets too many of the genes it needs, through improper chromosomal rearrangement, it can cause problems N) Identify the relationship between certain genes and cancer a. Will be discussed in class on 3/8/16 O) Describe the characteristics of cancer cells a. Lack differentiation/specialization b. Have abnormal nuclei c. Do not undergo apoptosis d. Form tumors e. Undergo metastasis and promote angiogenesis P) Summarize the types of treatment for cancer a. Removal of the tumor b. Radiation therapy and Chemotherapy i. Damages DNA or some aspect of mitosis c. Hormone therapy i. Prevent cells form receiving signal for continued growth and division Q) Describe factors that reduce the risks of cancer a. Protective behaviors such as no smoking, avoiding sun exposure, avoiding heavy drinking, and having a healthy diet ***It is very important to know the basics of mitosis and be able to give a brief description of what is happening in each stage. He asked many questions about the stages so make sure you have a basic understanding about the purpose of each stage and the significance of each as well*** Chapter 9 9.1 A) Explain the purpose of Meiosis a. Reduce chromosome number, and promote genetic diversity by shuffling chromosomes. B) Describe the human life cycle a. Two haploid cells produced through meiosis join through fertilization to create a zygote. The zygote grows and develops through mitosis into an adult, who produces sex cells through meiosis. C) Define the terms haploid, diploid, triploid, sister chromatid, and homologous chromatid a. Haploid: unpaired chromosome b. Diploid: paired chromosome c. Sister Chromatid: two identical copies d. Homologous Chromatid: maternal and paternal D) What is the relationship between sister chromatids and homologous chromatids? a. Sister chromatids are exact copies of each other, homologous chromatids are two different copies of the same chromosome E) Describe synapsis and crossing over, and explain their relationship to meiosis a. The process where two sets of homologous chromosomes line up, and the two inner ones exchange or swap segments with several genes on them through formation of a synapse. These get pulled apart and sent to a haploid gamete, which can then carry a maternal, paternal, or recombined chromatid, allowing a combination of genes to be passed on. 9.2 and 9.3 F) Identify the phases of meiosis a. Prophase I b. Metaphase I c. Anaphase I d. Telophase I e. Prophase II f. Metaphase II g. Anaphase II h. Telophase II G) Contrast the alignment of chromosomes during metaphase I and II a. In Metaphase I there are tetrads lined up in the middle where as in Metaphase II there are chromosomes lined up. H) Compare and contrast meiosis and mitosis a. Comparison: both are forms of reproduction, with similarities in PMAT such as chromosome condensing and separation b. Contrast: crossing over in meiosis (prophase I), how the chromosomes line up (metaphase I has them in pairs of pairs, metaphase they just line up in the middle), and in anaphase, sister chromatids pull apart. This doesn’t happen until anaphase II of meiosis. I) What are the three process in meiosis that allow for this diversity? a. Crossing over, independent assortment, and random fertilization 9.4 J) Define nondisjunction and explain how or why it can cause abnormalities a. The failure of chromatids to separate properly during meiosis results in a gamete that has 2 copies, or 0 copies of a chromosome. Fertilization can then result in a monoploid or triploid zygote. K) List the causes and symptoms of Down syndrome a. Cause i. Three copies of chromosome 21 b. Symptoms st nd i. Short stature, eyelid fold stubby fingers, wide gap between 1 and 2 toes, large tongue, round head, a palm crease, and sometimes mental disabilities L) Identify syndromes resulting from abnormal sex chromosome numbers and explain the cause of each a. Turner syndrome (45, XO) i. Absence of second chromosome ii. Female b. Klinefelter syndrome (47, XXY) i. Extra X inactivated as barr body ii. Male Chapter 10 10.1 A) Explain Mendel’s Laws of inheritance a. First law—law of segregation i. Each individual has two factors for each trait that separates during the formation of the gametes ii. Each gamete contains only one factor from each pair of factors iii. Fertilization gives each new individual two factors for each trait b. Second law - law of independent assortment i. Each pair of factors seperates independently of the other pairs. ii. All possible combinations of factors can occur in the gametes. B) Distinguish between genotype and phenotype a. Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual i. Pp b. Phenotype is the physical appearance of that individual, largely determined by the genotype (usually…) i. Purple (Pp) C) Distinguish between dominant and recessive traits a. In Mendelian genetics, alleles can be dominant, or capable of masking the appearance of another gene. If an allele can be masked, it is said to be recessive, if an allele can mask another, it is said to be dominant. D) Apply Mendel’s laws to solve and interpret mono- and di-hybrid crosses a. E) Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between Mendel’s laws and meiosis a. The patterns predicted by Mendel’s Law’s explain the patterns we see in meiosis regarding crossing over, independent assortment, and random fertilization. 10.2 and 10.3 F) Interpret a pedigree to determine if inheritance is autosomal dominant, recessive, or sex linked a. If you need help on this either look at chapter 10 notes or watch this lecture part. G) Identify characteristics of autosomal dominant, recessive, and sex linked traits a. Autosomal dominant i. Child can be unaffected even when parents are heterozygous and there for affected ii. When both parents are unaffected none of their children will have it b. Autosomal recessive i. Child can have it even if parents aren’t affected ii. Heterozygous parents are carriers c. Sex linked traits i. X-linked recessive 1. Mothers pass it to sons 2. More males then females have disorder 3. For a female to have disorder both parents must carry the allele ii. X-linked dominate 1. Only a few traits 2. Daughters of affected males have the condition 3. Affected females can pass condition on to daughters and sons iii. Y chromosome 1. Only a few disorders 2. Only present in males 3. Passed to all sons but not daughters H) Compare and contrast incomplete and codominance a. Compare i. Both are inherited the same way; genotype appears the same because an individual is heterozygous. PHENOTYPE distinguishes these. b. Contrast i. Incomplete dominance appears as a mix or blending ii. Codominance expresses both alleles c. Convention is to use a capital letter with superscripts to distinguish these from simple dominant and recessive traits. I) Solve and interpret genetic crosses that exhibit incomplete and codominance a. J) Explain polygenic inheritance and pleiotropy a. Polygenic – a trait is governed by two alleles b. Pleiotropy – a single gene controls multiple characteristics K) Explain how environment can influence phenotype a. Temperature can effect fur color on some rabbits. An enzyme for darker fur color is only active at low temperatures 10.4 L) Solve and interpret genetic crosses that exhibit sex-linked inheritance a. M) Identify disorders associated with sex-linked inheritance a. Color blindness b. Duchene muscular dystrophin i. Wasting away of muscles Chapter 11 11.1 A) Describe, compare, and contrast the structure of DNA and RNA a. DNA is double stranded, has the sugar deoxyribose, is found only* in the nucleus, composed of ATCG, and is the hereditary material that ultimately codes for proteins. b. RNA is transcribed from DNA. It is single stranded, uses the sugar ribose, is made of AUCG, and can be found in the nucleus or the cytoplasm c. Compare: i. Bases A, C, & G ii. Found in the nucleus d. Contrast i. DNA has base T; RNA has base U ii. RNA also found in Cytoplasm iii. DNA deoxyribose; RNA ribose iv. DNA double stranded; RNA single stranded B) List the steps involved in DNA Replication a. It is a semi-conservative process that uses the parent helix, which is double stranded, to “unzip” and then build the complimentary strand by matching A to T and C to G. C) List the 3 major types of RNA and describe their functions a. mRNA (messenger RNA) is transcribed in the nucleus, and is the messenger for building proteins at the ribosomes in the cytoplasm from DNA. b. tRNA (transfer RNA) is involved in transferring amino acids to the growing protein in a complimentary fashion at the ribosome. c. rRNA (Ribosomal RNA) is a main component of ribosomes. They work with the proteins in the ribosome to catalyze the formation of new proteins. 11.2 D) List the steps involved in gene expression and the area of the cell where each occurs E) Explain what the genetic code is used for and explain why it is considered to be almost universal a. Genetic code is used to find disorders and is almost universal because there is very little difference in DNA between humans F) Describe how transcription copies information from genes to mRNA G) Explain 3 modifications that can occur during RNA processing and the importance of each H) Describe how translation converts information from nucleic acids to proteins, and the three phases of this process I) Explain the levels of control of gene expression in eukaryotes, and where each is likely to occur 11.3 J) Explain the role of transcription factors in eukaryotic gene regulation a. Promoters and repressors can bind to DNA, or can bind to other proteins that bind to DNA to activate or suppress the expression of a gene. This can be done by promoting or blocking transcription factors from binding a gene, by condensing the chromatin so it is less accessible, or by signal molecules that activate or repress transcription factors. Chapter 12 12.1 A) Describe the steps involved in making a recombinant DNA molecule a. A restriction enzyme is used to cut a gene of interest and a plasmid at the exact same sequence. This creates “sticky ends” that align due to complimentary base pairing. DNA Ligase then joins the sugar-phosphate backbone together. The plasmid can then be inserted to bacteria. B) Explain the purpose of PCR a. To amplify sequences of DNA that are of interest. By taking advantage of the cellular mechanism and properties that replicate DNA, it is possible to get an almost infinite number of copies from a single strand of DNA C) Explain how DNA fingerprinting may be used for identification a. Because of variable regions in the DNA sequence such as short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), it is possible to amplify minute amounts of DNA from a crime scene and/or suspect with techniques such as PCR, then treat them with restriction enzymes, run them on a gel, and examine differences between people to rule out suspects, or confirm their presence or contact with a crime scene. 12.2 and 12.3 D) Distinguish between reproductive and therapeutic cloning a. Reproductive cloning tries to produce new animals, while therapeutic cloning tries to produce new tissue E) Differentiate between embryonic and adult stem cells a. Embryonic stem cells are from an unborn embryo and possess the potential to become far more cell/tissue types because they are so undifferentiated. b. Adult stem cells come from adults, and are generally partially differentiated, so they do not have the ability to develop into as many different cell/tissue types. F) Define the term transgenic a. An organism that has had a gene from another organism transferred into it, either naturally, or artificially. G) Explain the uses of transgenic bacteria, plants, and animals a. Bacteria i. Growth in bioreactors b. Plants i. Make their own pesticides ii. Herbicide resistant iii. Larger crops c. Animals i. Larger animals ii. Can be cloned H) List some possible applications of genomics a. Human genome project b. Clues to evolution I) Do the concerns about GMOs outweigh the benefits of GMOs? a. Form an opinion and be ready to defend your answer. There is not necessarily a right or wrong answer to this. Chapter 13 13.1 A) Explain how mutations cause variation in genes a. If a gene is mutated in the sex cells, it will be passed to the next generation. These mutations can be through point or frame shift mutations. b. Deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation can also occur, but these typically happen with chromosomes, that contain multiple genes on them (see next section) B) Distinguish between point and frame shift mutations a. There are 3 possible results from a point mutation i. It can be silent (code for the same amino acid) ii. Missense, (swap one amino acid for another) iii. Nonsense (change to a stop codon) b. There are 2 types of frame shift mutations c. Insertions where you insert a base d. Deletions where you delete a base 13.2 C) Describe the effects of a chromosomal duplication or deletion a. Duplication can result in extra copies of genetic material and deletion can result in the loss of genetic material. D) List examples of the effects of chromosomal mutations in humans a. Problems can range from minor to major health, behavioral, and developmental issues, and include things like Williams syndrome and inv dup 15 syndrome 13.3 E) Explain the role of karyotyping a. It can show chromosomal abnormalities F) Summarize how genetic markers and microarrays can be used to diagnose a genetic disorder a. Genetic markers: We can look for abnormal alleles b. Microarrays: we can see what genes a person has or is missing G) Distinguish among procedures to test DNA, a fetus, and an embryo for specific genetic disorders a. DNA i. Genetic marker ii. Genetic profiling b. Fetus i. Ultrasound ii. Amniocentesis iii. Chorionic villus sampling c. Embryo i. Following in vitro fertilization I cell can be removed and tested 13.4 H) Describe some methods used to deliver healthy genes as part of gene therapy a. Ex vivo i. Isolating cells from the patient, treating them outside the patient, then reintroducing the cells back into the patient. b. In vivo i. Insert genetic material to correct a condition into the patient
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'