ARHI 3100 - Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia - Second Written Assignment Notes (PICTURES INCLUDED)
ARHI 3100 - Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia - Second Written Assignment Notes (PICTURES INCLUDED) ARHI 3100
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This 32 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dominique N. on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARHI 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Nicolas Morrissey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Art History in Art at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
● Sanskrit = written in Pallava script ○ earliest written language we found in that area ● Trade across the Bay of Bengal (from East India to southeast Asia) ○ learned how to communicate with each other and India adopted the southeastern languages ○ Buddhist monks accompanied merchants to southeast asia ■ Buddhism fulfilled a desire/need to southeast asians who adhered to religious institutions that were not satisfactory to them ○ This was not a form of colonialism or military intervention MYANMAR (formerly Burma) ● Nat “Spirit Deities”; Indigenous Religious figure of ancient Burma ○ widespread veneration (ven∙er∙a∙tion (noun) great respect; reverence.) ○ inline/similar to the worship of Yakshis and Yakshas in early India ○ Nats = pronounced like “knots” ● Myanmar was ruled by a line of successive military regimes that did not care about the education and enlightenment of their people. They cut them off from surrounding regions and the rest of the world (that had been discovered at that point) ● Mount Popa, Central Myanmar, Shrine of 37 Nats ○ built on top of a volcanic plug ○ Volcano erupted here ○ the ecological life was very specific to this region (what grows here doesn’t grow anywhere else in the world) ○ Buddha found success through miraculous power (Dragonlike form) ● 98.5% of the Myanmar population claims they are Buddhist ○ has the highest population of ordained monastics than any other place in the world ● Kyaiktiyo Pagoda, Mon State, Southeast Myanmar ○ single mountain with various rock outcroppings ○ all Buddhist sacred sites in Myanmar are gilded ■ desire to be made beautiful; gold is an appropriate gift ■ gold from pilgrims and devotees that carry gold flakes that they press onto the monument themselves ● Shwedagon Pagoda, Yangon Myanmar 11th Century CE ○ Foundation account ■ During lifetime of the Buddha ■ There is a minor narrative detail ● after Awakening under Bodi Tree, two merchants came up on the Buddha and offered him food, nourishment, etc ● apparently these people were Burmese ● after the food was given to Buddha, he gave the merchants a strand of hair each ○ This pagoda was built to house the strands of hair the Buddha gave the merchants ○ Top is gilded with rubies and diamonds ■ product of patronage ● the impulse to donate to Buddhist stupas are consistent with the rituals in early India, but it is manifested differently than south India because of the availability of the resources (precious metals and stones) ■ everything is donated ● regilded 4 times a year in gold ■ 36,000 individual rubies just on one section ■ entire stupa is made of gold ■ nearly every ruby in the world comes from Burma ○ Southern Entrance, Shwedagon Pagoda, circa 16th Century CE ■ the most recent addition to the process of demarcating cardinal directions are from military dictator’s wife in the 90s ○ It is undeniably a stupa, but is called a pagoda ■ Pagoda is a British word ○ Difference b/w Indian Stupa and Pagoda ■ the manner in which people interact with the monument ● Shwedagon traditional form of veneration (circumambulation) ○ the circumambulatory process was structured in a diff. way in Myanmar (8 shrine stations at specific points had to do with astrology and numerology [day of your birth, time of your birth, orientation of stars on the day of your birth) ○ 8 days a Week Shrine, Shwedagon Pagoda ■ hated the number 7 (would avoid the number 7 (days, the time, etc.) ■ there are ritual means of protecting people who are associated with the number 7 ● s ometimes people would induce labor early or prolong a birth to avoid a birth associated with 7 ■ each day is associated with a form of animal ○ punctuated form of circumambulation ● Pagan, Central Myanmar 9th Century CE ○ complex ○ Hundred upon hundreds of Buddhist architectural forms built here ■ done by successive lines of kings (royal patronage) ■ over 2 generations ○ Bupaya pagoda, 9th CE ■ very recognizable bulbus stupa ■ set on raised base ■ in terms of function, in line with traditional buddhist stupa ● although it is a rockcut monolith ● commemorative stupas ○ don’t house a physical object ○ places in areas important to indigenous saints ○ Ananda Temple, 11th century ■ elevation got popular ■ multitier temple bases (sometimes these structures got referred to as stupa mountains) ■ People walk into these “mountain temples” and see four large Buddhas facing in each of the cardinal directions ○ Mahabodhi Temple, Pagan, 13th century CE ■ Attempt to recreate Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya, 3rd BCE ■ 12th CE There was a debate about monastic practices, origin of Buddha, etc., so they sent some monks to India to seek knowledge from living monastic sources in India (the very place of awakening for Buddhism had fallen into ruin/abandoned) ● during this time in India, Islam had come in and built their monuments and gained dominance (Mughal Empire era) ■ Functioned as a religious center and as a monastic training center for monks to serve as caretakers for the conservation of the Mahabodhi Temple at Bodhgaya ○ Bhumisparsamudra Buddha; Bronze Stele, Old Pagan Period ca. 11th century CE ■ depicts moment of awakening for Buddha under the Bodhi Tree at Bodhgaya ■ also contains many other stories of the Buddha throughout his life ■ emphasis of magical power of Buddha was important to the Burmese ○ Kuthodaw Pagoda, Mandalay ■ perimeter of complex (hundreds of mini stupas) ● Inscribed text of the Pali Tripitaka on stone tablets ○ full expression of teachings of the Buddha ○ put here so it is permanent because it was lost in India (South asia) ○ Venerable Mingun Sayadaw U Vicittasarabhivamsa ■ can recite the entire word of the Buddha from memory ■ living expression of the stone tablets ■ great, unbelievable accomplishment THAILAND ● Coastal Thailand ○ became infused with India ○ adopted Sanskrit ○ adopted Indian ideas of kingship (currently a monarchy to this day) ○ modern Thai script is evolved Pallava script ● Mucalinda Buddha Dvaravati Period, 8th 9th CE ○ early example of Thai buddhist sculpture ○ Buddha seated ○ iconographically very recognizable, but stylistically no one could mistake this a Indian art. It is clearly south Asian. ○ Buddha is thin and fit; radically oversized hands (inexperienced sculptor in terms of form) ○ Dvaravati ruled the peninsula of thailand at the time ○ Representations of Hindu deities ● Uma (Devil); Sukhothai Period, 14th century ○ the goddess Devi ● Harihara, Sukhothai Period, 14th CE ○ Male God ○ form of the Gods that never occupied a large amount of recognition & representation in architecture ● These sculptures are representations of Hindu deities, but in a distinctive Thai style ○ stylistically they are masterpieces ○ representation of Southeast Asian style ○ iconography remains constant (whether it is in India or Thailand, figure are still recognizable) ● OVERTLY Buddhist nation in the modern world ○ up to 80% are Buddhist ● Buddha Image, Ayutthaya period, 15th Century CE ○ still has big hands ○ flame protruding from head (to south asians this conveyed enlightenment “how do you effectively depict an enlightened being?”) ● Walking Buddha, Sukhothai Period (15th CE) ○ distinctively Thai because of movement of the body; “walking through the sky”type movement; preference to represent Buddha in this animated way; connected to the Thai understanding of the Buddha ○ Presenting the Buddha as the most beautiful and graceful and powerful, he is depicted this way (the way the body moves) ○ more common that the gender is mistaken; possibly intentional or just stylistic ● Grand Palace, Bangkok, 18th CE (complex) ○ very premodern structure ○ has incorporated architectural and religious features that was popular way before it was built ○ not simply an administrative, political, residential sculpture. It represents the fusion of the sacred and the secular with political. ○ Yaksa Guardian ■ guards entrances ■ Thai versions of Yakshas ● remarkable degree of parallelism ■ Powerful, yet protective ○ Temple of the Emerald Buddha (Wat Phra Kheo) ■ Emerald Buddha (15th Century) ● Have a biography of the actual image (where it was made, why, how it was moved, etc.) ● very few images have this documentation ○ typically done for specific relics rather than an image ● Monk wanted to expand Buddhism and to do this he wanted to create this image. He needed a specific material to make it (Reading on ELC gives more detail) ○ Image became lost in India and after many centuries it resurfaces in Sri Lanka > Shipwrecked > etc. (read story) ○ Kings fought over it ● King in Thailand has the personal responsibility to take care of the image ○ Image is the sole source of legitimacy for Thai kings to rule ○ If anything happened to the image, the king would be viewed as illegitimate INDONESIA ● Borobudur, Java circa 800 CE ○ On a flat, high plateau ○ Volcano nearby ■ Mount Merapi, Central Java ■ Has not erupted for a long time ■ Area with intense geothermal activity ○ Association w/ sacred spaces and mountains ○ Combination of a number of recognizable forms of sacred space ■ Dominant stupa (top in the middle) ■ Circumambulatory tiers ■ Unique (so much more complex than Shwedagon, sanchi, bodhgaya, etc.) ■ 6 main areas of sight, dominated by 4 main circumambulatory paths (upper gallery) ● Every inch of monument galleries has a successive series of identifiable narrative cravings ○ Borobudur, Exposed covered plinth on base of monument (oddity of the covered foot) ■ Area with a bunch of sculpture that was covered up ■ No one is sure if the covering was for religious, functional, or conservationism purposes ■ Discovered by accident in 1970s ● Monument was sinking so it was taken apart to be put back together, that’s when they found it ■ Karmavibhanga Reliefs, Covered Gallery, Borobudur ● Idea of rebirth ● What you do now will do with how you are reborn ○ You are the authors of your own salvation ● Consequences of obscuring this relief? Conclude the upper tiers (everything above) was literally above/beyond the realm of karmic consequences > so possibly done to create a utopian space. ● The 4 upper galleries can be divided into two ○ 1st two galleries ■ First gallery, Borobudur, Life scenes of Sakyamuni Buddha extensive narrative biography of the historical buddha ● L alitavistara ● Q ueen maya (buddha’s mother) being attended to by servants with an elephant flying around (buddha conception) ● J avanese version of the great departure ○ 3rd & 4th galleries ■ Gandh avyuha Reliefs Story of Sudhana ● T his story is rejected roundly by buddhist communities in India ● S udhana is usually the one approaching the throne/teacher ○ T hought of as “not the word of Buddha” ○ S o people who believed it left and took it with them ● H ad success outside of India (Tibet, Eastern Turkistan, etc.) ● Y oung man becomes committed to intensively pursue becoming a Buddha himself (not to imitate Buddha, but to actually become one). Visits every teacher to search for insight ● I nternal pursuit ● T hrough this he achieved awakening in one lifetime (Didn’t take as long as the actual Buddha) ● R ejected because they didn’t believe anyone could be a buddha except for THE buddha and that it could only be done in one lifetime ● Stupas ○ Top level of stupas ■ Perfora ted stupas ■ Inside each there is an image of the Buddha ○ Unfinished image of Buddha intentionally placed in the center of the monument ■ This image is put into main stupa ■ Individ uals can become buddhas ■ Literall y still in the process of being made is an allegorical representation of the fact that people can still be enlightened ● Possible Borobudur was an attempt to create this mandala format CAMBODIA ● Angkor (Capital & name of the dynasty) ● Shiva, Cambodia 9th CE ● Devi, Cambodian Khmer Style PreAngkorean Style circa 8th Century CE ● The way Buddhism was introduced was through mercantilism (abundance of evidence) ● Near perfection from day one of introduction of stone sculpture for religious purposes ● Vishnu, Cambodia, circa 9th Century CE Stylistically is in no way indian Demonstrates freedom of interpretation and creativity utilized by Cambodian sculptors ● Ganesh, PreAngkorean Style circa 8th Century CE ○ ● Preah ko Temple, Cambodia begun 879, Indravarman, “Devaraja” Cult ○ Indravarman patronage ○ Sanskrit Inscription ■ To understand the orientation of this Hindu temple ■ Never a representation of 3 ● Temple was dedicated to three forms of Shiva and his consoles ● 3x3 arrangement ● 3 pairs of couples ● Not just forms of Shiva; each form of Shiva and the Goddess was a form of Indravarman’s ancestors (father, grandpa, great grandpa, and their wives) ○ “Devaraja” Cult the worship of Hindu divinities was conflated with the worship of the ancestors of a king ○ ideas from south asia were not completely absorbed ■ Formed a variant form of Hindu religious practices ● First seen at Preah Ko ● Bangkok Temple, Cambodia; Begun 881, Indravarman ○ Some parts destroyed by bombing during Vietnam War ■ Has been reconstructed since ○ Indravarman and his Wives, Preah Ko, 881 CE ■ Headless sculptures (destroyed) ■ Suggested image of Vishnu (because of girdle) ■ Indravarman has an inscription on it ● Indravarman as Vishnu with his two wives ■ Different way of representing Hinduism ● Ex: Mamalla always likened himself to Shiva, but never actually said he was shiva or will be reincarnated as Shiva ● Angkor Wat, Cambodia, 12th CE (11131150); Patronized by Khmer King Suryavarman2 ○ Nothing in India was ever built to this scale ○ Recognizable central structure ○ Huge perimeter wall ■ Galleries (covered walkways) ■ Several miles if you circulate all the pathways ■ All covered with elaborate narrative sculpture ● intentions/motivations of patron ○ Limited admission? Or General admission? ■ Possibly closed to the public except for major religious events ○ Angkor Wat Exterior Celestial “Asparas” 12th Century CE ■ Asparas= sanskrit for flying devotees/angels ■ Use of hand gestures to convey specific things ■ Great sense of animation/movement ○ Angkor Wat Interior Gallery Relief Sculpture ■ 3 prominent scenes repeatedly represented ● Violence/War ● Battle Scenes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata, Angkor Wat, early 12th Century CE ○ Incarnation of Vishnu fighting a demon ● Vishnu Churning the Sea of Milk, Angkor Wat ○ Provide immortality to anyone who needed it ○ Nectar of immortality ○ Restorer of order ○ Demons (Asuras) and Gods (Devas) Churning the Ocean of Milk ● Yama (God of the Dead) Assigning Reward and Punishment, Angkor Wat ○ Emphasis on reward and punishment ■ Not a default principle, but there is an assessive god that assess reward or punishment ○ Bottom: Punishment > shackled together getting beaten by Yamas guardians ○ Top: Reward > Led to heavenly rebirth ● Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Reign of Jayavarman ○ Bayon is not a hindu sculpture ○ Bayon Triad, Cambodia, Bayon period (12th CE) ○ Bodhisattva Lokesvara, Bayon period (12th CE) ■ Highly realized beings who are assured of becoming Buddhas in the future, but have not yet attained that status ■ Often compared to saints (like in the catholic faith) ■ Ambassador for buddha ■ Markings of future status ■ Bodhisattva are intercessors ■ Protective functions attribute to their popularity ○ Eastern Gateway entrance, Angkor Thom ■ Bayon Temple Towers ● Faces are meant to provide solace ● Not entirely clear what the faces are depicting or what the purpose is ○ Theories: Actually replications of Jayavarman himself=king acting in sentimental capacity (looking out for safety of Angkor) OR possibly faces of different Bodhisattvas ■ Buddh a Seated beneath Mucalinda, Bayon Period (12th 13th century) ■ Portrait of Jayavarman VII, circa 1200 ● L ooks like buddha
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