Chapter 1 Objectives
Chapter 1 Objectives Biol 450
Popular in Modern genetics
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kseniya Notetaker on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 450 at Kansas State University taught by Dr. Katherine Schrick in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Modern genetics in Biology at Kansas State University.
Reviews for Chapter 1 Objectives
Almost no time left on the clock and my grade on the line. Where else would I go? Kseniya has the best notes period!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/15/15
Chapter 1 The genetics Revolution OBJECTIVES amp PROBLEM ASSIGNMENTS Lecture 1 Reading assignment Chapter 1 p 128 Note vocabulary in bold Be able to provide or recognize a de nition of these terms 1 Write the de nitions of genes genetics and genomics How do genetics and genomics differ a Genes Fundamental units of biological information They are composed of DNA b Genetics Study of genes one or a few at a time began from the discovery of DNA It embraces both molecular genetics and genomics c Genomics The study of complete gene sets 2 Explain how the blending theory of inheritance differs from Mendelian genetics a Blending theory of inheritance the discredited theory that inheritance of traits from two parents produces offspring with characteristics that are intermediate between those of the parents b Mendel developed three principles of inheritance that described the transmission of genetic traits before anyone knew genes existed i He came up with three conclusions that explained the characteristics better than the blending theory did 1 that the inheritance of each trait is determined by quotunitsquot or quotfactorsquot that are passed on to descendants unchanged these units are now called genes click this icon to hear the preceding term pronounced 2 That an individual inherits one such unit from each parent for each trait 3 That a trait may not show up in an individual but can still be passed on to the next generation 3 What is a chromosome and what is it comprised of a DNA molecules that are packaged into threadlike structures i Made of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structures ii Not visible in cell39s nucleus 4 Explain the chromosomal theory of inheritance a It identi es chromosome as the genetic material responsible for Mendelian inheritance i Homologous chromosome pairs are independent of other chromosome pairs ii Chromosomes from each homologous pair are sorted randomly into pregametes iii Parents synthesize gametes that contain only half of their chromosomes eggs and sperm have the same of chromosomes iv Gametic chromosomes combine during fertilizations to produce offspring with the same chromosome as their parents 5 Know the properties of the hereditary material DNA a Physical properties i Exists as a pair of molecules rather than a single molecule ii Strands are entwined in a double helix kept stable by Hydrogen bonds iii Long polymer DNA is made up of smaller units caed nucleotides iv Each nuceotide PHOSPHATE group SUGAR NITROGENOUS BASE 1 4 different bases Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine b DNA grooves i Major and minor grooves are structures that allow for necessary proteins in your body to make contact with bases ii Some of these are transcription factors 1 Have many roles telling your cells how large they should become suppressing tumor growth etc c DNA Super coining i Allows for very long DNA strands to pack into much smaller cell bodies d DNA conformations i Different conformations interact with enzymes in body ii Involved with DNA repair e Antisense and Sense 6 What is the onegeneoneenzyme hypothesis and why is this the foundation of genetic analysis a Each gene directly produces a single enzyme which consequentially affects an individual step in metabolic pathway 7 Understand how genes are regulated through regulatory elements upstream of proteincoding sequences 8 Explain the central dogma of molecular biology Distinguish the cellular processes of transcription to produce mRNA and translation to produce proteins 9 What is a model organism Name ve model organisms and describe how there is a need for a variety of model organisms in revealing general features of inheritance and other biological processes What are three properties shared by all model organisms a Model organisms are chosen if they are well suited to study of the biological question under investigation b Suitability is biological that organism should have properties that lend themselves particularly well to that investigation A suitable model organism also has the bene t of expedience sma organisms that are easy and cheap to maintain and grow quickly are convenient c Examples their genomes have been sequences i Billions of bacteria ii Yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae and mold Neurospora crassa are ideal subjects for meiosis and mating iii Arabidosis thaliana mini owering plant can be cultured in large numbers has small genome ideal for plant biology like development of plant parts iv The fruit y Drosophila melanogaster has only 4 chromosomes good for observing large scale chromosomal alterations v Mus musculus the house mouse is the model for vertebrates especially humans has been used for many analyses like mutation development transgenesis 10What is SNP and what does it stand for a SNP Single nucleotide polymorphisms i Most have just 2 alleles ii Common SNP if the less common allele occurs at frequency 5 or greater iii Rare SNP less common allele occurs less than 5 iv Occur within genes including within exons introns regulatory regions v 3 groups 1 Synonymous different alleles encode the same amino acid 2 Nonsynonymous 2 alleles encode different amino acids 3 Nonsense 1 allele encodes stop codon and the other an amino acid 11How has genetic analysis been used to improve crop yield in agriculture a Most crops and farm animals today are only distantly related to wild species found in nature since their genomes have been extensively modi ed by systematic breeding programs b Traditional and molecular genetics have streamlined the selection process to produce valuable varieties in a much shorter time Now there is almost no limit to the possible gene combinations Crops are often modi ed with transgenes which is a foreign gene that is inserted into an organism e Crops have been modi ed with transgenes for insecticide and herbicide resistance f Some goats produce the medically useful antibloodclotting protein antithrombin and secrete it into milk g Transgenic bacteria synthesize important drugs such as insulin or human growth h Transgenic yeast is used to make our food 12List the three factors that have in uence recent human evolution Mutations in the regulatory element of which gene resulted in the ability of adults to digest lactose in milk 13Name one important unsolved question in biology that can be addressed through genetic research a The biggest challenge is in the area of development Even though a great deal has been learned from model organisms about how the an body plan is laid done and what genes control things there is still a lot to be done to fully understand the building of a living organism This info will be directly relevant to human development and medical diagnosis and treatment Over the coming decades genetic disease will be much better understood as a result of genetic research
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'