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Study Guide for Midterm on 9/18/15

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by: Grace Monfort

Study Guide for Midterm on 9/18/15 Chem 151

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Chemistry > Chem 151 > Study Guide for Midterm on 9 18 15
Grace Monfort
General Chemistry
Dr. Talanquer

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About this Document

This study guide covers all the main topics and explains them as covered since the beginning of the course.
General Chemistry
Dr. Talanquer
Study Guide
chemistry study guide
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Monfort on Monday September 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 151 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Talanquer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 460 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 09/14/15
ht tIO ke nt ch mi st ry co i 39 es i nk s m Chem 151 Study Guide for Midterm on September 18th 2015 Differentiating Characteristics 0 Density Solubility cannot depend on 0 Boiling point Viscosity Phase Behavior Temperature does not work because it needs to be an exact point to measure Concentration does not work but can be used between acids and bases later Mass does not work because you can change it yourself REMEMBER Value never changes amount or on environmental conditions Real life application Why would we separate air In hospitals patients breathe pure oxygen and nitrogen is used to freeze Phase Transitions atm intermoecular forces among particles REMEMBER Temperature remains constant while adding energy Cooling down taking energy away negative slope Heating up injecting energy positive slope Phase diagram FEqm39ibriL m rsquiiibrium ERITllllri39iL melting IIqUId FDINT If aquot freezing solid 1I aoorlzation uquot condensation sublimation gas 3 quot39 dermatmn TRIPLE PoINT 7 T PC Triple point all 3 phases coexist unique for each substance Super critical uid past critical point 3 phases are undistinguishable from each other Real life application When are super critical uids used 1 Dry cleaners dense gas goes through clothes without getting them wet 2 Coffee beans C02 and super critical uid go through beans to clean them Boiling and Vapor Pressure 0 Liquid to gas phase transition pressure of gas evaporated vapor pressure of the liquid 0 Boiling occurs when the vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure Volatile liquid is more easily evaporated 0 Higher pressure at a given temperature means more volatile Models of Matter Traditional images of particles in all phases gas liquid and solid have limitations and it is important to note them They are static They have unrealistic proportions They are represented as solid objects Pressure is determined by force of particle collisions on walls 0 Pressure force area 0 Mass temperature and volume all effect the speed of particles 0 Ex H20 at the triple point If temperature is the same speed is always the same Temperature is the measure of kinetic energy of the particles K 12mv2 same temperature same kinetic energy veocity speed on the other hand depends on temperature and mass Particle Speed Particles are always moving Depends on temperature and mass 0 Higher temperature higher average speed 0 Heavier masses more slower Distribution of speed changes with temper and mass as well 0 Particles interacting with each other depends on distance between particles Far away from each other attraction Get very close repel Gases Why do we assume that particles interact If particles do not interact we would predict that they always behave like gases because there is no reason for particles to come closer together they are moving so they are always apart Not interacting not attracting or repelling only interacting with walls 0 Temperature and number of particles are directly proportional to pressure 0 Volume is inversely proportional to pressure ldeal Gas Law P kBNTV needs to be at high temp and low pressure or ideal NEVER use the ideal gas law with liquids or solids Gas Behaviors o Repulsions on pressure increases because they aren t going through each other anymore they are bouncing off of each other 0 Attractive Interactions up particles spend more time close to each other and less time colliding against the walls of the container pressure decreases attractive interactions up temperature down phase change to solid phase changes explained by attractive reactions Energy and Phase Transitions Know what Potential Energy is 1 depends on relative position of things that are interacting with each other 2 measure of how much kinetic energy they can gain if you let the particles move under in uence of their interactions As particles are moving together they are using PE and gaining KE But when they get super close the PE shoots up amp they repel o Repelling PE shoots up 0 Attracting PE is going down Smaller distance between the particles more negative value of PE Particles that attract each other are said to have negative potential energy compared to free particles During phase changes KE stays the same while PE is increasing dramatically Real life application Champagne Bottles have C02 at high pressure Why does a liquid and cloud come out when opened and how is the cloud formed 0 Open bottle more volume pressure decreasing temperature decreasing 0 Energy PE increases very fast so fast that KE is decreasing slowing down while expanding 0 Cloud KE is decreasing so is temperature therefore the water condenses in the surrounding area Explaining Change what makes a given state of matter stable Think about 0 The PE of the different states available to the system 0 Number of con gurations that particles can take in each of those states 0 More con gurations more stable 0 Less con gurations less stable Liquids and Gases Liquids lower PE few number of con gurations constrained Gases higher PE higher number of con gurations Intermolecular Forces why are they different composition and the structure of the particles are different lonic compounds metal and nonmetal lumped together Molecular compounds nonmetal form molecules Remember Be very careful with language Know the difference between what you are referring to Terminology 0 Molecule several atoms bonded together 0 Substance a thing that is made of the same type of particles need to beiden cal 0 Elementary Substance substance with only one type of atom identical particles made of free or bonded atoms ex Argon Nitrogen 0 Chemical Compounds composed of identical particles made of bonded atoms of two or more different types 0 Mixtures a system composed of two or more types of independent particles present in proportions that may vary from sample to sample Color code Need to memorize 0 Oxygen red 0 Nitrogen blue 0 Hydrogen light gray 0 Carbon dark gray Measurement Atoms and molecules have masses and sizes so small that they can t be measure directly So the masses of different substances are compared Use the ideal gas law to compare samples of different gases Ex how do you compare samples of different gases with the same N N PVkBT keep variables constant and solve for N Equal volumes of different ideal gases same T amp P should contain the same number of particles Relative Atomic Mass amu choosing one arbitrary atom as reference and determining how other atoms are heavier lighter in respect to it Mole how many atoms you need to get the atomic mass unit in grams Avogadro s number 6022 x 1023 Molar Mass mass of one mole of a substance differentiating characteristic


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