2070 Study Guide Offical
2070 Study Guide Offical Psych 2070
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This 43 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alma G on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2070 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Swartout in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
PSYC 2070 Introduction to Human Sexuality Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1 2 3 amp 4 All readings and lectures are fair game Chapter 1 What is sexuality What is the importance of family of origin 0 Sexuality the feelings behaviors biological functioning cultural context and attitudes surrounding sex What is the importance of the media in our understanding of sexuality The importance of the internet What role does media play in teens knowledge about sexuality 0 Media has a great in uence in sexuality since it is constantly portrayed as a taboo topic in society that should not be talked about oTeens are largely in uenced and as society has changed knowledge has grown allowing teens to know more information How did evolution affect our experience of sex and understanding of sexuality o Upright posture allowed for private parts to align perfectly in face to face interaction 0 Emphasis on breasts and clitoris in females more accessible and visible 0 Emphasis on penis in males more accessible What does it mean to say that the Hebrew attitude toward sexuality formed the basis of sexual attitudes in the West 0 Hebrews had explicit rules with an emphasis on procreation not pleasure that were carried into Christianity 0 Forbade homosexuality and adultery and penalty was death What is the role of Greek culture in our current understanding of sexuality In what speci c ways was Greek culture more sexually liberal than Hebraic culture What is pederasty Where does the term platonic come from oGreeks had an open sexual culture containing stories of rape incest bestiality and believing love and sexsexuality were two different forms 0 Pederasty sexual relationships between adult men and post pubescent boys allowing boys to earn an education I Normal part of life o Platonic love nonsexual love between two males where society idealized the male form What was the purpose of love and sex in Roman culture 0 Few restrictions that allowed homosexual behavior 0 Love grows in marriage and important to have respect for each other What is karma What was the role of sex and sexuality in ancient India What was the value of marriage What does it mean to say that India s social system was patriarchal What is the Kamasutra and what is its value to understanding sexuality in Indian culture 0 Karma the cycle or birthrebirth 0 Marriage is the goal to life and to procreate for religious and economic reasons 0 Patriarchal society devalued women ITO be a woman was to be punished for past life infant females were killed 0 Kamasutra sex manual with images explaining importance of love and family with the moral guidance in love and sex How is sex viewed in regard to Taoist principles What are the yin and the yang The ancient Chinese valued knowledge about sex and sexuality How do we know this 0 Sexuality is not a moral but procreative process that was widely accepted in society oYin and yang two opposites in the world yin feminine passive and receptive yang masculine assertive active 0 Semen was valued as important and homosexuality was a waste of sperm since yang is limited 0 Polygamy having more than one wife How was homosexuality viewed in each of these cultures 0 Hebrew forbade homosexuality o Greeks Homosexuality was not clearly accepted but institutionalized with pederasty for development of boys 0 Romans few restrictions of homosexual behavior 0 India Not accepted due to importance of procreation 0 China Not encouraged as a waste of sperm According to your text what did Jesus say about sexuality issues What did St PaulSt JeromeSt Augustine say What is celibacy Chastity What effect have these teachings had on our current understanding of sexuality oJesus was liberal about sexuality and its transgressions did not believe in killing people for having the quotwrong sexualityquot 0 St Paul established the dominant Western views of condemnation lThe highest level of love was to be for God lCelibacy and chastity was ideal in saving self for marriage and have virtue lAssociated sexuality with sin masturbation contraception and sex as a pleasure was a sin oThose values in uenced a lot of the religions currently practiced In the early Middle Ages the in uence of the Christian church slowly began to increase However the views of sexuality uctuated during this time When did a gay subculture emerge in the Middle Ages What is the importance of the start of the practice of confession during the Middle Ages 0 10501150 sexuality was liberalized before church cracked down on homosexuals o 1250 confession and penance way for people to tell priests the sins they commit How did the cultural view of women change during the Middle Ages What is an entremetteuse oWomen were held to standard of virtue due to idea of romantic love 0 Entremetteuse woman that teaches man of lovemaking and procures partners for them What did Thomas Aquinas have to say about sex and sexuality What is the importance of Thomas Aquinas to contemporary Christian beliefs about sexuality oThomas Aquinas argued that sexual organs were solely for procreation and forbade homosexuality 0 established views of morality and sexual behavior that formed basis of Catholic church attitudes According to your text what was the importance of Islam to views of sexuality during the Middle Ages What were harems What were eunuchs 0 Importance on the covering of private parts and sex legal only during marriagemodesty o Harems women quarters where women married to wealthy men were secluded and used to absence of men o Eunuchs men with cut penis guarded women since they slept with the sultan During the Renaissance intellectual and artistic thought shifted from Asceticismlife of no sensual pleasure to sensuality How did women s roles change during this time What happened as a result 0 Belief that women were innocent and that men were the sinners What are the basic tenets of Protestantism How did the Protestant view differ from the Catholic view in regard to marriage and sex 0 Calvin believed that women were not sexual tools but partners in every aspect of life oAllowed divorce if it was a bad marriage and sinned to wedlock o Sexuality used beside reproduction purposes such as reducing stress increasing intimacy and decrease cheating How did views of sex change during the Enlightenment What happened to rates of pregnancy outside of marriage 0 Rate of pregnancy increased believing that sexual pleasure was natural and desirable I However still against homosexuality How did attitudes toward sex change during the Victorian Era Public vs private Women were encouraged to behave how 0 Conservative sexual behavior with no communication unless marital oCommon prostitution porn and affairs etc oWomen did not have sexual urges for men and had to be interested in music Who were the Puritans What were their beliefs about sex and sexuality What is bundling oWanted to simplify worship with extreme measures of punishment if committed adultery rape or bestiality o Bundling allowing unmarried youth to sleep in same bed if wrapped carefully with clothing and sheets What role did slavery play in our understanding of sexuality What were indentured servants What were antimiscegenation laws How were the social and family structures of slaves used against them 0 Because they were property slaves and indentured servants were abused and raped o lndentured servants people that worked as payment for travel expenses oAntimiscegenation laws laws passed that did not allow mixraced marriages sex etc 0 used sexuality of minorities to oppress them based on the lifestyle that was set for them sex in front of children because they had no morals etc There have been two quotfree lovequot movements in the US When were they What did they look like 0 quotfree lovequot movement in 18205 preached that love was a determination for sex not marriage lObsessed with sexual health abstention from masturbation selfrestraint What is the medical model of sexuality Physicians began to argue that homosexuality was an illness rather than a sin oWomen were to get womb and ovarectomies because ovaries created lust and problems What is the Comstock Law What did it mean for sexuality and sexual information o Comstock Law prohibited the transfer of sexual material in mail including ads and letters information about contraceptives and nudity I Lobbied to Congress that stayed as a Federal law until 1965 What is the Social Hygiene Movement How did it begin oSocial Hygiene Movement began in 1905 as a way to make men get blood tested before marriage since women were contracting STls from husbands that got them from prostitutes What was the importance of antibiotics television and contraceptive pills to the free love movement of the 19605 0 Created changes in sexual morality and behavior due to the media 0 Embraced sexual experimentation and sensuality Who was Margaret Sanger What did she establish 0 Shared information to women about how to protect themselves from pregnancy allowing women to gain power with higher education labor force with entitlement to sexual satisfaction 0 Published birth control literature 0 Established the current Planned ParenthoodOriginally Birth Control League What was the importance of the Stonewall riot in gay liberation When did homosexuality get removed from the DSM oThe riot in 1969 proved that homosexuals would not continue to accept brutality from the police and led to stronger activism from discrimination o Homosexuality got removed from DSM in 1973 According to your text what are the major markers of gay liberation from the 1970s to today 0 quotgolden agequot where homosexuals had more liberation and shifted mentality to protect themselves 0 19805 AIDS epidemic lead to importance of protection Chapter 2 What is a theory oTheory a set of assumptions principles that allows researchers to understand what they are trying to study Psychoanalytic theory what are the two basic drives behind human behavior What are the id ego and superego What are the ve stages of psychosexual development What is the Oedipus complex The Electra Complex Why were Freud s theories controversial in Victorian Vienna Why are they controversial now oTwo basic human drives are the libido sexual motivation and Thanatos aggressive motivation 0 Formation of personality idpeasure center desires and wants egoreaistic understands that all desires will not be satis ted and superego social values feeling of guilt when not following what society wants you to be 0 Five staged of psychosexual development oral anal phallictouching self latency hanging out with same sex peers and genitalinterested in other sex 0 Oedipus complex and Electra Complex notion by Freud where as children have sexual feelings for parents of opposite sex 0 Controversial because it was unheard of to talk about children having sexual unconsciousness dif cult to prove since they deal with the unconsciousness Behavioral Theory what can behaviorism tell us about how we can address sexual issues What is operant conditioning What is classical conditioning What is behavior modi cation and how is it used in sex therapy 0 Behaviors can be learned and altered o Operant conditioning reinforcement or punishment to obtain the desirable behavior 0 Classical conditioning process to respond to a neutral stimulus 0 Behavior modi cation behavior can be modi ed using conditioning using aversion therapy to reduce frequency of bad behavior Social Learning Theory what is the basic premise of social learning theory This theory draws from which two other theories What is modeling How do kids learn gender identity according to Social Learning Theory 0 Part of behaviorism and cognitive believe that feelings and thoughts have more in uence on behavior 0 Modeling learn from observation by imitation andidenU cann 0 Kids learn by modeling after same sex parents Cognitive Theory what is the basic premise of cognitive theory What is the importance of the brain in cognitive theory How would a cognitive theorist rst address a sexual issue 0 How we process individual information and that thoughts are responsible for behavior 0 Brain is the biggest sexual organ due to how we perceive the world Humanistic Theory what is the basic premise of this theory What is selfactualization Unconditional positive regard How may humanistic theory address a sexual issue 0 Selfactualization ful lling potential with unconditional love and striving to be the best 0 Unconditional positive regard believe that one should receive love no matter the bad behavior they commit Biological Theory what is the basic premise of this theory How may biological theory rst address a sexual issue 0 Sexual behavior is biological process due to hormones and that gender roles are from gene cs Evolutionary Theory according to this theory why does sexuality exist What is the biggest criticism of this theoretical approach 0 Looks at species over time where the purpose of behavior was for reproduction and to pass on top genes sexual pleasure allows for more sex Sociological Theory Sociologists examine how society in uences sexual behavior through and How does this premise translate into understanding sexuality and sexual issues 0 Society has an in uence on sexual behavior that differs by culture knowing that biology is same in humans ISome societies discouraged to enjoy sex taboo while others embrace the behavior I Family has a large in uence on values about what is acceptable and unacceptable I Media publicizes it everywhere yet it might be a taboo topic to talk about IEconomic reasons such as prostitution and porn exist because pro table I Laws regulate same sex marriage contraception etc Feminist Theory many Feminists argue that the construction of sexuality is based on power often in the hands of m leading to sexual gender inequality What type of research do feminists advocate 0 Believe that the patriarchal society in uences sexuality where male sexual behavior is values more I Keeps women submissive with use of porn rape abuse etc oAdvocate rede ning sexual functioning and removal of the biological aspect since it is all based on cultural in uence Queer Theory when did this theoretical approach emerge This theory advocates moving our understanding of sexuality away from and and toward a deconstruction of categories of sex gender and desire 0 Looking away from homosexual studies and abolishing heterosexism and homophobia and should focus on how there are a variety of sexualities due to different experiences Why may Hippocrates Aristotle and Plato may be considered the forefathers of sex researchers 0 Considered the fathers of sex research since they rst developed theories on sexual response sex legislation contraception and sexual ethics What did 19th Century sex research focus on Who were the early primary sex researchers 0 Early sex researchers where male physicians since they were experts in science that might know about sex lTrying to improve lives and heath When did sex research move to the US from Europe Why 0 Sex research moved to the United States in 19205 encouraged by the Social Hygiene Movement due to concern of STls and its impact on social stability 0 Research in Germany was protected as medical research however many problems and reactions lead to the move What does it mean to say that much of the research on sex during the 20th century was problemdriven 0 Problem driven since people were not happy with sexual behaviors ex erectile dysfunction disallowing public funds for research Sexuality research is multidisciplinary why can this be problematic o Disciplines could not share data information that they collected to other disciplines or the general public According to your text how can the political climate affect sex research Give an example 0 Politics in uences the amount of funding sex research gets lConservatives might believe it is immoral to ask family about sexual lives and threat to traditional values Ex Kinsey39s book was published was immoral giving sex research a negative connotation Who was Magnus Hirschfeld What were his beliefs about sexuality and homosexuality 0 Funding all of his work arguing that homosexuality was a result of genetic patterns and should not be punishable I Many people asked for help 0 Found the Institute of Sexology Who was Clelia Mosher She was the rst researcher to do what 0 One of the rst women sex researchers that asked women about their sexual behaviors since all research was in male perspective I Proved that women have guilty sexual desires Who was Evelyn Hooker What did she demonstrate through her research 0 Hooker discovered that homosexuals and heterosexuals do not have psychological differences challenging the notion that homosexuality was a mental illness Who was Alfred Kinsey How did his research begin Who did he study and how did he study them According to your text what were criticisms of Kinsey s research He established the Institute for Sex Research why 0 Most in uential research creating one of the rst largest samples of data for human sexuality 0 Began research at college for a course noticing there was no background information on the topic atheoretical lStudied college students faculty friends college universities hospitals to provide a 100 sample interviews with three other colleagues publishing two books on the sexuality of males and females Idiscovered society performed many practices that were unacceptable in society homosexuality masturbation oral sex controversial with conservatives and religious organizations that eventually terminated research grants 0 established Institute for Sex Research in 1947 to continue research Who is Morton Hunt and what did he contribute to sex research What was the main criticism of his research 0 Began large scale study gathering information from randomized from telephone books lConsistent results with Kinsey however with a less generalizing sample pool 0 Main criticism of research showed increase in premarital sex oral sex and anal sex Who were Alan Bell and Martin Weinberg What was their main nding regarding heterosexuals and homosexuals o Studied homosexuality nding they were psychologically adjusted with relationships supporting the argument as a biological basis Who were William Masters and Virginia Johnson Why was their research remarkable According to your text why didn t they strive to use a random sample Through their research they discovered several interesting aspects of sexual response including women39s potential for orgasms fourstage model for sexual response and sexuality prevalence in What are the four stages of sexual response according to Masters and Johnson 0 First researchers to observe and measure sexual intercourse in a laboratory interested in the anatomy and physiology oVolunteers nancial reasons personal reasons medical students etc believing that behaviors were normative therefore they did not need a random sample 0 Four stages of sexual response excitement plateau orgasm and resolution Privatelyfunded largescale sexuality studies not funded by the government National Health and Social Life Survey this study was commissioned in response to what major health crisis Why did this study begin as a publicallyfunded study but then switch to a privatelyfunded study What affect did this switch have on the research Results from this study suggested that Americans were more sexually than previously thought 0 Commissioned in response to the AIDS outbreak to study adult sexual practices with questionnaires 0 Political pressure terminated public funding and found private funding using a smaller sample size I Found Americans to be more sexually conservative than thought National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior funded by the manufacturer of Trojan What was unique about their data collection methods They gathered data from people in what age range What was remarkable about the ndings from this study 0 Privately funding allowing more freedom in research 0 Data collected from surveys in privacy in own home to increase comfort 0 Discovered that masturbation was common throughout lifespan lYoung teens not as sexually active than believed GovernmentFunded LargeScale Studies oThese studies typically contain only a limited number of questions about sexuality Youth Risk Behavior Survey monitors healthrisk behaviors among young adults in grades 9to Q When did the survey begin How often is data collected 0 Data is collected every two years that began in 1991 in many private and public high schools 0 Contains data about all risky behaviors National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health ADD Health What does it mean to say that this study is longitudinal How often has data been collected How is data collected 0 Longitudinal study follows the participants into adulthood 0 Data collected every six years What is validity What is reliability oValidity property of device what it is intended to measure 0 Reliability consistency of the measure Data on sexuality can be collected in many different ways Be familiar with the primary bene t and limitation of using all of the following research methodologies for studying sexual behavior case studies interviews questionnairessurveys direct observation and participant observation oCase studies in depth examination of several participants does not allow to generalize public 0 Interviews establish rapport with interviewed and emphasize honesty time consuming and expensive 0 Questionnairessurveys honest answers might leave out questions they do not want to answer 0 Direct observation provides dif cult to nd information with good credibility hard to nd participants 0 Participant Observation dif cult to observe if behaviors occur in private setting What is the bene t of using an experimental method What is needed for a study design to be considered experimental What is an independent variable Dependent variable What are the limitations of using an experimental method oAllows to isolate cause and effect by controlling variables I Independent variable variable that is controlled in experiment I Dependent variable the measured result from experiment 0 Limitations include costly nancially and timely What is a correlational method When might it be used instead of an experiment What is the primary limitation of using a correlational method 0 Finding the correlation between two variables since not everything can be controlled in a study 0 Does not provide any information about cause What are the ethical issues when doing sex research What is informed consent Con dentiality Why are these important 0 Privacycon dentiality have to keep the participants information private olnformed consent interviewer has to tell participant about everything in the experiment 0 Must inform the people of their rights and what they will be participating What is volunteer bias Why is it a potential problem in sex research oVolunteer bias where volunteers will be typically interested in topic which can create nongeneralizing results in the data What is a convenience sample Why is it a potential problem in sex research 0 Convenience sample sample of people where information can be collected quickly and easily I Problem because it is not a wide diverse pool of people participating Why can reliability be a particularly important issue in sex research 0 People might give dishonest information or information that might not be true when coming from the past Chapter 3 What is the quotonionquot theory 0 Belief that people are made out of layers and communication will lead to the peeling of layers Poor communication contributes to relationship problems while good communication contributes to happy relationships What are our three goals when communicating Where do we rst learn to communicate 0 First learn communication from family to learn to build relationships and develop emotional and social understanding of society 0 quotget the job donequot communicate the message to the other person 0 quotrelational goalquot want to maintain a relationship and not hurt other person with message 0 quotidentity management goalquot want communication to project image of self What are genderlects Tagquestions Disclaimers Question statements Hedge words Who is more likely to use these sorts of phrasings What is the major critique of genderlect theory oGenderlects fundamental differences on how women and men communicate womenrapport talk menreport talk oWomen less assertiveness in communication lTag questions way of speaking by adding a questioning statement for con rmation rightquot I Disclaimer way of speaking by including a negative statement quotI may be wrong butquot lQuestion statements way of speaking by adding question quotAm I off base herequot I Hedge words way of speaking by using certain words sort ofquot o Critic of theory based on biological sex stating all womenmen communicate the same What are affectiver oriented communication skills and how are they different from instrumentally oriented communication skills oAffectively oriented communication comforting and involve signi cant amount of listening 0 lnstrumentally oriented communication more persuasive and narrative by giving advice What is the gender difference in the number of words spoken per day 0 Stereotype that women use 20000 words per day while men use 7000 words per day 0 Both speak 16000 words a day Researchers who agree that there are gender differences in communication often disagree about the reasons for them What are quotsociolinguistic subculturesquot oAmericans learn different communication rules and interpret conversations differently lChildren rst play with samesex groups and learn rules that extend throughout life lCan cause problems when trying to communicate with other sex Like heterosexual couples conversational styles in gay and lesbian relationships are found to re ect power differences more than biological sex of communicator Research has found that gay men s speech includes more qualifying adjectives whereas lesbian women use more hedge words and narrower pitch range than gay men What is the difference in verbal and nonverbal communication What is included in nonverbal communication What is emotional contagion What does it mean to say that nonverbal behavior is culturally bound oVerbal communication communication of words spoken o Nonverbal communication communication without words eye contact touching nodding etc lCulturally bound where some cultures eye contact is appropriate and others disrespectful o Emotional contagion ability for two individuals to emotionally converge What happens to our ability to discriminate facial expressions as we age oAs we age more able to read facial expressions Who is better at reading nonverbal communication women or men Why is this likely the case oWomen are better at reading nonverbal communication because they are raised to be able to feel empathy for people and to form relationships with other people Couples who communicate through computer mediated communication have higher rates of selfdisclosure and direct questions than those who meet facetoface How do most couples show their consent to engage in sexual intercourse oVerbal communication to agree that they want to do it o Nonverbal communication such as body language eye contact touching etc Why is sexual communication important 0 Communication is important to be able to express likes and dislikes and have greater satisfaction in the relationship What is meant by positive selfimages and feeling good about yourself Why are these things important to sexual communication 0 Feeling good about yourself will give you con dence to enjoy sex better 0 Body image problems due to media lowers self esteem creating a problems if not communicated with partner What is selfdisclosure Why is it important to sexual communication 0 Selfdisclosure deepens intimacy and feelings of love opening up information for your partner to hear about desires and problems o If not communicated sexual activity cannot be comfortable Why is trusting your partner important to sexual communication What in uences our trust in a relationship partner oTrusting partner is important to feel secure in relationship 0 Selfdisclosure is easier when able to trust partner 0 More optimistic about relationship and its future How is nonverbal communication important to sexual communication 0 Can increase sexual satisfaction by initiating touch to express sexual desires 0 Less disruptive than verbal communication According to your text what two factors may get in the way of clear sexual communication 0 Embarrassment lAshamed to talk about sexuality from society taboo need to get comfortable in the relationship 0 Sexual terminology lVocabulary has many slang words that can translate differently medical terms sound more awkward to use when communicating with partner What is active listening Why is it important to sexual communication What is nondefensive listening Why is it important What behaviors should we avoid if we re being good listeners What behaviors should we engage in if we re being good listeners oActive listening using nonverbal communication to signal that you are attentive to partner using nods touching eye contact oNondefensive listening focusing attention on speaker without getting defensive self restraint to listen carefully and reduce interruption ODO NOT DO THIS Interrupt should let the persn talking Call names rude names that hurtful and efensive really hurt the other persn vereneral ize rblem n the person rather than the behavior that was pre rfo rm ed your partner throw problems other than the behaviOr in situation Ex idn t get me a present la st ea Have hostile attribution partner tells 5ou good I defensive complaining did this last denying quot no I making acting righteusly indignant 0 think arequot 0 DO THESE e listener a Make eye contact pay attention to your partner 0 Use nonverbal to show you re listening nod lean forward good facial expression Summarizeparaphrase what your partner said repeat what they to clearly understand Validate your partner you do not have to agree 0 quotI can understand how you feel that wayquot Take turns talking both get to communicate feelings Choose words carefully Negative words weigh more than positive words bad words last longer than positive words What is a hostile attribution bias What does it have to do with sexual communication oHostile attribution bias tendency to interpret others as reacting hostile lShould not always assume other person is mad What does it mean to be defensive Why is it important to avoid defensiveness oAlways denying what they criticism making excuses de ecting responsibility 0 Should stop to better understand the problem that partner is trying to explain What are overgeneralizations What is kitchen sinking What is overkill Why are these poor communication strategies 0 Overgeneralizations making statements that tend to exaggerate a particular issue IquotYou always do thisquot and quotyou neverquot 0 Kitchensinking throwing past problems that have nothing to do with the current problem I quotYou didn t get me something last yearquot 0 Overkill mistake in which threaten the worst but not meaning what they say lquotlf you don t stop I will leave youquot oThey are poor communication strategies since they do not allow constructive communication to solve the problem and move one ls ghting inherently bad Couples that disagree are usually happier than those who say that they never ght oVerbal disagreement is common in relationships and likely during stress public issues or personal issues Research has shown that happier couples think more positive thoughts about each other during their disagreements whereas unhappy couples think negative thoughts about each other Forgiveness is another important aspect of healthy couples and couples who positively rate their relationships are more likely to forgive than those who are less invested in a relationship and withhold forgiveness What can heterosexual couples learn from homosexual couples in regard to communication aboutsex oThere should be communication from both individuals so both enjoy the experiences together since heterosexuals have assumption that there is one goal vaginal sex Chapter 4 Be familiar with the basic chromosomal structures and how the 23rd chromosome pair is formed 0 23rOI chromosome is the sex chromosome that determines if fetus is a fenale or male based on the sperm father gave Sexual Differentiation in the Womb when do gonads rst develop internally and externally When does sexual differentiation of the brain take place What is the difference in the Mullerian and Wolffian ducts What causes one or the other to develop 0 46 weeks internal organs develop rst 0 56 weeks external organs develop 0 Sexual differentiation in the brain occurs after 5th month of pregnancy 0 Mullerian ducts one of the structures that will eventually develop into fallopian tubes uterus and part of the vagina oWolf an ducts one of the structures that will eventually develop into the male reproductive system when introduced to the hormone testosterone What are the main functions of estrogen progesterone and androgens o Estrogen in uence in development of female characteristics and menstrual cycle breast development produced in the ovaries and in the adrenal glands o Progesterone secreted by the ovaries that prepares lining of the uterus stimulation of breast milk for preparation of pregnancy oAndrogens hormones that control male sexual development including testosterone stimulates beard growth deepening voice body hair etc Why are androgens important to brain differentiation 0 Important for males in that without it males will develop female characteristics Be familiar with the most common types of hormonal CAH AIS and chromosomal conditions Klinefelter syndrome Turner syndrome in Chapter 4 how they occur who is affected symptoms treatments outcomes 0 Hormonal conditions lCongenital Adrenal HyperplasiaCAH XX child lacks enzyme in adrenal gland forcing body to produce higher levels of androgens Little affects on boys enlarged clitoris external masculine genitals deep voice early body hair lAndrogen lnsensitivity SyndromeAlS XY child that appears female with no reproductive structures Noticed when fail to see menstrual cycle Therapy gender reassignment oChromosomal conditions I Klinefelter39s Syndrome XXY child with egg containing extra X Develops not fully developed male genitals with low testosterone and low sexual desires infertility Testosterone Therapy use testosterones to replace the missing hormones and enhance characteristics lTurner39s Syndrome XO child Does not develop complete female ovaries infertility and absence of menstrual cycleamenorrhea Early diagnosis allows hormonal treatment What is the difference in Gender Roles and Gender Traits What is gender identity 0 Nature I Gender traits Biologically determined differences between males and females 0 Nurture lGender roles Culturally de ned behaviors attitudes emotions traits manners and appearances seen by culture as appropriate for males and females 0 Gender identity your feelings of what you identify with and how you express yourself Why are people uncomfortable around others whose sex doesn t match their gender role 0 People are not comfortable because they are used to the traditional view of matching gender role with biological sex Be familiar with how children develop their understanding of gender and gender roles from these theoretical perspectives evolutionary social learning cognitive development gender schema oEvolutionary I Roles mechanism for survival I Function as a division to help with reproduction oSocial Learning I Learn gender roles from society our environment Deals with learning from peers and observe and mimic models to follow reinforcement and avoid punishment oCognitive development I Universal stages for understanding and utilizing gender As we develop in stages and mature learn advanced concepts ofgender oGender Schema I Cognitive structures organize quotgenderquot in uenced by culture powerful in culture I Boxes of information children see something and try to categorize it to see if ts scheme What is androgyny Why is the idea of androgyny at least the way Sandra Bem conceptualized it for her Sex Role Inventory problematic oAndrogyny have both high characteristics of masculinity and femininity I Bem believes that there are different combinations of traits lAllows exibility in behavior What does it mean to say that gender is on a spectrum 0 Means that gender is not binary one or the other What is gender uidity 0 Range of gender expression which can change daytoday allowing less restrictive and stereotypical gender expectations What does transgender mean How is it different from transsexual What steps are involved for those seeking gender reassignment surgery oTransgender people who identify or express gender in a variety of different ways typically in opposition to biological sex oTranssexual person whose sex at birth is opposite to their gender identity 0 Gender reassignment steps counseling living as the opposite sex hormones and dif cult surgery Who is treated more harshly for adopting cross gender characteristics boys or girls Boys What does it mean to say that children learn much of their knowledge about gender from homosocial play According to your text how does knowledge about gender develop across the lifespan Know 1sentence summary of each of the ages discussed in your text oChildhood Learning by playing I Life largely de ned by gendername decorations parent treatment I Parents serve as gender role models oAdolescence Practice Being Female or Male lTeens try to adapt to roles Boygtsports interest in sex and women Girlsgtinterest in men concern with appearance sexual restraintguilt I Dif cult for lesbians homosexuals due to victimization oAduIthood Careers and Families lTend to derive gender identity from career and family lives lGender roles have changed over the years Women work and men babysit 0 Senior Years double standards for aging I Men distinguished and valued for achievements lWomen old once lose ability to reproduce Concern with physical appearance Advertisements to reverse aging How does Epstein believe that we can begin to change our thinking about gender and gender roles Rogers Should we try to change the content of gender roles or get rid of them all together
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