Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide PSYC 4220
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This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emilie Vainer on Monday September 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 224 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Chapters 1amp2 Intro to Development ampTheoretical Perspectives amp Research What is Development Development systematic continuities and changes in an individual from conception until death Development occurs by two main processes 0 Maturation biological unfolding of the individual due to genes I Ex changes at birth to secondary sex genes such as men growing beards and women growing breasts development of motor skills 0 Learning relatively permanent changes in our feelings thoughts and behaviors due to experience I Ex good care giver experience good relationships in future 0 Learning and maturation work together to bring about development The Lifespan Developmental psychologists usually divide the lifespan into 9 general stages 0 1 Prenatal period conception to birth 2 Infancy birth to 18 months 3 Toddlerhood 18 months to 3 years 4 Preschool Period 3 to 5 or 6 years of age kindergarten 5 Middle Childhood 6 to 12 puberty bulk of childhood years 6 Adolescence 12 or puberty until 20 or so independence from parents I Maybe need to add Emerging Adulthood usually college age still depending on parents some Defined as 1829 or as time from HS graduation until stable career relationships 0 7 Young Adulthood 20 to 40 years old 0 8 Middle Adulthood 40 to 65 years old 0 9 Late Adulthood 65 and older Life Span continued Age norms unspoken societal rules based on age 0 Set social clocksquot which give us a sense of timing for life transitions How we View the life span is socially constructed depends on where and when you live Remember there are individual differences in development people age at different rates 0 More similarities at rate of development as infant and less similar as getting older 0 Ages given are ALWAYS averages only large deviation from the average is a cause for concern Topical Approaches to Studying Development 4 Broad Topics Studied o 1 Physical Development I Development involving the body s physical makeup OOOOO Ex how does practice affect motor skill development 0 2 Cognitive Development I Development involving growth and change in intellectual capabilities and thinking 0 3 Social Development I Development involving individuals interactions with others and social relationships 0 4 Personality Development I Development involving the enduring characteristics that differentiate people Ex if a baby is shy will they be shy when they are older Goals of Development Research 3 Main Goals 1 Description 0 Describe what development looks like 0 Normative development typical patterns of development 0 Idiographic development differences between development of individuals 2 Explanation 0 Why do people develop the way they do 3 Optimization 0 Help people develop into the best people they can be History of Developmental Research Baby biographies detailed description of own child s behavior Darwin and Piaget did this 0 Problems biased toward own child sample is not big enough I Subjective I Only based on one child I Hard to compare because focused on different aspects of development people focus on different things G Stanley Hall father of developmental psych 0 Wanted to know about development of thinking 0 Created questionnaires to figure out how kids think Ways Developmental Research Collect Data Surveys Selfreport simply ask participants about thoughts attitudes feelings or behavior 0 Questionnaires vs Interview I Written Verbal O StI UCtUI Ed set of questions and asked in order for every participant VS UHStI UCtUI Ed interview directs the path of the questions not the same path for every participant 0 Pros I Get large amount of info quickly and cheaply o Cons I Cannot be used with infants those who cannot read I Must rely on accuracy honesty of participants Naturalistic observation observe behaviors in every day life 0 Pros I Can use with non verbal people such as babies I Observes behaviors in natural context 0 Conamp I Infrequent or socially unacceptable behaviors hard to catch I People may act differently when being observed I Only useful for description cannot determine cause Chapters 1 amp 2 Continued Structuredlaboratory observation observe participants in lab or elsewhere under carefully created conditions 0 Pros I Easier to study infrequent behaviors if setting up situations where behaviors come about I Situation is the same for all participants allowing you to compare them I Better able t determine causes of behavior I The more control the better we can talk about cause 0 Conamp I Not as quotrealisticquot so it s harder to generalize to the real world Psychophysiological methods examine relationship between physiological responses and behavior 0 Heart Rate very sensitive to emotional response I So if an infant s heart rate decreases you can tell that the infant is interested in something 0 EEG electroencephalogram measures brain wave activity by attaching electrodes to the scalp I This enables for us to look for stimuli o fMRI using powerful magnetic field produces detailed 3D image of the brain I It is very expensive resulting in only small samples of participants 0 Pros I Very useful for infants toddlers who cannot verbally report emotionally cognitive experiences I Can allow direct look at how brain functions reacts and develops 0 Con I Hard to interpret exactly what physiological changes mean because they can mean many things Ex an infants heart rate decreases but could be because the gained interested in a passerby rather than what is being presented to them Developmental Research Designs review on pages 3341 of book Crosssectional design most common way of studying development 0 Children in different ages groups measured at the same time 0 Pro 0 Conamp Compare the memory of a group of 7 9 and 11 year olds Measuring each person once so it is fast and inexpensive to conduct Cohort effect effect of being born in one particular historical context Cohort group of people born at the same time exposed to similar cultural historical contexts while growing up Ex A cohort of 20 year olds from the 1950s compared to a cohort of 20 year olds from the 1990s would have different opinions when discussing sexual health matters due to how it was viewed in society at those separate times No information about development of individual participants because only measure that person once Longitudinal design 0 Same group of participants measured at different ages 0 Measured multiple times 0 Pros Test child s memory when they are 7 9 and 11 Can study development of individual participants Can examine relationships between early and later behaviors No concern about cohort effects Crossgenerational problem hard to generalize to groups that are not a part of that cohort Expensive and timeconsuming because have to follow people for a long time Initial questions measures may become uninteresting inadequate as it was in the beginning Participants may be lost over time Participants may be affected by repeated testing so much practice Sequential design 0 Combines crosssectional and longitudinal approaches 0 Pros 0 Conamp Follows 2 or more cohorts for short longitudinal period Ex memory test comparing participants twice over 4 years Can separate effects due to development cohort effects and reduce cross generational problem More costly and time consuming than crosssectional design I Can be very complex Basic Issues in Human Development Nature vs nurture which has more impact on development our genes or our environment Activity vs passivity are children active or passive in their own development 0 Active children have control I Children act a certain way which elicits certain responses that causes a child to develop a certain way Continuity vs discontinuity do we develop gradually or in sudden abrupt stages 0 Continuity quantitative change change in amount 0 Discontinuity qualitative change type of change I Ex a babies communication starts with a cry then change to a coo then changes to babble and then changes to speaking o If a theorist is a STAGE theorist then they are talking about discontinuity Universality vs contextspecificity do we all develop in the same way or is development different for each person or different groups cultures families or time periods Developmental Psychology Today 9 gt195 Less extreme positions most people are in the middle of developmental issues 0 Development is interplay 0 Person and environment are active 0 There are qualitative and quantitative changes Most are eclectic More emphasis on minitheories that try to explain one specific aspect of development 0 Now specializing in one area Video In the Womb Notes After fertilization the fertilized egg or zygote begins to divide creating a tiny bundle of cells known as the blastocyst On what day do the nerve cells that will become the brain begin to form Day 15 After which week does the embryo become a fetus 8 weeks What is the purpose of the placenta Feeding nurturing providing nutrients ltering waste and producing hormones When does the fetus s body begin to move 9 weeks Which develop first hand or feet Hands When does the mother become aware of the fetus s movements for the first time 18 weeks Can the fetus see in the womb No 9 When is the earliest that a baby can be born and still have a good chance of survival 6 months 10 How many babies born before 26 weeks develop disabilities or learning difficulties Nearly 12 of all 11 Do 24weekold fetuses have taste buds Yes 12 At three months old which is the fetus s most developed sense Hearing 13What is the loudest sound a fetus will ever hear Ultrasound loudest when probe is toward the baby s ear 14 How much time do 26weekold fetuses spend asleep 90 of time sleeping 15 How fast does the fetus s heart beat Twice as fast as her mother s 16 What is the last organ to form Lungs 17 Do fetuses dream Yes 18 During which stage of labor does delivery take place Second stage of labor Maternal Characteristics and Their Effects on Prenatal Development Age 0 70 year old woman from India is oldest woman to give birth 0 first pregnancy when under 16 or over 40 increases the risks 0 why I For mothers under 16 Risks come from environmental issueseffects such as poverty poor nutrition high stress lack of prenatal care Risks decrease with good prenatal care and social support I For mothers over 40 More difficulty conceiving due to fewer eggs less healthy eggs Increased risk of miscarriage due to genetic abnormalities Increased risk of genetic conditions like Down s Syndrome by 40 risk is 1 in 100 Increased risk of complications during pregnancydelivery o Placental complications 0 Ectopic pregnancy egg plants in fallopian tubes Diet 0 Recommend gaining 25 to 35 pounds during pregnancy which provides more healthy outcomes for the infant 0 Effects of malnutrition depend on timing can include miscarriage low birth weight decreased brain development 0 Recommend taking prenatal vitamin and mineral supplement to hit recommended allowances I Folic acid B complex vitamin Prevents neural tube defects and spine abifida I Magnesium Zinc Help placenta function well Emotional Condition 0 High stress release of hormones which cross placental barrier I Does not prevent passing of hormones in heart rate breathing tone of voice 0 Occasional temporary stress no lasting consequences a little stress is good 0 Long term severe stress may low birth weight premature birth I Ex stress of mourning a loved one can cause this I After birth babies are more irritable active and irregular I Longterm effect increased risk of symptoms of ADHD anxiety I Major stress during middle part of pregnancy related to more risk for child to have autism I Results are correlational 0 Ability to cope with stress may be more important than the amount of stress I Social support and counseling help 0 Increased risk if I Unhappy about marriage or pregnancy I No social support Teratogens Any disease drug or environmental agent that can harm the prenatal organism 0 Can be legal or illegal drugs Effects of teratogen on body part or organ system are worst during sensitive period of body organ 0 Sensitive period time when an organism is highly sensitive to environmental in uences chart with examples on page 76 of book 0 When something is forming that is the most sensitive period Not all embryos fetuses equally affected because there are different tolerant levels 0 Native Americans are particularly susceptive to alcohol Same defect can be caused by different teratogens variety of defects can be caused by same teratogen o What is affected depends on what is being developed at the time Father s exposure may also cause problems 0 If father is older this can cause problems Longterm effects of the teratogens often depend on quality of postnatal environment Despite risks majority born without abnormalities OR with treatable conditions Chapter 4 Birth and the Newborn Infant Perinatal During Birth Environment Social and medical environment surrounding birth o In Us vast majority of births done in hospital 3 stages ofbirth process 0 1St Stage regular contraction begin until cervix is dilated I Contractions of uterus occur regularly I Pulling cervix back stretching I Cervix thins opens until dilated to 10 cm I Average 824 hours longer for first birth if never given birth before takes the longest o 2rld stage delivery of baby I With each contraction overwhelming urge to push baby out I Mother pushes fetus is delivered I Average the push takes 12 hour to 1 12 hours 0 3rd stage delivery of placenta I Fastest stage lasts only minutes I After delivered docs will check placenta to see if healthy Cesarean Section Incision made through abdominal wall and into uterus 0 Infant and placenta removed through opening 0 Done horizontally Used for many reasons 0 Ex fetal distress slow labor progression multiple births breech births when the butt is coming out first instead of the head or the baby is sideways certain STIs Infants born by Csections have greater risk of breathing difficulties Mothers recovery 68 weeks 0 Mother at increased risk of infection complications during future pregnancies Birth Complications Low birth weight 0 Less than 5 12 pounds 0 Average good weight is 7 12 pounds 0 Very low birth weight less than 2 11 pounds Preterm 0 1st kind of birth weight 0 Born too early before 37 weeks I Born before 25 weeks 50 chance of survival Small for date 0 2nd kind of birth weight 0 Birth weight far below normal even when born full term 0 Rarer and is worse 0 At greater risk for complications 0 More likely to die in infancy Caused of low birth weight and prematurity 0 50 unknown 0 Maybe because small parents multiple births known for low birth weight o Placenta problems 0 Maternalenvironmental factors such as poverty malnutrition drug use lack of prenatal care age stress I Babies who do not have fathers involved are more likely to be a lower birth weight Complications caused by low birth weight Breathing difficulties Underdeveloped sensory systems haven t finished developing them Difficulty forming secure attachments to caregivers Learning difficulties lower IQs Higher risk for heart disease type 2 diabetes Smaller earlier born greater risks Complications again depend on quality of life after birth OOOOOOO Birth Complications Post mature infants still not born 2 weeks past the due date 40 weeks 0 5 6 of births include post maturity 0 When in too long placenta functioning diminished less amniotic uid 0 Larger baby more difficult delivery 0 Longer the baby is in there more likely to aspirate meconium baby s first poop 0 So usually most doctors will induce labor I Pressured to induce staring 21 weeks After Birth the infant Apgar test used to assess newborn status by checking 0 Appearance color I Make sure pinkish and not blue or pale in color I O 1 or 2 scale for each category and 2 is the best I If baby is blue not enough oxygen 0 Pulse I Over 100 beats per minute is good 0 Grimace re exes I Coughing sneezing and responding to the environment is good 0 Activity muscle tone I Strong vigorous movements is good 0 Respiration I Are they breathing or not 0 Check the APGAR test once after birth and ten again 5 minutes later I This gives us a sign of whether or not to do immediate medical intervention for the child 0 Apgar score of 710 good 4 or lower need medical attention Parenting Styles pg 258259 Dimensions of Child Rearing Acceptance Responsiveness extent of parents support sensitivity to needs warmth and praise o Responsive to children s needs and accepting of who the child is Demandingness Control level of control expectations for compliance 0 Control children s activities and make decisions for them The Four Parenting Styles Demandingness Control affectionate high but reasonable expectations democratic control explain why have rule to get child to comply High Acceptance Low acceptance Responsiveness Responsiveness High Authoritative Authoritarian low warmth high unrealistic expectations very strict rules w no explanations aka drill Sargent Low Demandingness Control Permissive very affectionate low expectations lack of rules structure want to be their child s friend Uninvolved low warmth low expectations neglecting The Four Parenting Styles Outcomes selfcontrolled friendly cooperative independent achievement oriented High Acceptance Low acceptance Responsiveness Responsiveness High Authoritative Authoritarian Demandingness Control Parents self reliant Parents withdrawn anxious low selfesteem lower academic performance girls very dependent on parents boys hostile angry de ant Low Demandingness Control Permissive Parents dependent low in social skills impulsive aggressive disobedient rebellious low in achievement orientation lower academic performance takes Uninvolved Parents worst outcomes by age 3 higher in aggression lower academic performance anger depression more likely to be antisocial or deviant asteens a while to figure out what they want to do Parenting Styles Parent effects model parents in uence how child develops how they turn out Child Effects Model child in uences parents which therefore in uences their parenting style Research Supports Parents Effects Model 0 Longitudinal Studies I Authoritative parents toddlers become more compliant and decrease behavior problems I Authoritarian parents toddlers become more defiant and increase in behavior problems Research also supports child effects model 0 Stubborn impulsive children elicit more punitive coercive parenting I Parents become more lax less affectionate even hostile and uninvolved Transactional Model parents and kids in uence each other 0 Parents appear to have more in uence on kids than kids have on parenting I Becomes more bidirectional as kids age Important Notes 0 Some kids with permissive authoritarian parents develop just fine 0 Parents do not always use one style consistently with all kids and may differ in style from coparent Contextual Effects on Parenting Styles Parenting styles model criticized for focusing mostly on American white middle upper SES families 0 May not apply as well to other groups 0 Successful parenting in uenced by cultural values parenting goals 0 Using style to classify other groups may not work I Authoritative parenting rare outside of US Western cultures which may instead promote inherent authority of parents Showing respect is listening to parents Authoritarian parenting Not exactly many have high warmth too Even within US may be hard to apply model to lower SES or different ethnicities 0 Native American Hispanic American Asian American parents more controlling stress respect for and obedience to authority dependence on family I But this is not detrimental 0 Asian American parents use mostly Authoritarian style I Asian American kids with most authoritarian parents score highest on cognitive tests 0 Many African American mothers especially single less educated demand strict obedience and use coercive physical punishment I Does not increase aggression or antisocial behavior I For African American kinds correlations found between authoritarian parenting and school performance social competence 0 While some parenting styles are less effective there is no style that works for all families in all settings I However authoritative parenting correlated with positive outcomes in all groups studied I Warmth and control best outcomes for most I Uninvolvedneglectful worst outcomes Chapter 5 Infancy Physical Development Infant Re exes Unlearned involuntary response to stimuli Happen when infant is just born 0 See table 53 pg 123 27 different re exes when born and many go away Some re exes stay whole life 0 Ex eye blink re ex Two Categories 0 Survival re exes I Offer protection or satisfy basic survival needs I Examples Breathing eye blink protective of eye Swallowing sucking rooting o Rooting if anything brushes against babies cheek they go toward the side that touched the face so they can suck for food Swimming if you throw newborn in water will move legs and arms around in swim motion and will automatically hold breath o Primitive Re exes No clear survival value Examples Babinski re ex stroke bottom of foot fan toes out then back in Grasping re ex put something to palm and will grab o Goes away suddenly at 3 months 0 May persist because allows for bonding to happen Stepping re ex dangle feet then step like walking Moro re ex startle re ex hands go out and back in when startled Infant States Sleeping 0 Born with organized patterns of activity or states different degrees of awareness to internal and external stimuli 0 70 time spent sleeping alert only 23 hours per day Sleeping period very short By 37 months most sleep for at least 6 hour stretches at night nap 2 3 times per day Do not really understand different between night and day 2 weeks before birth to 2 months after 50 of sleep is REM sleep By 6 months only 2530 is REM sleep More REM sleep ore brain stimulation and brain development happens Motor Development and Physical Growth 0 Four principles of growth 1 Cephalocaudal development proceeds from head downward 2 Proximodistal proceeds from middle of body outward 3 Hierarchical Integration simple skills develop first then are combined into complex skills 4 Independence of Systems different body system develop at different rates 0 Motor Development Compare children to developmental norms typical age range of mastery of skill Learning to sit without supports between 5 8 months and if range is typical development 0 Dynamic Systems Theory Development of motor skills involves coordination of a vast number of skills body areas environmental in uences Emphasized the importance of babies motivation in development of motor skill Environment can in uence speed of development within limits Example environment constraints can prevent babies from walking up to 1 year later Major Milestones see figure 57 pg 125 o Locomotion I Roll over 24 months Tummy to back then back to tummy I Sit without support 8 months I Crawling around 810 months not all babies crawl some go straight into walking I Walking 1113 months Mobile walkers delay walking Speed of development of motor skills does not in uence motor skills later in life 0 Manipulating Objects I Grasping Re ex gone 24 months because brain takes over with voluntary grasping I Voluntary reaching 3 months I Ulnar Grasp grasping between fingers and palm 4 6 months I Scribble with crayon 16 months I Copy simple line build with blocks 2 years I Large motor skills develop first and then fine skills Physical Development Also follows principles of growth especially cephalocaudal and proximodistal Height and wight increase rapidly over first 2 years 0 Half of adult height by age 2 triple or quadruple birth weight by 2 as well Skeletal Development 0 Bones hardern become dense larger over early childhood 0 Skull at birth soft made of several bones I Fontanelles places where bones of skull meet soft spotsquot Skull itself is not there but there is a thick membrane protecting the brain By around age 2 filled in completely with mineral deposits Body proportions change over childhood 0 Infants are all head I Head is 70 of adult size 14th of totally body length I By age 2 head 15th ofbody length I By adulthood head only 18th of body length Brain Development Neuron proliferation neurons multiply very rapidly 0 Up to 250000 neurons per minute 0 Occurs during prenatal development I 1020 weeks gestation most rapid proliferation I Most neurons are formed by end of 6th month of gestation Brain growth spurt 7th month gestation to 2 years old 0 Due to rapid production of Glia cells cells that support neurons I Myelination neurons coated with myelin which helps speed transmission Isn t fully finished until early 20s Synaptogenesis 0 Production of synapses connections between neurons 0 Start with few connecctions between neurons from birth to 2 connections multiply rapidly Infant has 4050 more neurons than adult needs 0 Synaptic pruning loss of synapses by neurons that are rarely stimulated o Deprivation of experience has negative impact on brain I Chimps raised in darkness No visual stimulation to allow visual areas to develop 0 Retinas optic nerve did not develop properly 0 If waited until 12 months then this would be irreversible 0 Result functionally blind Enrichment can have positive impact 0 Rats in enriched environment cortex heavier increased complexity of neurons increased chemical activity Plasticity degree of which a developing structure behavior is modifiable due to experience 0 Neural plasticity is greatest during first several years of life BOOK NOTES Chapter 1 Children Past Present and Future Children have always been a target of study Early Views of Children Some scholars believe that there was a time when childhood did not even exist in the minds of adults Children were viewed as miniature somewhat imperfect adults Childhood was not qualitatively different than adulthood Philosophers Perspectives on Children John Locke o Believed that a child was tabula rasa a blank slate Children entered the world with no speci c characteristics or personalities and were instead shaped by their experiences as they grew up this view is the precursor to behaviorism JeanJacques Rousseau 0 Children were noble savages that were born with an innate sense of right wrong and morality o Argued that infants developed into admirable and worthy children and adults unless corrupted by negative circumstances in their lives Baby Biographies Observers usually parents tried to trace the growth of a single child recording the physical and linguistic milestones achieved by their child Charles Darwin conducted a baby biography Focus on Childhood As children were not needed as much for inexpensive labor laws that protected children from exploitation started to develop As a consequences of signi cant social changes child development became recognized as a eld of its own The 20th Century Child Development as a Discipline Alfred Binet o Pioneered work on children s intelligence and investigated memory and mental calculation G Stanley Hall 0 Pioneered the use of questionnaires to illuminate children s thinking and behavior and wrote a book that targeted adolescence as a distinct period of development Contributions of Women Women made signi cant contributions to the discipline of child development The women and men who built foundations of child development shared common goal to scienti cally study the nature of growth change and stability throughout childhood and adolescence Today s Key Issues and Questions Child Development s Underlying Themes Continuous Change Versus Discontinuous Change Continuous change development is gradual with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels quantitative continuous change produces changes that are a matter of degree and not of kind 0 ex change in height Discontinuous change occurs in distinct steps or changes each stage brings about behavior assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages 0 ex our thinking Take a position on eitheror of the changes is inappropriate because we see many types of developmental change Critical and Sensitive Period Gauging the Impact of Environmental Events Critical Period speci c time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences 0 Occur when presence of certain kinds of environmental stimuli enable development to proceed normally or when exposure to certain stimuli results in abnormal development 0 Example a mother who takes drugs at particular time in pregnancy may cause permanent harm to the developing child Plasticity degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modi able 0 Example rather than suffering permanent damage from lack of social experiences there is increasing evidence that children can use later experiences to help overcome earlier de cits Sensitive Period organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment represents the optimal period for particular capacities to emerge and when children are particularly sensitive to environmental in uences 0 Example lack of exposure to language may result in delayed language production in infants and toddlers The difference between critical and sensitive periods 0 Critical assumed that certain kinds of environmental in uences produce permanent irreversible consequences for the developing individual 0 Sensitive although absence of particular environmental in uences during sensitive period may hinder development it is possible for later experiences to overcome the earlier de cits Sensitive period recognize plasticity in developing humans Life Span Approaches Versus a Focus on Particular Periods Developmental growth and change continue during every stage of life An important part of every person s environment is the other people around him or her The Relative In uence of Nature and Nurture on Development Nature refers to traits abilities and capacities that are inherited from one s parents 0 Encompasses any factor that is produce by maturation predetermined unfolding of genetic information 0 Nature in uences hair and eye color and how good we are at athletics and allows our brains to develop in such ways that we can even read words Nurture the environmental in uences that shape behavior 0 Some in uences may be biological Example pregnant mother use of cocaine on unborn child 0 Or social Example the ways parents discipline their children 0 Or larger societallevel factors Example socioeconomic circumstances Most controversial arena between nature vs nurture intelligence Implications for Child Rearing and Social Policy Debate is no nature or nurture it is the degree at which both are involved The Future of Child Development The eld will become increasingly specialized Developmentalists will link work across biological cognitive and social domains Will be greater focus on issues of diversity Many professionals will draw on eld of child development Work on child development will increasingly in uence public interest issues Preventing Violence in Children Violence and crime rank among the issues of greatest concern to people in the United States 0 Explaining roots of violence Links between early maltreatment physical and psychological abuse and neglect of children and their subsequent behavior 0 Examining how exposure to aggression may lead to violence Exposure to violence in the media and in video games may lead to aggression 0 Developing programs to reduce aggression Programs are able to decline aggressive behavior Assessing Information on Child Development Consider the source Accuracy is probably high if the APA established the information Evaluate credentials Understand difference between anecdotal and scienti c evidence Keep cultural context in mind Don t assume that many people believe something Chapter 2 Theoretical Perspectives and Research Theories explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest providing a framework for understanding the relationships among an organized set of facts and principles 0 Child development theories are formal based on systematic integration of prior ndings and theorizing and are subject to a lot of testing The Psychodynamics Perspective Focusing on lntemal Forces Psychodynamic Perspective behavior is motivated by inner forces memories and con icts of which a person has little awareness or control 0 Psychoanalytic theory the theory proposed by Freud that suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior Unconscious part of the personality about which we are unaware contains infantile wishes desires demands and needs that are hidden 0 Everyone s personality has three aspects Id raw unorganized inborn part of personality that is present at birth presents primitive drives related to hunger sex aggression and irrational impulses operates according to the pleasure principle the goal is to maximize satisfaction and reduce tension Ego rational and reasonable buffer between real world outside and primitive id operates on reality princzple instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society Superego a person s conscience incorporating distinctions between right and wrong which develops around age 5 or 6 and is learned from an individual39s parents teachers and other signi cant gures 0 Psychosexual development occurred as children passed through a series of stages in which pleasure or grati cation was focused on a particular biological function and body part Pleasure shifted from the mouth the oral stage to the anus the anal stage and eventually to the genitals the phallic stage and the genital stage If children are unable to gratify themselves suf ciently during a particular stage or if they receive too mage grati cation xation may occur Fixation behavior re ecting an earlier stage of development due to an unresolved result 0 Example xation at oral stage might produce an adult unusually absorbed in oral activities eating talking or chewing gum o Psychosocial Development encompasses changes in the understanding individuals have of their interactions with others of others behavior and of themselves as members of society development occurs throughout our lives in eight stages and emerge in a xed pattern which are similar for all people Each stage represents a crisis or con ict that the individual must resolve Growth and change continue throughout the life span Example people pass through generativity versus stagnation in middle adulthood in which their contributions to family community and society can produce either positive feelings about the continuity of life or a sense of stagnation and disappointment about what they are passing on to future generations 0 Although the psychodynamic perspective provides reasonably good descriptions of past behavior its predictions of future behavior are imprecise Behavioral Perspective suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment if we know the stimuli we can predict the behavior re ects that nurture is more important to development than nature 0 People do not pass through stages people are assumed to be affected by the environmental stimuli to which they happen to be exposed Developmental change is viewed in quantitative terms Classical Conditioning type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response Example if a dog is repeatedly exposed to pairing of sound of a bell and the presentation of meat it may learn to react to the bell alone in the same way it reacts to the meat by salivating and wagging it s tail with excitement Explains how we learn emotional responses 0 Operant Conditioning a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened depending on its association with positive or negative consequences response is voluntary and not conditioned Reinforcement a stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated Ex student will work harder in school if receiving good grades Punishment the introduction of an unpleasant or painful stimulus or the removal of a desirable stimulus will decrease the probability that a preceding behavior will occur in the future Extinguished Behavior behavior that receives no reinforcement or is punished is likely to be discontinued 0 Behavior Modification a formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones Used by a variety of situations such as teaching severely retarded people the rudiments of language to helping people stick to diets Social Cognitive Learning Theory learning through imitation emphasized learning by observing the behavior of another person called a model behavior is learned through observation when we see the the behavior of a model being rewarded we are likely to imitate that behavior 0 Proceeds in four steps Observer must pay attention and perceive the most critical features of a model s behavior The observer must successfully recall the behavior The observer must reproduce the behavior accurately The observer must be motivated to learn and carry out the behavior The Cognitive Perspective focuses on the processes that allow people to know understand and think about the world 0 Piaget39s Theory of Cognitive Development not only does quantity of information increase in each stage the quality of knowledge and understanding changed as well Human thinking is arranged into schemes organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions In infants such schemes represent concrete behavior Children s adaptation way in which children respond and adjust to new information can be explained by two principles Assimilation people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking Accommodation changes in existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events 0 InformationProcessing Approach seek to identify the ways individuals take in use and store information Children are assumed by informationprocessing approaches to have limited capacity for processing information and as they develop they employ increasingly sophisticated strategies that allow them to process information more ef ciently Development is marked by quantitative advances our capacity to handle information changes with age as does our processing speed and ef ciency 0 Cognitive Neuroscience Approach focuses on how brain processes are related to cognitive activity focus speci cally on the neurological activity that underlies thinking problem solving and other cognitive behavior Seek to identify actual locations and functions within the brain that are related to different types of cognitive activity Work of cognitive neuroscientists is also providing clues to the cause of autism Contextual Perspective considers the relationship between individuals and their physical cognitive personality social and physical worlds 0 A child s unique development cannot be properly viewed without seeing the child enmeshed within a complex social and cultural context 0 Bioecological Approach different levels of the environment simultaneously in uence every biological organism Five levels of environment that simultaneously in uence individuals Microsystem everyday immediate environment in which children lead their daily lives homes caregivers friends and teachers are all in uences children actively help construct the microsystem Mesosystem provides connections among the various aspects of the microsystem binds children to parents students to teachers employees to bosses acknowledges the direct and indirect in uences that bind us to one another 0 Example motherfather had bad day at of ce and then is shorttempered with her or his child at home Exosystem broader in uences societal institutions such as local government community schools places of worship and the local media each can have a major and immediate impact on personal development 0 Example quality of school will affect child s cognitive development and potentially can have longterm consequences Macrosystem larger cultural in uences on the individual society in general types of gov religious and political value systems Chronosystem involves the way the passage of time including historical events and more gradual historical changes affects children39s development A change in one part of the system affects other parts of the system 0 Example a loss of a parent s job has an impact on a child s microsystem o The in uence of culture Individualism the dominant Western philosophy that emphasizes personal identity uniqueness freedom and the worth of the individual Collectivism notion that the wellbeing of the group is more important than that of the individual 0 Sociocultural theory emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture children s understanding of the world is acquired through their problemsolving interactions with adults and other children Development is a reciprocal transaction people and settings in uence the child who in turn in uences the people and settings Evolutionary Perspective seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors genetics and environmental factors combine to in uence behavior 0 Draws heavily on the eld of ethology examines the ways in which our biological makeup in uences our behavior Chapter 3 The Start of Life Genetics and Prenatal Development Earliest Development Gametes the sex cells from the mother and father that form a new cell at conception o Ovum female reproductive cells 0 Sperm male reproductive cells Zygote the new cell formed by the process of fertilization Genes and Chromosomes The Code of Life Genes the basic units of genetic information o All genes are composed of DNA deoxyribonucleic acid molecules determines the nature of every cell in the body and how it will function 0 Genes are aligned in specific locations and in a specific order along 46 chromosomes rodshaped portions of DNA that are organized in 23 pairs Only sex cells have half this number 0 The 46 chromosomes that are in 23 pairs that are in the new zygote contain the genetic blueprint that will guide cell activity for the rest of the individual39s life Mitosis the replication of most types of cells Meiosis each gamete receives one of the two chromosomes that make each of the 23 pairs Multiple Births Two or More for the Genetic Price of One Multiple births when a cluster of cells in the ovum splits off within the first two weeks after fertilization and the result is two genetically identical zygotes Monozygotic Twins twins who are genetically identical Dizygotic Twins produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time they are no more genetically similar than two siblings born at different times The odds of having multiples births rise considerably when couples use fertility drugs to improve the probability they will conceive a child and older women are more likely to have multiple births mothers carrying multiple children run a higher than average risk of premature delivery and birth complications Boy or Girl Establishing the Sex of the Child The 23rd chromosome determines the sex of the child 0 Females XX 0 Males XY 0 The father s sperm determines the sex of the child The Basics of Genetics The Mixing and Matching of Traits Dominant trait the one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are present Recessive trait a trait within an organism that is present but is not expressed Genotype the underlying combination of genetic material present but outwardly invisible in an organism Phenotype an observable trait the trait that actually is seen Alleles genes governing traits that may take alternate forms Homozygous inheriting from parents similar genes for a given trait Heterozygous inheriting from parents different forms of a gene for a given trait Transmission of Genetic Information Phenylketonuria PK U an inherited disorder in which a child is unable to make use of phenylalanine an essential amino acid present in proteins found in milk and other food if left untreated PKU allows phenylalanine to build up to toxic levels causing brain damage and mental retardation Polygenic Traits Polygenic inheritance inheritance in which a combination of multiple gene pairs is responsible for the production of a particular trait Genes vary in terms of their reaction range the potential degree of variability in the actual expression of a trait due to environmental conditions Xlinked genes genes that are considered recessive and located only on the X chromosome 0 Males have a higher risk of Xlinked disorders because because males lack second X chromosome that can counteract the genetic information that produces the disorder Hemophilia blood disorder produced by Xlinked genes The Human Genome and Behavioral Genetics Cracking the Genetic Code 999 of the gene sequence is shared by all humans Behavioral Genetics the study of the effects of heredity on behavior personality is studied such as shyness or sociability or moodiness Inherited and Genetic Disorders When Development Goes Awry Spontaneous mutation genes for no known reason spontaneously change their form genes become physically damaged Exposure to xrays or highly polluted air can produce a malformation in genetic material Inherited and genetic disorders include 0 Down Syndrome disorder produced by the presence of an extra chromosome on the 21st pair once referred to as mongolism the most frequent cause of mental retardation o Fragile X Syndrome disorder produced by injury to a gene on the X chromosome producing mild to moderate mental retardation o Sicklecell Anemia blood disorder that gets its name from the shape of the red blood cells in those who have it carries immunity to malaria o T ay Sachs Disease disorder that produces blindness and muscle degeneration prior to death there is no treatment 0 Klinefelter39s Disease disorder resulting from the presence of an extra X chromosome that produces underdeveloped genitals extreme height and enlarged breasts XXY an extra Y which would be XYY is called turner syndrome Genetic Counseling Predicting the Future from the Genes of the Present Genetic Counseling discipline that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders 0 Karyotype chart containing enlarged photos of each of the chromosomes Prenatal testing Tests to assess the health of an unborn child F irsttrimester screen earliest test combines blood test and ultrasounds sonography in the 11th to 13th week of pregnancy 0 Ultrasound Sonography process in which highfrequency sound waves scan the mother s womb to produce an image of the unborn baby whose size and shape can then be assessed Chorionic villus sampling more invasive used to nd genetic defects that involve taking samples of hairlike material that surrounds the embryo produce a risk of miscarriage from 1 in 100 to l in 200 Amniocentesis the process of identifying genetic defects by examining a small sample of fetal cells drawn by a needle inserted into the amniotic uid surrounding the unborn fetus can determine the sex of a child Screening for Future Problems Newest role of genetic counselors involves testing people to identify whether they themselves are susceptible to future disorders because of genetic abnormalities Ethic issues tise The Role of the Environment in Determining the Expression of Genes From Genotypes to Phenotypes Behavior is a product of a combination of nurture and nature Temperament patterns of arousal and emotionality that represent consistent and enduring characteristics in an individual Interaction of Factors Multifactorial transmission the determination of traits by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors in which a genotypes provides a range within which a phenotype may be expressed Studying Development How Much is Nature How Much is Nurture Nonhuman Animal Studies Controlling Both Genetics and Environment Researchers can examine groups of animals that have been bred to have signi cantly dz erent genetic backgrounds on particular traits Contrasting Relatedness and Behavior Adoption Twin and Family Studies By separating identical twins at birth and placing them in totally different environments researchers could assess the impact of the environment unambiguously unethical but researchers can study twins who have been put up for adoption separately Researchers can compare monozygotic versus dizygotic twins to determine similarities Physical Traits Family Resemblances The more genetically similar two people are the more likely they are to share physical traits Intelligence More Research More Controversy Genetics plays a signi cant role in intelligence The closer the genetic link between two individuals the greater the correspondence of their overall IQ scores Monozygotic twin IQ scores become increasingly similar as they age and dizygotic becomes less similar Environmental factors such as exposure to books good educational experiences and intelligent peers are profoundly in uential Genetic and Environmental In uences on Personality Born to Be Outgoing Some of our most basic personality traits have genetic roots Neuroticism and Extroversion are linked to genetic factors 0 Neuroticism the degree of emotional stability an individual characteristically displays o Extroversion degree to which a person seeks to be with others to behave in an outgoing manner and generally to be sociable Social potency and traditionalism are associated with genetic factors as well as political attitudes religious interests and values and even attitudes towards human sexuality Cultural Differences in Physical Arousal Might a Culture s Philosophical Outlook Be Determined by Genetics Developmental Diversity and Your Life Psychological Disorders The Role of Genetics and Environment Schizophrenia is brought about by genetic factors The closer the genetic links between someone with schizophrenia and another family member the more likely it is that the other person will also develop schizophrenia 0 Example monozygotic twin had close to a 50 percent risk of developing schizophrenia when the other twin develops the disorder but a niece or nephew has a less than a 5 percent chance to develop the disorder Genetics alone does not in uence the development of the disorder Major depression alcoholism autism and ADD have signi cant inherited components Can Genes In uence the Environment Genetic endowment provided to children by their parents not only determines their genetic characteristics but also actively in uences their environment Three ways a child s genetic predisposition may in uence his or her environment 0 Children tend to actively focus on those aspects of their environment that are most connected with their genetically determined abilities and children pay less attention to those aspects of the environment that are less compatible with their genetic endowment Example quieter child will probably be more academic and may join chorus o The geneenvironment in uence is more passive and less direct in some cases Example athletic parent may provide child opportunity to play sports 0 The genetically driven temperament of a child may evoke certain environmental in uences Example childs demanding behavior may cause parents to be more attentive to their needs than if the child was less demanding Prenatal Growth and Change From the moment of conception development proceeds relentlessly Fertilization The Moment of Conception Fertilization the process by which a sperm and an ovum the male and females gametes join to form a single new cell called a zygote Females born with around 400000 ova in the two ovaries and do not mature until the female reaches puberty and from then until menopause will ovulate every 28 days 0 During ovulation an egg is released from one of the ovaries and pushed by minute hair cells through fallopian tube toward the uterus and if an ovum meets a sperm along the way fertilization takes place Sperm have a shorter life span and are created by the testicles at a rapid rate of about several hundred million sperm per day 0 When sperm enter vagina they begin a winding journey that takes them through the cervix and into the fallopian tube where fertilization may take place and it takes only one sperm to fertilize an ovum The Stages of the Prenatal Period The Onset of Development Prenatal period consists of three phases germinal embryonic and fetal stages Germinal Stage fertilization to 2 weeks first and shortest stage 0 Zygote begins to divide and grow in complexity during the first two weeks of conception o Fertilized egg travels to uterus where it becomes implanted in the wall which is rich in nutrients 0 When fully developed the placenta serves as a conduit between mother and fetus providing nourishment and oxygen via umbilical cord where waste is removed through Embryonic Stage 2 to 8 weeks organism is firmly secured to wall of mother s uterus and child is called an embryo 0 Development of major organs and basic anatomy happen here 0 Developing child has 3 distinct layers that will form a different set of structures as development proceeds Ectoderm will form skin hair teeth sense organs and the brain and spinal cord Endoderm inner layer and produces digestive system liver pancreas and respiratory system Mesoderm in between the above two and will form muscles bones blood and circulatory system 0 Only an inch long in this stage but can recognize eyes nose and lips and even teeth 0 Head and brain rapidly grow during this period 0 Nerve cells called neurons grow as many as 100000 per minute Fetal Stage 8 weeks to birth now called a fetus a developing child organs start to work and mothers start to take notice that they are pregnant mother can feel movement of child at 4 months 0 Brain becomes sophisticated The right and left hemispheres of brain grow rapidly and interconnections between neurons becomes more complex Neurons are insulated by myelin which helps speed the transmission of messages Fetus passes through different stages of sleep and wakefulness Fetus is able to hear and if you read stories to the baby twice a day during pregnancy they will be able to recognize it three days after born o 8 to 24 weeks after conception hormones are released that lead to increasing differentiation of male and female fetuses Pregnancy Problems Infertility inability to conceive after 12 to 18 months of trying to become pregnant the older the parents the more likely o In men infertility is typically a result of producing too few sperm 0 For women infertility is failure to release an egg 0 Treatments Artificial insemination process of fertilization in which a man s sperm is placed directly into a woman s vagina by a physician In Vitro fertilization procedure in which a woman s ova are removed from her ovaries and a man s sperm are used to fertilize the ova in a laboratory Gamete intrafallopian transfer and zygote intrafallopian transfer are procedure where an egg and sperm or fertilized egg are implanted in a woman s fallopian tubes Surrogate mother woman agrees to carry child to term Miscarriage and Abortion Miscarriage a spontaneous abortion occurs when pregnancy ends before the developing child is able to survive outside the mother s womb embryo detaches from wall of uterus and is expelled attributable to some sort of genetic abnormality Stillbirth the death of a developing child 20 weeks or more after conception Abortion mother voluntarily chooses to terminate the pregnancy Chapter 4 Birth and the Newborn Infant Approaches to Childbirth Where Medicine and Attitudes Meet Birth used to be where all delivering mothers were in one room and at time of delivery were taken to delivery room and mothers were so drugged that they could not remember the birth Alternative Birthing Procedures Lamaze birthing techniques breathing techniques and relaxation training training sessions to learn how to deal positively with pain minimizing use of drugs Bradley method aka husbandcoached childbirth childbirth should be as natural as possible and involve no medication or medical intervention Hypnobirthing selfhypnosis during delivery which produces a sense of peace and calm reducing pain basic concept is to produce a state of focused concentration in which a mother relaxes her body while focusing inward Childbirth Attendants Who Delivers Obstetricians physicians who specialize in delivering babies and are childbirth attendants of choice Midwife childbirth attendant who stay with the mother throughout labor and delivery primarily used in pregnancies where no complications are expected Doula trained to provide emotional psychological and educational support during childbirth and do not replace midwife or obstetrician Pain and Childbirth Pain is a sign that the body is working appropriately during childbirth Use of Anesthesia and PainReducing Drugs Epidural anesthesia produces numbness from the waist down 0 This traditional one may prevent women from walking or pushing Walking epidural or dual spinalepidural uses smaller needles and a system from administering continuous doses of anesthetic women can more more and has fewer side effects These drugs can affect the fetus Mothers who decide to use it have babies who are less physiologically responsive the first few days of life Postdelivery Deliver then Depart AAP says women should stay in hospital no less and 48 hours after giving birth Chapter 5 Physical Development in Infancy SIDS The Unanticipated Killer Sudden Infant Death Syndrome a disorder which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep Strikes l in 1000 infants in US per year Scientists unable to discover what happens but that they just simply cease to breathe Back to sleep guideline babies should sleep on their backs rather than on their sides or stomachs and suggest that parents consider giving their babies a pacifier during naps and bedtime 0 Number of deaths has decreased significantly since guidelines but SIDS is still the 1 leading cause of death in children under the age of 1 years old Boys and African Americans at greater risk for SIDS Low birthweight and low Apgar scores and a mother who smokes during pregnancy associated with SIDS Nutrition in Infancy Fueling Motor Development Rapid physical growth that occurs during infancy is fueled by the nutrients that infants receive Malnutrition Malnutrition the condition of having an improper amount and balance of nutrients produces several results none good more common among children 0 Malnutritious children have lower IQ scores and tend to do less well in school and effects may linger even with a good and proper diet 0 This problem is greatest in underdeveloping countries and 10 of infants are severely malnourished Undernutrition some deficiency in diet 0 Cognitive development later in childhood is affected Marasmus malnutrition during the first year disease where infants stop growing and results in death Kwashiorkor disease in which a child s stomach limbs and face swell with water and makes the child appear chubby Nonorganic failure to thrive a disorder in which infants stop growing due to a lack of stimulation and attention as the result of inadequate parenting Obesity Obesity de ned as a weight greater than 20 percent above the average for a given height 0 Overfeeding when young may predispose someone to be overweight A fat baby is not a healthy baby what is important is proper nutrition Breast or Bottle For the first 12 months of life there is no better food than breast milk for an infant Breast Milk not only contains all the necessary nutrients for growth but also offers some degree of immunity to a variety of childhood diseases such as respiratory illnesses ear infections diarrhea and allergies it is also more easily digested and may enhance cognitive growth Breastfeeding offers significant emotional advantages for both mother and child such as feelings of well being and intimacy Women who breastfeed have lower risks of ovarian and breast cancer and hormones produced during breastfeeding help shrink the uteruses of women following birth Introducing Solid Foods When and What Babies can start solids at around 6 months although not needed until 9 to 12 months of age Solids introduced gradually one at a time usually cereal comes first followed by strained fruits and veggies next Weaning gradual cessation of breastbottle feeding the time of this varies
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