PSYC4220 Book Notes Exam 1
PSYC4220 Book Notes Exam 1 PSYC 4220
Popular in Developmental Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Monday September 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 203 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
Reviews for PSYC4220 Book Notes Exam 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/14/15
PSYC4220 Book Notes Exam 1 CHAPTER 1 Children Past Present and Future pg 915 Early views of Childhood Medieval Europechildren seen as miniature imperfect adu s Philosophers Perspectives on Children John Locke children enter world with no speci c characteristics Entirely shaped by experiences JeanJacques Rousseau Children born with innate sense of right and wrong and morality Infants develop into admirable and worthy children and adults unless corrupted by negative circumstances One of 1st observers to suggest growth occurred in distinct discontinuous stages that unfolded automatically Baby Biographies Observers parents tried to trace growth of single child recording physical and linguistic milestones Charles Darwin Understanding development of individuals within a species could help identify how species itself developed Recorded own son s development during 1st year Focus on Childhood Advent of universal education meant children were separated from adults for more of the day and educators sought to identify better ways of teaching children Advances in psychology led people to focus on ways that childhood events in uenced them during adult lives Child development became recognized as a eld of its own The 20th Century Child Development as a Discipline Alfred Binet Pioneered work on children s intelligence Also investigated memory and mental calculation G Stanley Hall Pioneered use of questionnaires to illuminate children s thinking and behavior Wrote 1st book that targeted adolescence as distinct period of development Contributions of Women Leta Stetter Hollingsworth One of 1st psychologists to focus on child development Rise of largescale systematic and ongoing investigations of children and their development throughout the lifespan Today s Key Issues and Questions Child Development s Underlying Themes Major issues Nature of developmental change Importance of critical and sensitive periods Life span approaches vs more focused approaches Naturenurture issue Continuous Change Versus Discontinuous Change One of primary issues whether development proceeds in continuous or discontinuous fashion Most developmentalists agree that taking an eitheror position is inappropriate Critical and Sensitive Periods Gauging the Impact of Environmental Events Critical periods occur when the presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli enable development to proceed normally or when exposure to certain stimuli results in abnormal development Cognitive personality and social development may be more exible Plasticity Children can use later experiences to help overcome earlier de cits Sensitive periodoptima period for particular capacities to emerge The concept of sensitive periods recognizes the plasticity of developing humans Life Span Approaches Versus a Focus on Particular Periods The entire period encompassing conception through adolescence is now regarded as important Discovery that developmental growth and change continue during every stage of life An important part of every person s environment is a person s social environment Infant development is consequence of adult development Relative In uence of Nature and Nurture on Development Naturetraits abilities and capacities that are inherited Maturation Nurtureenvironmental in uences that shape behavior Implications for Child Rearing and Social Policy Interaction of genetic and environmental factors is complex Certain genetically determined traits have direct in uence on children s behaviors and indirect in uence on shaping child s environments as well People with similar genetic backgrounds may behave in different ways The Future of Child Development Field will become more specialized Info about genes will in uence all areas of child development Greater attention on diversity Different professions will draw on eld of child development In uence of public interest issues CHAPTER 2 Perspectives on Children pg 1932 Our experience orients us to certain behaviors that we see as important Theories broad organized explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest The Psychodynamic Perspective focusing on Internal Forces Psychodynamic perspective behavior is motivated by inner forces memories and con icts of which a person has little awareness or control Inner forces of which may stem from childhood continually in uence behavior throughout lifespan Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalytic Theory unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior Unconscious is part of personality of which person is unaware Contains infantile wishes desires demands and needs that are hidden from conscious awareness because of disturbing nature Everyone s personality has 3 aspects id ego and superego draw unorganized inborn part of personality that is present at birth Primitive drives related to hunger sex aggression and irrational impulses Operates according to pleasure principle Goal is to maximize satisfaction and reduce tension Egorationa and reasonable Buffer between real world outside of us and id Operates on reality principle Instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the safety of individual and help integrate person into society Superegoperson s conscience distinctions between right and wrong Develops around age 5 or 6 and is learned from parents teachers and other signi cant gures Psychosexual development stages in which pleasuregrati cation is focused on speci c biological functionbody part Pleasure shifts from mouth oral to anus anal and eventually to genitals phallic If children are unable to gratify themselves during particular stage or if they receive too much grati cation xation may occur Fixation behavior re ecting earlier stage of development due to unresolved con ict Erikson s Psychosocial Theory Emphasizes social interaction Society and culture challenge and shape us Psychosocial development changes in interactions with and understanding of one another as well as our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society 8 distinct stages each stage presents con ict or crisis that person must solve growth and change continue throughout life span generativity vs stagnation stage middle adulthood contributions to family community and society can produce either positive feelings about continuity of life or a sense of stagnation and disappointment about what they are passing on to future generations Assessing Psychodynamic Perspective Freud Notion that people pass through stages in childhood that determine their adult personalities has little research Application to broad multicultural populations is questionable Focuses mainly on male development Erikson s view that development continues throughout lifespan is important Vague and hard to test Focuses more on male development Psychodynamic theories provide reasonably good descriptions of past behavior but predictions of future behavior are imprecise The Behavioral Perspective Focusing on Observable Behavior Behavioral perspective keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in environment If we know stimuli we can predict behavior Nurture is more important than nature Rejects notion that people universally pass through series of stages Developmental change is viewed in quantitative terms Classical Conditioning Stimulus Substitution John Watson We can gain full understanding of development by carefully studying stimuli that make up environment By effectively controlling person s environment it s possible to create any behavior Classical conditioning occurs when an organism learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally doesn t evoke that response Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences BF Skinner Individuals learn to act deliberately on environment in order to bring about desired consequences Reinforcement process by which stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Punishment introduction of unpleasant stimulus will decrease preceding behavior Behavior that is reinforced is more likely to be repeated in the future Behavior that receives no reinforcement or is punished is likely to be discontinued or extinguished Behavior modi cation formal technique for promoting frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing incidence of unwanted ones SocialCognitive Learning Theory Learning Through Imitation Albert Bandura SocialCognitive Learning theory emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person model Behavior is learned through observation When we see the behavior of a model being rewarded we are likely to imitate that behavior 4 steps 1 observer must pay attention and perceive the most critical features of the model s behavior observer must successfully recall the behavior observer must reproduce behavior accurately observer must be motivated to learn and carry out behavior Assessing the Behavioral Perspective Classical and operant conditioning disagree with social learning theory The Cognitive Perspective Examining the Roots of Understanding Cognitive perspective focuses on processes that allow people to know understand and think about the world Emphasizes how people internay represent and think about the world Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget All people passed in xed sequence through a series of universal stages of cognitive development Quantity of information increases with each stage amp quality of knowledge and understanding changes Focus on change in cognition Human thinking is arranged into schemes organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions Adaptation way in which children respond and adjust to new information Assimilation process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and ways of thinking Occurs when people use their current ways of thinking about and understanding the world to perceive and understand a new experience Accommodation changes in existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events Assessing Piaget s Theory Some cognitive skills clearly emerge earlier than Piaget suggested Cognitive development is not as discontinuous as Piaget s theory suggests InformationProcessing Approaches Informationprocessing approaches seek to identify ways individuals take in use and store information Similar to computers Limited capacity for processing information Employ increasingly sophisticated strategies as they develop More qualitative advances Capacity speed and efficiency changes with age NeoPiagetian theory cognition is made of different types of individual skills Cognitive development proceeds quickly in some areas and slowly in others Experience plays greater role Assessing informationprocessing approaches Don t offer complete explanation for behavior Don t take social context into account Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches Cognitive neuroscience approaches look at cognitive development through the lens of brain processes lnternal mental processes Neurological activity that underlies thinking problem solving and other cognitive behavior Locations and functions in brain Genes associated with disorders Assessing Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches Better description than explanation The Contextual Perspective Taking A Broad Approach to Development Contextual perspective considers relationship between individuals and their physical cognitive personality and social worlds The Bioecological Approach to Development Urie Bronfenbrenner Bioecological approach there are 5 levels of the environment that simultaneously in uence individuals Microsystem everyday immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives Children actively construct shaping their immediate world Mesosystem provides connections among the various aspects of the microsystem Direct and indirect in uences Exosystem broader in uences encompassing societal institutions such as the local government and community Macrosystem larger cultural in uences society in general Chronosystem underlies each of the previous systems passage of time historical events emphasizes interconnectedness of the in uences of development various levels are related stresses importance of broad cultural in uences The In uence of Culture Individualism dominant Western philosophy that emphasizes personal identity uniqueness freedom and worth of the individual Collectivism notion that wellbeing of the group is more important than that of the individual Assessing bioecological approach Pays insufficient attention to biological factors Vygotsky s Sociocultural theory Emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture Children s understanding is acquired through problem solving interactions with adults and other children Emphasizes that development is a reciprocal transaction between people in child s environment and child People and setting in uence child and child in uences people and setting Evolutionary Perspective Our Ancestor s Contributions to Behavior Seeks to identify behavior that is a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors Charles Darwin Genetic inheritance contributes to personality traits and social behaviors Ethology examines ways in which our biological makeup in uences our behavior Konrad Lorenz Work demonstrated importance of biological determinants in in uencing behavior patterns Behavioral genetics studies effects of heredity on behaviors Assessing evolutionary perspective Pays insuf cient attention to environmental and social factors No good way to experimentally test CHAPTER 3 Genetics pg 5270 Earliest Development Gametes male and female reproductive cells Ga metes fuse to form a zygote Genes and Chromosomes The Code of Life Genes basic units of genetic information Composed of DNA Arranged in speci c locations and in a speci c order along 46 chromosomes Organized in 23 pairs Mitosis replication of cells Speci c genes in precise locations determine the nature and function of every cell in body Each parent provides 23 chromosomes Meisosis gametes sperm and ova are formed Multiple Births 2 or more for the genetic price of one Less than 3 of pregnancies produce twins Cluster of cells in ovum splits off within rst 2 weeks of fertilization Result2 genetically identical zygotes Monozygotic twins who are genetically identical More common2 separate ova are fertilized by 2 separate sperm at roughly the same time Dizygotic twins Fertility drugs increase chance of having twins Older women are more likely to have multiple births Multiple births are common in some families Mothers carrying multiple births have higher risk of premature delivery and birth complications Boy or Girl Establishing the Sex of the Child 23rCI pair of chromosomes determines sex of child femaleXX maeXY sperm carries an X or Y ovum has an X The Basics of Genetics The Mixing and Matching of Traits Gregor Mendel Dominant trait expressed Recessive present but not expressed Genotype underlying combination of genetic material present outwardly invisible Phenotype observable trait Some genes form pairs called alleles Genes governing traits that may take alternate forms Homozygous similar genes for a trait Heterozygous different forms of gene Polygenic Traits Combination of multiple gene pairs is responsible for production of particular trait Reaction range potential degree of variability in actual expression of a trait due to environmental conditions Xlinked genes recessive genes located only on X chromosome Hemophilia Human Genome and Behavioral Genetics Cracking the Genetic Code Mapping speci c sequences of genes on each chromosome Behavioral genetics effects of heredity on psychological characteristics lnherited and Genetic Disorders When Development Goes Awry Genes can become physically damaged Spontaneous mutation genes spontaneously change form Environmental factors eg Xrays may produce malformation of genetic material Down Syndrome extra chromosome on 21st pair Most frequent cause of mental retardation Greater risk in youngold mothers Fragile X Syndrome particular gene is injured on the X chromosome Mild to moderate mental retardation Sicklecell anemia 110 of African American population carries gene Blood disorder that gets name from shape of blood cells of those who have it Poor appetite stunted growth swollen stomach yellowish eyes TaySachs disease Jews of Eastern European decent and FrenchCanadians Causes death before victims reach school age No treatment Produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death Klinefelter s Syndrome 1 out of every 400 males Presence of extra X chromosome XXY Underdeveloped genitals extreme height and enlarged breasts Genetic Counseling Predicting the Future from the Genes of the Present Focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders Prenatal Testing Firsttrimester screen combines a blood test and ultrasound sonography in 11th13th week of pregnancy Ultrasound sonography high frequency sound waves bombard mother s womb produce image of unborn baby Chorionic villus sampling more invasive inserting thin needle into amniotic uid and taking small samples of material that surrounds embryo Amniocentesis small sample of fetal cells is drawn by tiny needle inserted into amniotic uid surrounding unborn fetus Can identify genetic defects and sex of child Interaction of Heredity and Environment Role of environment in determining the expression of genes from genotypes to phenotypes Temperament patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual Interaction of Factors Multifactorial transmission traits that are determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors Genotype provides range within which a phenotype may achieve expression CHAPTER 4 Approaches to Childbrith pg 8993 Alternative Birthing Procedures Lamaze birthing techniques Breathing techniques and relaxation training Learn to relax various parts of body on command Cope with painful contractions Learn how to positively deal with pain and to relax at the onset of a contraction Bradley Method quothusband coached childbirthquot Based on principle that childbirth should be as natural as possible and involve no medication or medical interventions Women are taught to tune into bodies in order to deal with pain Muscle relaxation techniques and good nutrition and exercise Use of physicians is unnecessary Hypnobirthing selfhypnosis during delivery Sense of peace and calm reducing pain State of focused concentration in which mother relaxes body and focuses inward Childbirth Attendants Who Delivers Obstetricians specialize in delivering babies Midwife childbirth attendant who stays with mother throughout labor and delivery Primarily for pregnancies with no complications expected Doula trained to provide emotional psychological and educational support during birth Speeds birth and reduces reliance on drugs Pain and Childbirth Pain is signal that body is working properly Contractions propel baby through birth canal are doing thekjob Use of Anesthesia and PainReducing Drugs Epidural anesthesia 13 of women who use anesthesia Numbness from waist down Walking epiduraldual spinal epiduralpermits women to move about Anesthetics may temporarily depress ow of oxygen to fetus and slow labor Postdelivery Hospital Stay Deliver then Depart Hospital stays of 24 hours following birth to reduce insurance costs Mothers can bleed if they tear tissue injured during childbirth Mothers are better rested if they stay in hospital Minimum insurance coverage of 48 hours for childbirthUS legislation Newborn Medical Screening Permits early treatment of problems that might go undetected for years Vaccinations that extend throughout childhood to immunize children against common diseases CHAPTER 5 SIDS pg 121 SIDS The Unanticipated Killer Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Disorder in which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep 1 in 1000 infants in US each year normal patterns of breathing during sleep are disrupted to prevent babies sleep on backs and use paci er leading cause of death of children under age of 1 boys and African Americans are at greater risk low birth weight low Apgar scores and having a mother that smokes are associated Nutrition pg 127130 Nutrition in Infancy Fueling Motor Development Rapid physical growth during infancy is fueled by nutrients that infant receives Malnutrition Condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients More common in developing countries Slower growth rate by 6 months Lower on IQ tests During rst year may produce marasmus disease in which infants stop growing Results in death Kwashiorkor older children child s stomach limbs and face swell with water Nonorganic failure to thrive children stop growing not for biological reasons but due to lack of stimulation and attention from parents Obesity Weight greater than 20 above average for a given height Overfeeding during infancy may lead to excess of fat cells Remain in body throughout life Breast or Bottle For 1st 12 months of life there is no better food for an infant than breast milk Contains nutrients for growth and provides immunity to childhood diseases More easily digested Sterile warm and convenient Emotional advantages Wellbeing and intimacy Advantageous fro mother s health Lower rates of ovarian and breast cancer Introducing solid foods when and what Start solids at around 6 months Aren t needed until 912 months Introduced gradually to allow awareness of preferences and allergies Weaninggradua cessation of breastbottIefeeding Occurs as early as 34 months Some mothers continue breastfeeding for 23 years
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'