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ARHI 3100 - Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia - Second Written Assignment Notes (PICTURES INCLUDED)

by: Dominique N.

ARHI 3100 - Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia - Second Written Assignment Notes (PICTURES INCLUDED) ARHI 3100

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Art > ARHI 3100 > ARHI 3100 Indonesia Burma Thailand Cambodia Second Written Assignment Notes PICTURES INCLUDED
Dominique N.
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Indonesia, Burma/Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia. These notes cover the cross-cultural exchange from India to Southeast Asia, specifically t's impact on religion and culture. (PICTURES INCLUDED)
Art History
Nicolas Morrissey
Study Guide
Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Art History, Myanmar, Buddha, Buddhism, Hindu, Hinduism, Art, history, Culture, religion
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This 32 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominique N. on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARHI 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Nicolas Morrissey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Art History in Art at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
● Sanskrit = written in Pallava script ○ earliest written language we found in that area ● Trade across the Bay of Bengal (from East India to southeast Asia) ○ learned how to communicate with each other and India adopted the southeastern languages ○ Buddhist monks accompanied merchants to southeast asia ■ Buddhism fulfilled a desire/need to southeast asians who adhered to religious institutions that were not satisfactory to them ○ This was not a form of colonialism or military intervention MYANMAR (formerly Burma) ● Nat “Spirit Deities”; Indigenous Religious figure of ancient Burma ○ widespread veneration (ven∙er∙a∙tion (noun) ­ great respect;  reverence.) ○ inline/similar to the worship of Yakshis and Yakshas in early India ○ Nats = pronounced like “knots” ● Myanmar was ruled by a line of successive military regimes that did not care  about the education and enlightenment of their people. They cut them off from  surrounding regions and the rest of the world (that had been discovered at that point) ● Mount Popa, Central Myanmar, Shrine of 37 Nats ○ built on top of a volcanic plug ○ Volcano erupted here ○ the ecological life was very specific to this region (what grows  here doesn’t grow anywhere else in the world) ○ Buddha found success through miraculous power (Dragon­like  form) ● 98.5% of the Myanmar population claims they are Buddhist ○ has the highest population of ordained monastics than any other  place in the world ● Kyaiktiyo Pagoda, Mon State, Southeast Myanmar ○ single mountain with various rock outcroppings  ○ all Buddhist sacred sites in Myanmar are gilded ■ desire to be made beautiful; gold is an appropriate  gift ■ gold from pilgrims and devotees that carry gold  flakes that they press onto the monument themselves ● Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon Myanmar 11th Century CE ○ Foundation account ■ During lifetime of the Buddha ■ There is a minor narrative detail ● after Awakening under Bodi Tree,  two merchants came up on the Buddha and offered him food,  nourishment, etc ● apparently these people were  Burmese ● after the food was given to Buddha,  he gave the merchants a strand of hair each ○ This pagoda was built to house the strands of hair the Buddha gave the merchants ○ Top is gilded with rubies and diamonds ■ product of patronage ● the impulse to donate to Buddhist  stupas are consistent with the rituals in early India, but it is  manifested differently than south India because of the availability  of the resources (precious metals and stones) ■ everything is donated ● regilded 4 times a year in gold ■ 36,000 individual rubies just on one section ■ entire stupa is made of gold ■ nearly every ruby in the world comes from Burma ○ Southern Entrance, Shwedagon Pagoda, circa 16th Century CE ■ the most recent addition to the process of  demarcating cardinal directions are from military dictator’s wife in the 90s ○ It is undeniably a stupa, but is called a pagoda ■ Pagoda is a British word ○ Difference b/w Indian Stupa and Pagoda ■ the manner in which people interact with the  monument ● Shwedagon ­ traditional form of  veneration (circumambulation) ○ the circumambulatory process was structured in a diff. way in Myanmar (8 shrine  stations at specific points ­ had to do with astrology and  numerology [day of your birth, time of your birth,  orientation of stars on the day of your birth) ○ 8 days a Week Shrine, Shwedagon Pagoda ■ hated  the number 7 (would avoid the number 7 (days, the  time, etc.) ■ there  are ritual means of protecting people who are  associated with the number 7 ● s ometimes people would induce labor early  or prolong a birth to avoid a birth associated  with 7 ■ each  day is associated with a form of animal ○ punctuated form of  circumambulation ● Pagan, Central Myanmar ­ 9th Century CE ○ complex ○ Hundred upon hundreds of Buddhist architectural forms built here ■ done by successive lines of kings (royal patronage) ■ over 2 generations ○ Bupaya pagoda, 9th CE ■ very recognizable bulbus stupa ■ set on raised base ■ in terms of function, in line with traditional  buddhist stupa ● although it is a rock­cut monolith ● commemorative stupas ○ don’t house a physical object ○ places in areas  important to indigenous saints ○ Ananda Temple, 11th century ■ elevation got popular ■ multi­tier temple bases (sometimes these structures  got referred to as stupa mountains) ■ People walk into these “mountain temples” and see  four large Buddhas facing in each of the cardinal directions ○ Mahabodhi Temple, Pagan, 13th century CE ■ Attempt to recreate Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya,  3rd BCE ■ 12th CE ­ There was a debate about monastic  practices, origin of Buddha, etc., so they sent some monks to India to seek  knowledge from living monastic sources in India (the very place of  awakening for Buddhism had fallen into ruin/abandoned) ● during this time in India, Islam had  come in and built their monuments and gained dominance (Mughal Empire era) ■ Functioned as a religious center and as a monastic  training center for monks to serve as caretakers for the conservation of the  Mahabodhi Temple at Bodhgaya ○ Bhumisparsamudra Buddha; Bronze Stele, Old Pagan Period ca.  11th century CE ■ depicts moment of awakening for Buddha under the Bodhi Tree at Bodhgaya ■ also contains many other stories of the Buddha  throughout his life ■ emphasis of magical power of Buddha was  important to the Burmese  ○ Kuthodaw Pagoda, Mandalay ■ perimeter of complex (hundreds of mini stupas) ● Inscribed text of the Pali Tripitaka on stone tablets ○ full expression of  teachings of the Buddha ○ put here so it is  permanent because it was lost in India (South asia) ○ Venerable Mingun Sayadaw U Vicittasarabhivamsa ■ can recite the entire word of the Buddha from  memory ■ living expression of the stone tablets ■ great, unbelievable accomplishment THAILAND ● Coastal Thailand ○ became infused with India ○ adopted Sanskrit ○ adopted Indian ideas of kingship (currently a monarchy to this day) ○ modern Thai script is evolved Pallava script ● Mucalinda Buddha Dvaravati Period, 8th ­ 9th CE ○ early example of Thai buddhist sculpture ○ Buddha seated ○ iconographically very recognizable, but stylistically no one could  mistake this a Indian art. It is clearly south Asian. ○ Buddha is thin and fit; radically oversized hands (inexperienced  sculptor in terms of form) ○ Dvaravati ruled the peninsula of thailand at the time ○ Representations of Hindu deities ● Uma (Devil); Sukhothai Period, 14th century ○ the goddess Devi ● Harihara, Sukhothai Period, 14th CE ○ Male God ○ form of the Gods that never occupied a large amount of  recognition & representation in architecture ● These sculptures are representations of Hindu deities, but in a distinctive Thai  style ○ stylistically they are masterpieces ○ representation of Southeast Asian style ○ iconography remains constant (whether it is in India or Thailand,  figure are still recognizable) ● OVERTLY Buddhist nation in the modern world ○ up to 80% are Buddhist ● Buddha Image, Ayutthaya period, 15th Century CE ○ still has big hands ○ flame protruding from head (to south asians this conveyed  enlightenment “how do you effectively depict an enlightened being?”) ● Walking Buddha, Sukhothai Period (15th CE) ○ distinctively Thai because of movement of the body; “walking  through the sky”­type movement; preference to represent Buddha in this animated way; connected to the Thai understanding of the Buddha ○ Presenting the Buddha as the most beautiful and graceful and  powerful, he is depicted this way (the way the body moves) ○ more common that the gender is mistaken; possibly intentional or  just stylistic ● Grand Palace, Bangkok, 18th CE (complex) ○ very premodern structure ○ has incorporated architectural and religious features that was  popular way before it was built ○ not simply an administrative, political, residential sculpture. It  represents the fusion of the sacred and the secular with political. ○ Yaksa Guardian ■ guards entrances ■ Thai versions of Yakshas ● remarkable degree of parallelism ■ Powerful, yet protective ○ Temple of the Emerald Buddha (Wat Phra Kheo) ■ Emerald Buddha (15th Century) ● Have a biography of the actual image (where it was made, why, how it was moved, etc.) ● very few images have this  documentation ○ typically done for  specific relics rather than an image ● Monk wanted to expand Buddhism  and to do this he wanted to create this image. He needed a specific  material to make it (Reading on ELC gives more detail) ○ Image became lost in  India and after many centuries it resurfaces in Sri Lanka >  Shipwrecked > etc. (read story) ○ Kings fought over it ● King in Thailand has the personal  responsibility to take care of the image ○ Image is the sole  source of legitimacy for Thai kings to rule ○ If anything happened  to the image,  the king would be viewed as illegitimate INDONESIA ● Borobudur, Java circa 800 CE ○ On a flat, high plateau ○ Volcano nearby ■ Mount Merapi, Central Java ■ Has not erupted for a long time ■ Area with intense geothermal activity ○ Association w/ sacred spaces and mountains ○ Combination of a number of recognizable forms of sacred space ■ Dominant stupa (top in the middle) ■ Circumambulatory tiers ■ Unique (so much more complex than Shwedagon,  sanchi, bodhgaya, etc.) ■ 6 main areas of sight, dominated by 4 main  circumambulatory paths (upper gallery) ● Every inch of monument galleries  has a successive series of identifiable narrative cravings ○ Borobudur, Exposed covered plinth on base of monument (oddity  of the covered foot) ■ Area with a bunch of sculpture that was covered up ■ No one is sure if the covering was for religious,  functional, or conservationism purposes ■ Discovered by accident in 1970s ● Monument was sinking so it was  taken apart to be put back together, that’s when they found it ■ Karmavibhanga Reliefs, Covered Gallery,  Borobudur ● Idea of rebirth ● What you do now will do with how  you are reborn ○ You are the authors of your own salvation ● Consequences of obscuring this  relief? Conclude the upper tiers (everything above) was literally  above/beyond the realm of karmic consequences > so possibly  done to create a utopian space. ● The 4 upper galleries can be divided  into two ○ 1st two galleries ■ First  gallery, Borobudur, Life scenes of Sakyamuni  Buddha ­ extensive narrative biography of the  historical buddha ● L alitavistara ● Q ueen maya (buddha’s mother) being  attended to by servants with an elephant  flying around (buddha conception) ● J avanese version of the great departure ○ 3rd & 4th galleries ■ Gandh avyuha Reliefs ­ Story of Sudhana ● T his story is rejected roundly by buddhist  communities in India ● S udhana is usually the one approaching the  throne/teacher ○ T hought of as “not the word of  Buddha” ○ S o people who believed it left and  took it with them ● H ad success outside of India (Tibet, Eastern  Turkistan, etc.) ● Y oung man becomes committed to intensively pursue becoming a Buddha himself (not to  imitate Buddha, but to actually become one). Visits every teacher to search for insight ● I nternal pursuit ● T hrough this he achieved awakening in one  lifetime (Didn’t take as long as the actual  Buddha) ● R ejected because they didn’t believe anyone  could be a buddha except for THE buddha  and that it could only be done in one lifetime ● Stupas ○ Top level of stupas ■ Perfora ted stupas ■ Inside  each there is an image of the Buddha ○ Unfinished image of  Buddha intentionally placed in the center of the monument ■ This  image is put into main stupa ■ Individ uals can become buddhas ■ Literall y still in the process of being made is an allegorical  representation of the fact that people can still be  enlightened ● Possible Borobudur was an attempt  to create this mandala format CAMBODIA ● Angkor (Capital & name of the dynasty) ● Shiva, Cambodia 9th CE ● Devi, Cambodian Khmer Style Pre­Angkorean Style circa 8th Century CE ● The way Buddhism was introduced was through mercantilism (abundance of  evidence) ● Near perfection from day one of introduction of stone sculpture for religious  purposes ● Vishnu, Cambodia, circa 9th Century CE  Stylistically is in no way indian Demonstrates freedom of interpretation and creativity utilized by Cambodian sculptors ● Ganesh, Pre­Angkorean Style circa 8th Century CE ○ ● Preah ko Temple, Cambodia begun 879, Indravarman, “Devaraja” Cult ○ Indravarman patronage ○ Sanskrit Inscription ■ To understand the orientation of this Hindu temple ■ Never a representation of 3 ● Temple was dedicated to three forms of Shiva and his consoles ● 3x3 arrangement ● 3 pairs of couples ● Not just forms of Shiva; each form  of Shiva and the Goddess was a form of Indravarman’s ancestors  (father, grandpa, great grandpa, and their wives) ○ “Devaraja” Cult ­ the  worship of Hindu divinities was conflated with the worship of the ancestors of a king ○ ideas from south asia were not completely absorbed ■ Formed a variant form of Hindu religious practices ● First seen at Preah Ko ● Bangkok Temple, Cambodia; Begun 881, Indravarman ○ Some parts destroyed by bombing during Vietnam War ■ Has been reconstructed since ○ Indravarman and his Wives, Preah Ko, 881 CE ■ Headless sculptures (destroyed) ■ Suggested image of Vishnu (because of girdle) ■ Indravarman has an inscription on it ● Indravarman as Vishnu with his two  wives ■ Different way of representing Hinduism ● Ex: Mamalla always likened himself  to Shiva, but never actually said he was shiva or will be  reincarnated as Shiva ● Angkor Wat, Cambodia, 12th CE (1113­1150); Patronized by Khmer King  Suryavarman2 ○ Nothing in India was ever built to this scale ○ Recognizable central structure ○ Huge perimeter wall ■ Galleries (covered walkways) ■ Several miles if you circulate all the pathways ■ All covered with elaborate narrative sculpture ● intentions/motivations of patron ○ Limited admission? Or General admission? ■ Possibly closed to the public except for major  religious events ○ Angkor Wat Exterior ­ Celestial “Asparas” 12th Century CE ■ Asparas= sanskrit for flying devotees/angels ■ Use of hand gestures to convey specific things ■ Great sense of animation/movement ○ Angkor Wat Interior Gallery Relief Sculpture ■ 3 prominent scenes repeatedly represented ● Violence/War ● Battle Scenes from the Ramayana  and Mahabharata, Angkor Wat, early 12th Century CE ○ Incarnation of Vishnu fighting a demon ● Vishnu Churning the Sea of Milk,  Angkor Wat ○ Provide immortality  to anyone who needed it ○ Nectar of immortality ○ Restorer of order ○ Demons (Asuras) and  Gods (Devas) Churning the Ocean of Milk ● Yama (God of the Dead) Assigning  Reward and Punishment, Angkor Wat ○ Emphasis on reward  and punishment ■ Not a  default principle, but there is an assessive god that  assess reward or punishment ○ Bottom: Punishment  > shackled together getting beaten by Yamas guardians ○ Top: Reward > Led to heavenly rebirth ● Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Reign of Jayavarman ○ Bayon is not a hindu sculpture ○ Bayon Triad, Cambodia, Bayon period (12th CE) ○ Bodhisattva Lokesvara, Bayon period (12th CE) ■ Highly realized beings who are assured of  becoming Buddhas in the future, but have not yet attained that status ■ Often compared to saints (like in the catholic faith) ■ Ambassador for buddha ■ Markings of future status ■ Bodhisattva are intercessors ■ Protective functions attribute to their popularity ○ Eastern Gateway entrance, Angkor Thom ■ Bayon Temple Towers ● Faces are meant to provide solace ● Not entirely clear what the faces are  depicting or what the purpose is ○ Theories: Actually  replications of Jayavarman himself=king acting in  sentimental capacity (looking out for safety of Angkor) OR possibly faces of different Bodhisattvas ■ Buddh a Seated beneath Mucalinda, Bayon Period (12th­ 13th century) ■ Portrait of Jayavarman VII, circa 1200 ● L ooks like buddha


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