CLAS 220 Exam 1 Study Guide Outline
CLAS 220 Exam 1 Study Guide Outline CLAS 220 001
Popular in Introduction to Classical Mythology
CLAS 220 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Classical Studies
CLAS 220 001
verified elite notetaker
This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayley on Monday September 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CLAS 220 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jason Osborne in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 378 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Classical Mythology in Classical Studies at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/14/15
Test 1 CLAS 220 Study Outline Mythology MythA story that can be narrated orally or written Primarily concerned with gods and humankinds relationship Types of interpretations o Etiological o Rationalism o Euhemerism o Allegorical o Psychological Geography and Development of Greece Small Settled before 70000 BC Isolated Communities Favored Independence and Freedom Bronze Age Bronze age of Greece Crete and Islands 3 periods 0 Early 30002000 BC 0 Middle 20001600 BC 0 Late 16001100 BC Bronze age of o CreteMinoans o IslandsCycladic o GreeceHelladic in late bronze referred to as Mycenaean age Minoan Civilization Matured in middle bronze age Palace culture 0 Palace at Cnossos 0 Capital of great sea power 0 Labyrinth and slaying of minotaur o Cnossos has no walls because they lacked fear of invasion Extensive trade networks that suggest they had ships Art work was very different from other cultures at that time 0 Associated with Minotaur o Represents sea life 0 Was very sophisticated Language was Linear A hasn t been solved Mycenaean Civilization Indo European Linguistic Group 0 First Greeks o Invaded from North and East 0 Worshipped Zeus as supreme Sky god They adopted much of Minoan culture after they conquered them 0 Evidence is burn levels Linear B language 0 Early Greek language 0 Lists of what they own Cyclopean Walls 0 So large it was thought a Cyclops made it Shaft graves Trojan War Evidence of it happening is because of burn level Archaeological record says it happened 12501150 BC Mythological record says it happened 1184 BC Mycenae Trades from Sardinia to W Asia Piracy Feudal systems Gods o Zeus Hera Poseidon Hermes Athena Artemis WanaX represents gods but isn t one Mycenaean age ended after Trojan War 0 Dark age commences 0 12501 150 BC Draws parallels with other traditions Homer 0 Alludes to creation stories but doesn t write them Hesiod 8th7th century BC 0 Greek Poet 0 Works and days 0 T heogonyOrigin of the Creation of world and gods 0 Literary re ects Greeks Beliefs The beginning there was 1 ChaosYawing void beginning 2 Gaia Earth 3 Eros Love force of creation 4 Erebus 5 Night No ultimate creator in beginning Night Erebus sexual relation Aether amp Day Day came from darkness that was brought by Eros Love created all things in the beginning Eros AKA Cupid 0 Love Most beautiful of all immortal Gods Love as Violent power Gaia as Mother Earth Female deity Earth brings forth life with no love involved From her 9 Uranus sky Mountains Pontus Gaia and Uranus engage in sexual union and create 0 Titans 0 Oceanus o Coes o Crius o Hyperion o lapetus o Theia o Rhea o Themis o Mnemosyne o Thebe o Tethys o Cronus Cyclopes o Brontes thunder o Seteropes lighting 0 Arges Bright The Hundred Handers o Cottus o Briareus o Gyes In the sexual union between the Earth and Sky the rain can be thought of as Uranus s seed Where it brings life to the earth Titan s Age Hyperion Theia created 0 Helius Selene Eos Phaeton Story Helius s son who drives his chariot and wrecks the Earth to stop the madness Zeus must kill Phaeton to stop madness who just wanted to be a hero and prove his dad was really a god Theme include o Hubris Can do more than one should 0 Glory You should respect and honor me Eos Child of Hyperion and Theia She falls in love with Titonus who is a mortal Asks Zeus to make Titonus immortal He still ages and she still cares and loves him for eternity Uranus and Cronus Zeus Cronus is a child of Uranus Uranus doesn t like children so he locks them up in Gaia Cronus escapes and castrates Uranus with adamantine o Castration creates I Erinyesfuriesanger I Giants I Meliae nymphs of Ash Tree His castrated genitals are thrown in the Sea 0 Aphrodite was born 0 Story on page 6971 of book Child of Cronus and Rhea Brothers and Sisters 0 Hestia o Demeter o Hera o Hades o Poseidon After Cronus eats all his children because he believes they will take over Zeus escapes this amp Zeus forces him to regurgitate them Over throws his father 0 Theme Children overcome parents The Titanomachy Gods V Titans 0 Hecatonchires Hundred Handers and Cyclopes forge Zeus lighting bolts included because Zeus releases them from Gaia where Uranus locked them in o Cronus will Ally with Titans against Zeus o Themis and Prometheus allied with Zeus o Page 8081 GigantomachyZeus V Giants 0 The giants AKA Gigantes are earth made 0 Terrible war but Zeus defeats Giants I They are imprisoned inside volcanoes 0 Theme of Gigantomachy Civilization overcoming barbarism Zeus Vs Typhoeus o Typhoeus had 100 serpent head 100 different voices and shoots re from his eyes dangerous 0 Battle was intense and much of Earth melted o Zeus defeated Typhoeus and threw him into tartarus underworld 5 Ages of Men Age of Gold 0 Existed under Cronus o Carefree and without turmoil Age of Silver 0 Arrogance 0 Children lived for 100 years but lived a short adult life because of senselessness and irrationality 0 Didn t worship immortals Age of Bronze 0 Warlike I Followed Ares 0 Didn t eat bread bread was connected to life stability 0 Afterlifehades Age of Heroes 0 Valiant in war Bronze and Brains o Demigods o Trojan War Age of Iron 0 Age of Current Humans life has turmoil and hardships o Con icts between parents and children 0 No shame 0 Will eventually be overthrown Creation of Mortals Created and Molded By Prometheus Given life by Athena Earth shaped into rational beings Reasoning Prometheus Genius Son of lapetus amp Clymene Brother was Epimetheus Idiot brother Protector of Man 0 Fills a connection with humans and helps them He helped humanity deceive Zeus and in turn humanity was denied re Prometheus goes against Zeus and reintroduces them to re funnel stalk Prometheus is punished and bound to rock for a Eagle to eat his liver everyday regrows Pandora Mankind s punishment because they had re Hephaestus created modest Maiden out of earth 0 Athena clothed her and was created beautifully p 91 0 Had the personality of a bitch shameless and you couldn t trust herd 0 Beautiful yet evil Given Jar of Evil previously life was good 0 Later removes lid and evils disease etc is spread across earth 0 Hope is left in jar Marries Epimetheus Man becomes miserable 0 Only access to hope is through relationship with Pandora Those without wife with suffer through toil until death and have no livelihood 10 Relationship with Zeus Priestess of Hera Hated by Hera because of Zeus s love for 10 Zeus deceives Hera lo and Zeus story 10 transformed into cow by Zeus to hide from Hera Hera places guard over cow 10 named Argus Panoptes all seeing has lots of eyes Zeus sends Hermes AKA Argeiphontes Argos Slayer Messenger of Gods to kill Argus Panoptes Hera places eyes of Argus Panoptes onto peacock Hera associated with Peacock Hera stays suspicious and has a Gad y to chase lo and bite her when she stops Gad y Socrates Zeus Transforms her back into woman and she bears a son name Epaphus lo s suffering shows wisdom justice and mercy of Zeus Wickedness of Mortals Zeus s encounter with Lycaon Lycaon despises gods murders guests eats esh 0 Guest are a big deal to Zeus 0 Treat guests with Respect Lycaon house destroyed by Zeus and he turns into a werewolf The Flood A common theme Destruction of Humanity age of iron 0 0 By ood Poseidon and other gods involved Survivors starve Deucalion prometheus s son and Pyrrha Epimetheus daughter were only remaining mortals O O O 0 Story from Ovid s Metamorphoses Had to recreate humanity by tossing rocks over their shoulder bones of mother earth I Humans grew from rocks and are known as race of humans we see today Had son named Hellen P 102 Parallels with ancient near east Basic myths 0 Creation 0 Succession 0 Flood 0 Descent to Underworld 0 HeroKing Gilgamesh West Asia 0 Mesopotamia I Epic of GilgameshHero and Flood Prometheus Bound Reading about Prometheus s punishment 0 Themes 0 De ance of Gods o Suffering for Principles 0 Individuals vs Society o Dangers of tyranny Situation 0 Aftermath of Titanomachy and Gigantomachy o Olympian Gods are now rulers of universe 0 Zeus punishes enemies severly o Newer god Zeus overthrows older God Prometheus because he is a tyrant in his position Tyranny o Stasis con ict within city I Wars among aristocrats 0 Rise of Tyrants I Defenders of middle class I Rule without legal consent 0 Overthrow of Peisistratids I Tyrannicides I Athenian Democracy 0 Con ict with Persia I Battle of marathon 490 I Prometheus bound 480 Zeus as tyrant Harsh and unnatural ruler Trusts no one 0 Use and discard individuals 0 Paranoia Has authority but doesn t stand up for justice Prometheus as Trickster He was a sophist educator o Sophist in Athens valued rhetoric those who could speak well had power in society Line 62 Prometheus unrepented o Knew what we was doing and did it anyways 0 Doesn t cower to Zeus C Says other Gods are lesser than him 0 Would rather suffer through eternity than cower to Zeus Reaction of Gods 0 Human reactions I Fear I Obedience I Devotion I Pity for victims 0 Hephaestus I Feels pity but follows Zeus s orders 0 Okeanos I Avoid punishment 0 Chorus I Face tyrant and don t ght a ght you can t win 14 major deities ZeusSupreme ruler of Gods Hera Woman Mothers morality and more PoseidonSea HadesUnderworld HestiaHearth HephaestusUnderworld Areswar Apollolight truth ArtemisApollo s twin goddess of hunt and many other things Demeter AphroditeLove common theme Athena crafts reason intelligence HermesMessenger of Gods Dionysusdrinking and seX 14 are reduced to 12 Zeus Hades 0 Lives under earth and not really on Olympus 0 God of underworld Hestia o Replaced with Dionysus 0 Virgin Goddess who rejected advances of Poseidon and Apollo 0 Goddess of hearth sacred re family re Everywhere Root of name bright Amorous and has numerous of affairs 0 Incest Associated with Thunder and Lighting Bears the Aegis 0 Has head of gorgon o Impenetrable shield 0 Athena carries it o Strikes fear in mans hearts Exemplifles divine justice 0 Defender of justice 0 Portrayed by different authors I Mighty arbitrary powerful etc I Always dominant irresistible force Never absolute patriarchy 0 Can possibly be overcome I Aphrodite D Whoever controls loves is very powerful U Love is common theme Zeus and Hera Brother and sister Marriage of Sky queen and earth goddess Hera is vengeful wife but loving mother 0 Described as doeeyed and beautiful Hera as goddess of O O O O O 0 Woman Mothers Morality Marriage Childbirth Associate with home Children Eileithyia Goddess of Childbirth and shares role with Hera O O Hebe Goddess of youthful bloom She is primary cupbearer of Olympians Marries Heracles o Hephaestus God of forge 0 O O O Artesian Workshop in Olympus and heaven God of fire destructive Called by Hera to save Achilles p 123 Linked with Athena because of skills craft etc Ugly and deformed Cast out of Olympus by Zeus and Hera Defender of Hera Married Aphrodite O o o o Ares 0 Marriage of beauty deformity intellectual and sensual She has affair with Ares Ridiculed by other gods God of war o Romans are fond of him I Father of roman race Ganymede Beautiful young boy taken by Zeus to Olympus to be his cupbearer Sexual mores of 5th centuryBoy toy of Zeus Plato Nine Muses Born from Zeus and Mnemosyne o Clio history 0 Euterpe lyric poetry 0 Melpomene tradegy o Terpsichore choral dancing 0 Erato love poetry 0 Polyhymnia sacred music 0 Urania astronomy 0 Thalia comedy 0 Clio lyre playing Three Fates Daughters of Zeus and Themis Night and Erebus Clotho o Spinner of thread of life Lachesis 0 Measures thread Atropos o Cuts thread and ends life Fates had BIG in uence on life because you cannot change fate How Greeks dealt with rise of rome Things just happen Anthropomorphism Depicted in human form Gods of upper air and upper world o Olympians I Bleed ichor I Human qualities I Eat ambrosia and drink nectar Gods of Earth 0 Chthonian deities I Dead heroes and ancestry I Demi gods Children of Gods and mortals Superhuman More than heroes but less than god Divine Hierarchy Olympians immortals Lesser creatures such as Gorgons Nymphs o Muses o Oceanids o Nereids Religious system allowed for many Gods o Polytheistic o No new god was turned down I Allowed diversity 0 Were not trouble by divinity I Didn t understand something Thought it was something they wouldn t ever be able to understand Zeus and Monotheism Monotheistic aspect of Zeus 0 Justice 0 Weather 0 Morality 0 Knowledge 0 All nature of gods united into one aspect the gods the god 0 Plato All gods are united so there is divine presence rejects mythology as being accurate representation of Gods Used to talk about human conditions 0 Unity of divine purpose will Greeks have certain way of living Hesiod Stories of multiple gods Unity of divine punishment toward unrighteous Poets Authors Philosophers Changing conceptions of divinity Mythology was just literature and not necessarily what they believed Top portion of society writes these stories Xenophanes Condemns Hesiod Homer for anthropomorphism People conceive gods as themselves Sees gods as presence we really don t know Uni ed god not like humans Greek Theology Mix of myth religious customs and philosophy Strict moral ethical codes of behavior Sincere speculation on god immortality of the soul vice and virtue afterlife inevitability Herodotus father of history 5th century BC History as Greek invention 0 Interpretation 0 Why things happened Greeks and Persians Croesus King of Lydia Better to be dead than alive because when alive you suffer Meeting with Solon Nemesis goddess of vengeful fate raised up against Croesus 0 Role of fate 0 Role of oraclesmisunderstood oracles 0 Loss of son 0 Loss of kingdom Saved from death and made advisor 0 Falls from high to low position 0 Suffered more Omnipresence of Divine Justice HubrisNemesis Irresistible Fate Cant overcome Human life has mixture of j oy and sadness Mythology and Religion Two different things Diversity of Greek religion was not unified and had individual cults o Practices differently Patron Deities 0 Cities have a special relationship with a certain deity I Athena Athens I Hera Argos I Artemis Ephesus Civic religion of the Polis There was no Word for religion Concept of secular Separation of church and state 0 No sphere of life without Gods
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