chapter 7 summary and study guide
chapter 7 summary and study guide PY 377
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Gray on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 377 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Karen L Salekin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see Psych Law and Justice in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Lauren Gray 11328775 2/29/2016 Chapter 7 Summary 1) Introduction a) Profiling occurs at the beginning of a criminal investigation b) Helps to identify a suspect c) Other things are used to determine if the suspect should be charged or not d) Police use interrogations and lie detector tests i) They look for verbal cues and body language to determine if the suspect is telling the truth e) Police encourage suspects to confess i) A lot of confessions are coerced leading to false confessions 2) Profiling of Criminal Suspects a) Evidence has linked psychological characteristics to behavioral patterns by analyzing crime scenes b) Narrowing criminal investigations to suspects who possess certain behavioral and personality features that are revealed by the way the crime is committed is known as criminal profiling i) Reverse engineering the crime scene ii) AKA: criminal investigative analysis c) Does not identify a specific person d) Provides a general psychological description of the most likely suspect i) Includes behavioral and personality traits ii) Indicated by an analysis of the suspects crime or crimes e) Criminal profiles also help to catch other suspects such as hijackers, drug carriers, and illegal aliens f) Careful profiles can provide very specific details such as psychopathology, characteristics of family history, education and legal history, habits, and social interests g) Most effective in cases where the suspect is repetitive and commits several crimes i) Usually contains sadistic torture, ritualistic/ bizarre behavior, evisceration, staging or acting out fantasies h) Successful profilers have 2 key characteristics: i) Understanding of human psychology ii) Investigative experience i) Mental health professionals should not be profilers because there is an importance for investigative experience j) Clinical or forensic psychologists possess an expertise that helps with criminal profiling k) A survey found that 10% of psychologists and psychiatrists had profiling experience, 25% were knowledgeable about profiling and fewer than 25% believed that criminal profiling was scientifically reliable or valid. l) Most felt it had usefulness in investigations i) Basically need to have experience as a criminal investigator to be a profiler m) Famous fictional detectives are portrayed as god profilers because they pick up on little details and know how to interpret them n) Profiling has become more popular and well known through TV shows i) Law and Order ii) Criminal Minds o) One of the earliest cases that involved criminal profiling was arrest of George Metesky (mad bomber of NYC) in 1957 i) Took 8 years and 30 bombings ii) Dr. James Brussel gave the police a profile of the man after he examined pictures of the crime scenes iii) He gave the profile and when the police arrested Metesky the profile was scary accurate, even down to the correct suit that Brussel had said p) Not all profiles are accurate though q) The major source of research and development on criminal profiling comes from the FBI Behavioral Science Unit (BSU) i) Been working on this since the 1970’s ii) One of the instructional components of the FBI’s training and development division in Quantico, Virginia iii) Provides training, conducts research, and offers consultation in the behavioral and social sciences iv) Also coordinates with other FBI units r) The National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCVAC) provides operational assistance to FBI field offices and law enforcement agencies i) Now has separate units that focus on crimes against adults, children, apprehension of violent criminals, counterterrorism, and threat assessment ii) Combines investigative and operational support, research, and training and teaches these to federal, state, local, and foreign law enforcement agencies to help deal with unusual or repetitive violent crimes iii) Also helps with nonviolent crimes such as: national security, corruption, and white collar crime s) After 9/11 the FBI put more of an importance on counterterrorism i) Profiling terrorists is very difficult ii) A reliable profile has not been developed iii) Risk factors that are associated with criminal behavior are not the same when dealing with terrorists iv) Instead risks such as: ideology, affiliation, trauma/loss, and disgust are associated with terrorism t) History has proved that the BSU has mainly focused on bizarre, violent crimes and put a lot of attention on rapists, arsonists, sexual homicides, and mass/serial murders u) Interest is still very in the study of mass and serial murders v) There is a very high interest in crime scene analysis and offender profiling w) The focus of this work is to describe those who have committed specific crimes A) Classifying Homicide Offenders: Mass and Serial Murderers a. Most homicides are committed by killers who were friends with their victim, had a personal and rational motive, have killed before, and were arrested b. Recently attention has been focused on patterns of homicide involving suspects who kill multiple victims i. With irrational or bizarre motives ii. Less likely to be apprehended because their victims are strangers c. The trail of these murderers is often one locale place and period of time or different locations over a long period of time d. Mass murderers have been a favorite subject of “true crime” books e. Experts differ in the number of victims to use in defining “multiple homicide” f. “the slaying of four or more victims, simultaneously or sequentially by one or few individuals” by Fox and Levin is the most widely accepted criteria i. 1998 g. Double homicides are difficult to estimate how many are committed every year but they are increasing h. Mass murders are rare i. Hard to predict because of the false positive error i. False positive error example: those who are predicted to be violent but actually are not j. Current research is focusing on the characteristics of the individuals who commit the crimes and the patterns that they follow k. A sample examined 30 adult and 34 adolescent mass murderers i. Found striking similarities ii. 75% of the sample was Caucasian iii. 70% of the adolescents and 94% of the adults were considered loners iv. 48% of the adolescents and 63% of the adults had a preoccupation with weapons and violence v. 43% of both groups had a violent history l. 2 types of multiple homicide: i. Mass murderers: kill 4 or more victims in one location during a period of time that lasts anywhere from a few minutes to several hours 1. In the 90’s it was estimated that 2 mass murders happened every year in the U.S 2. Resulting in over 100 victims dead annually 3. Most mass murderers harbor feelings of resentment and are motivated by revenge 4. Do not randomly attack strangers 5. About 80% of mass murderers are related to or know their victims very well and carefully plan the attack 6. Typically mass murderers are killed at the location of the crime, commit suicide, or surrender to the police 7. Spree killers: attackers who kill victims at two or more different locations with no “cooling off” interval between the murders 8. The killings are a single event 9. Usually lasting a short time or a day or more ii. Serial murderers: kill 4 or more victims, each on a separate occasion 1. Usually pick victims that fulfill a role in the killers fantasies 2. There are cooling off periods 3. Better planned 4. Some travel frequently and kill in several locations 5. Others are geographically stable and stay in the same area 6. Are capable of presenting themselves as a part of the community 7. Frequently wait months between each killing 8. A study compiled a list of characteristics from over 157 serial killers a. Most were white males in their 30’s b. More than half were employed c. Onethird were married th d. Average offender had 11 grade education e. Victims were: i. White females in their early to mid30’s ii. Strangers to their killers iii. More than half were sexually motivated 9. Tend to select vulnerable victims 10. Easy to control 11. Prefer to handson kill a. Strangulation b. Stabbing 12. Often keep souvenirs 13. Not typically psychotic 14. Most have personality disorders B) Steps Involved in Criminal Profiling a. Douglas, Ressler, Burgess, and Hartman divided the FBI’s profiling strategy into 6 stages in 1986: i. Profiling inputs: collecting all information available about the crime 1. Physical evidence 2. Pictures of the crime scene 3. Autopsy reports and pictures 4. Victims background information 5. Police reports 6. Profiler does not want to know about possible suspects yet ii. Decision process model: organizing the input into meaningful questions and patterns 1. What type of homicide was committed? 2. The risk levels for the victim and the murderer 3. Sequence of acts before and after the killing 4. Was the body moved? iii. Crime assessment: the profiler attempts to reconstruct the behavior of the offender and the victim 1. Was the murder organized or disorganized? 2. Amount of force 3. Brutal face wounds suggest the killer knows the victim 4. Impulse murders with a nearby object. Haven’t been thought out 5. Murders committed early in the morning rarely involve drugs iv. Criminal profile: profilers come up with an initial description of the offender 1. Race 2. Sex 3. Age 4. Marital status 5. Check their predictions against the step 2 information v. Investigation: a written report is given to investigators 1. Concentrate on suspects matching the profile 2. If new evidence is discovered the profile is revised vi. Apprehension: the intended result of these procedures. An arrest C) The Validity of Criminal Profiles a. In 1998 Homant and Kennedy concluded that different kinds of crime scenes can be classified with reasonable reliability b. Do correlate with certain offender characteristics c. Also suggests several reasons for caution: i. Inaccurate profiles are common ii. Many of the studies are conducted by the FBI profilers iii. The concepts used by profilers have not been systematically defined d. Most psychologists and psychiatrists do not think that criminal profiling is reliable or valid e. A study was done and in the study the results found that the profiler group wrote longer profiles and had more specific details and were rated as more helpful than he police group f. Profilers were more accurate g. This suggest that profilers can come up with more useful and valid profiles 3) Detecting Deception a) People tell lies once or twice a day b) They do so: i) So others will perceive them favorably ii) To avoid tension and conflict in social situations iii) To minimize hurt feelings c) The 19 terrorists that committed 9/11 lied to the authorities on at least 3 occasions d) The body will reveal when the mind is lying e) Truth bias: people are biased toward judging statements as being truthful A) Distinguishing Liars and TruthTellers a. People focus on the wrong cues b. Need to focus on diagnostic cues i. Diagnostic cues: cues that can accurately distinguish a truthteller from an imposter c. People often fallback on stereotypes and biases d. People have mistaken beliefs about nonverbal cues e. Avoiding eye contact is a form of lying i. Research shows that this is not accurate f. There are very few nonverbal cues that can actually detect deception g. Nonverbal behavior is indicated by cultural norms h. Cognitive load interviews: designed to mentally tax a person so that it becomes difficult to maintain a lie and answer a question i. Ask the subject to recall a series of events in reverse order and require them to perform a secondary task i. Liars prepare themselves for anticipated questions i. Have to rehearse what they are going to say so that it sounds believable B) Methods of Detecting Deception a. Using the polygraph i. Polygraph: a computerbased machine that measures blood pressure, electrodermal activity, and respiratory changes ii. The physiological reactions of negative emotions are very similar 1. This may be problematic b. Polygraph techniques i. The control question test 1. The examiner asks the suspect two types of questions 2. Relevant questions: questions about the crime under investigation 3. Control questions: questions not concerned with the crime but are designed to get an emotional response out of the person ii. Concealed knowledge test 1. Goal is to detect concealed knowledge 2. Relies on the accumulation of facts that only the police, suspect, and victim know c. The polygraph’s accuracy i. 96% accurate ii. Can beat the polygraph by taking countermeasures 1. Breathing techniques 2. Complex calculations in your head 3. Rub deodorant on your fingertips 4. Hurt yourself d. How the polygraph is used in criminal cases i. Used as a scare tactic ii. Used to get a confession iii. Not submissible in criminal court e. Brainbased lie detection i. Neuroimaging 1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) a. Uses scanners fitted with powerful electromagnets to measure blood flow and oxygen utilization in certain parts of the brain b. Simply asks questions about one’s past experiences and knowledge c. External validity: outside validation d. The accuracy of this is about 70 to 90% ii. Brain wave analysis 1. Brain fingerprinting: new technology that measures brain wave patterns that occur in response to familiar and unfamiliar images a. Can help investigators tell if someone is lying when they say “I wasn’t there” 4) Evaluating Confessions a) When the police think someone is lying they do an interrogation b) Interrogations are very effective in getting confessions i) A lot of times false confessions A) Historical Background thd Current Legal Standing a. Until mid20 century confessions only came after intense interrogations b. Miranda vs. Arizona established the Miranda Rights and made it so that a confession in an interrogation is admissible only if the officer ensured the suspect was not going to selfincriminate themselves and the confession had to be voluntary B) Whittling Away at Miranda a. Some of the changes to the Miranda requirements: i. Confessions that violate Miranda may still be used at trial ii. Miranda does not apply unless the suspect is in the custody of the police iii. Miranda does not apply unless the defendant is being interrogated C) The Validity of Confession Evidence a. False denials: when guilty suspects proclaim their innocence and deny involvement in the crime b. False confessions: when innocent suspects confess to alleged crimes c. Innocent suspects confess because : i. The police coerce them ii. They have heard a story enough times that they start to believe that they actually did do it iii. They are scared/nervous iv. Scared of the consequences 1. Death penalty 2. Jail d. 3 ways to prove a confession is false: i. Suspect confesses to a crime that never happened ii. Confessions can be proved to be false in situations where it was physically impossible for a suspect to commit the crime iii. The actual perpetrator is identified and his quilt is established D) Inside the Interrogation Room: Common Interrogation Techniques a. Preinterrogation “softening up” the suspect i. Inviting the person to the police station ii. Saying that they just want to talk to them b. The interrogation itself i. 2 strategies: 1. Negative incentives: break down a suspects defenses, lower their resistance, instill feelings of fear, despair, and powerlessness 2. Positive inducements: motivate the suspect to make them believe a confession is in their best interest ii. Fabricated evidence: police may tell the suspect that they found his or her DNA at the scene or tell them that one of their friends is blaming the whole crime on them 1. Anything the police can think of to get the suspect to confess to the crime c. An empirical look at interrogation tactics i. Behavioral confirmation: the presumption of guilt makes the suspect more likely to false confess and make them confused and scared and defensive ii. Evidence ploys: police can show them pictures and the suspects will make up stories about the picture or the video E) False Confessions a. Voluntary false confessions: arise because people seek notoriety, desire to cleanse themselves of guilty feelings from previous wrongdoings, want to protect the real criminal, and have difficulty distinguishing fact from fiction b. Compliant false confessions: the suspect is induced to comply with the interrogators demands to make an incriminating statement c. Internalized false confessions: directly related to the highly suggestive and manipulative techniques that interrogators sometimes use during questioning F) Inside the Courtroom: How Confession Evidence is Evaluated a. Fundamental attribution error: do not give sufficient weight to the external situation as a determinant of behavior, instead believe the behavior is caused by stable, internal factors unique to the actor G) Reforming the System to Prevent False Confessions a. Illusory causation: the tendency to attribute causation to one stimulus because it is more conspicuous than others b. American interrogation practices are confrontational and accusatorial c. Police claim these techniques are necessary d. United Kingdom is the opposite of the U.S i. Cannot lie to suspects ii. Have to tell the truth
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