HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide
HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide HDFS 1070
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 222 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 1 HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide Questions What is family system stress? o It is the pressure placed on the system that alters how it executes it’s tasks. It is some event that occurs inside or outside the family that requires the family to alter its strategies, rules, and customs. What are the 2 types of family system stress? o Horizontal stressors: Events that happen over time—these include normative and nonnormative events. Over the course of a family system’s history, the family system experiences normative and nonnormative events. Pileup: at any moment in time you have a certain amount of horizontal stressors that are piled up on top of you at the same time. Ex. Birth of a child and catastrophic event at the same point in time o Vertical stressors: Stressors that result in families at any point in time from the historical legacy of that family which comes from the way the family member has gotten along over time. It is the “emotional baggage” that exists in families. What are coping resources? o Tools that enable individuals and families to deal with different events: knowledge, social support, quality of job environment, etc. What is coping efficacy? o It is the adaptability of the system (the measures and countermeasures that the family takes to adjust to the demands of both horizontal and vertical stressors) o Adaptations can be good or bad How do external boundaries change with pregnancy? o Adjust connections to family members, rework ties with friends, seek out information an support from friends and family How are men different from women when expecting a child (reworking ties with friends)? o When he and his partner are pregnant, it is expected that he starts preparing himself to become a dad don’t go out anymore because preparing to not go out all the time when the baby is born. This is hard for men because there are sets of pressures from society that believe “real” men don’t care about their wives and children: ex. “whipped.” This is a negative identity, so men still go out even though they should be home. There is a tendency for women to seek out support in a network, while for men it’s different. How do internal boundaries change with pregnancy? o When couples have children, there is a pressure to be together more and to do everything together, which can create tension. How do maintenance tasks change with pregnancy? HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 2 o Traditionalizing effect: babies create this effect on couples. Tends to result in more traditional housework and housekeeping patterns that were not there before the child was born mothers do more “mom” tasks fathers are out of the house more can cause long term conflicts about housework How can the emotional climate change the relationship between the mother and father? What is the relationship between expectations and complaints? o When women have babies they expect their partner to be more supportive and help out more around the house. If their partner doesn’t, their expectations are violated which can lead to complaints and dissatisfaction. What is a role? o A role is a transition that requires you to make a commitment. It is a transition into a role that requires you to make a commitment to how you are going to parent your children. What are the 2 dimensions of parenting roles/parenting strategies? o 1 nurturance or responsiveness o 2 control or demandingness What factors influence you as a parent? o Cultural context, cohort and historical era, developmental history of the parent, characteristics of the child, contextual sources of stress, and contextual sources of support Which parent is typically more involved? o Mothers, because they become primarily responsible for the physical and emotional needs of the baby. Fathers are normatively less involved. This is changing though—parenting is mothering AND fathering now, rather than just mothering. Fathers do more today than ever before. What is one interaction that most fathers do more with babies than mothers? o Play. It provides stimulation, excites the child’s mind, and helps children learn about social interactions and social exchanges. What is the mediation rule of father involvement? What are the 2 factors that influence it? o 1 mediated through the relationship with the mom If the father has a good relationship with the mom, he is more involved with the children o 2 maternal gatekeeping Mothers regulate how fathers are involved with kids. They see themselves as the experts and so do the fathers (see the mothers as experts). Mothers provide guidance and control on how the fathers are involved with the kids. Why do mothers gatekeep? HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 3 o Because they feel obligated to tell the father how to do things with the children. This therefore minimizes the father’s involvement (expect with play). What happens when babies become motile and verbally competent? o Parents and significant others start to demand that they be able to socially control themselves (emotional regulation and behavior regulation. What types of developmental tasks can parents provide for their baby? o Elaboration of locomotion, fantasy and play, language development, social control What is elaboration of locomotion? o Being able to increase sensory and motor skill in a given environment all cognitive development is influenced by sensory motor stimulation experiences What is semiotic thinking? o The cognitive ability that uses mental symbols (words and objects) to stand for something else. o Can be used as a threshold to generate all types of cognitive stimulation o This is an important foundations for fantasy, play, and assertion of mastery of their environment What are examples of things that don’t stimulate semiotic thinking? o TV and tablet screens Why is fantasy and play so important? o It is the time when children gain the ability to think about their world by using fantasy and symbolism How is fantasy different from play? o Fantasy is based on the ability to think symbolically How do parents influence a child’s view of gender role? o Gender training begins at the moment of birth. Part of that influence is encouraged through how they engage in play with the child and the toys that are provided. Ex. Sociable vs. active play What is the difference between sociable play and active play? o Sociable play is for daughters o Active play is for sons What social progressions occur in play? o Children move from parallel play to social play o All babies start out with parallel play: not social, not interactional—just play along side one another o Around 23 years of age, social play kicks in: play with others and start to exchange ideas Why are boys at such a greater restriction with play than girls? o Because parents are anxious when their sons play in gender inappropriate ways HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 4 o Ex. Dress up: if a girl dresses up in her father’s clothes, it’s okay. If a boy dresses up in his mother’s clothes, there is usually disapproval. What does LAD stand for? What does it mean? o Language Acquisition Device: we are born with the ability to abstract the meaning of words out of our environment and the rules for the use of language What is the process of acquisition? o One word utterances (1 year) Use key words to communicate Learn length o Two word sentences (1820 months) Telegraphic speech organized around a small number of consistently used words o Age 3: rapid expansion of competence and performance Use of the structural rules of language Overgeneralization of rules: Ex/ “Is this ice cream for we?” What precedes linguistic performance? o Linguistic competence What is scaffolding? o Building conversations with children What is prompting? o Saying “talk to me more” or “what do you want to do?” What is the relationship between poverty and language? o Children in poverty are exposed to billions of less words in their first year of life than children who are not. This is because their parents don’t know what is important/don’t have the patience and time to read, scaffold, and prompt them. What is the psychosocial crisis of infancy? o Learning to trust What is a crisis defined as by Erikson? o For each stage of life, there is a dominant tension between the individual and societal expectations and demands. Each stage has a stage specific crisis that comes from stage specific anxiety that originates from those expectations and demands. What is the psychosocial crisis of toddlers? o Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt Preconditioned in children to act autonomously (control themselves in socially appropriate ways) How is shame different from doubt? o Shame is feeling like a failure in the eyes of others—thinking that others are judging you negatively as acting inappropriately and failing to live up to their expectations. What role does shame play in the toddler stage? HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 5 o Kids are asserting themselves and trying to master new things. They make a lot of mistakes—parents have the responsibility to guide them and provide them with the tools to succeed. If parents don’t do that and judge a toddler harshly, that toddler will expect others to do the same and will therefore feel ashamed. What is the central process of toddlers? o Imitation: children are natural mimics. They learn best through being shown how to master a task. What prime adaptive quality do toddlers develop when they are successful? o Will: creates inner determination and persistence What core pathology do toddlers develop when they are not successful? o Compulsion: overcome with anxiety when challenged to act autonomously or take on new tasks. See themselves as failures in the eyes of others and therefore are overcome with negative themes which prevent them from overcoming a challenge. What are the 2 primary tasks of parents? o 1 develop an individuation enhancing style of parenting promote autonomy and providing tools for success to the child o 2 develop strategies for discipline being present (but not intrusive) and supportive of the child What happens when parents are unable to provide infants with the tools and guidance they need to succeed? o The child becomes prone to having anxiety about whether they matter and can trust others. This outcome is very different from living in the world believing that others can be trusted and not being overcome with anxiety. Children who are excessively anxious about their competency don’t like to be challenged and always take the easy route. This is why the parentchild relationship is so vital during the early years of development. What are the 2 types of individuation inhibiting styles of parenting? o Extremely expelling parenting style Promotes anxiety about “mattering” Parents say to the kid that they are on their own (not present, not intrusive, not involved) No promotion of competence No instruction, support, or knowledge is provided to the child o Extremely binding parenting style Promotes anxiety about competence Parents are over involved, over intrusive, and overly investing in taking care of the child The child never gets the space to develop a sense of mastery because they are always taken care of, which sends the message that they are not trusted to do anything on their own How is discipline defined? HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 6 o It is the correction for the inability or disregulation of emotion o Discipline corrects behavior, teaches children how to behave in socially appropriate ways, and how to regulate emotion What are the 2 dimensions of parenting styles? o Responsiveness o Demandingness What are the 4 parenting/discipline styles and what are their characteristics? o Authoritarian High in demandingness, low in responsiveness Have a focus on obedience and a low focus on the feelings of the child Many parents who use this style emphasize their control by threatening the child with physical assertions as a mechanism for control Parents who use this style also use love withdrawal: if you don’t comply, I will not show you any love These parents often times use guilt to get their children to become obedient o Indulgent High in responsiveness, low in demandingness Don’t require kids to regulate their behavior and emotion and let them get away with a lot of things Consequence: don’t provide modeling for behavior regulation, emotion regulation, and socialization of the proper way to act o Uninvolved Low in responsiveness, low in demandingness These parents are negligent: not monitoring kids and no investment in loving their kids Consequence: these children are left without emotional support, without support for physical welfare and welling, and not expected to regulate themselves in the proper way. They are the most anxious children. Parents who are uninvolved are typically under a tremendous amount of stress that compromises their parenting ability o Authoritative High in responsiveness, high in demandingness Use inductive approaches to discipline: Promote emotional intelligence, explain right a wrong, separate the behavior from the child, judicious use of punishments These parents are very loving and caring and promote discipline What is the judicious use of punishments? HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 7 o It is giving a child an opportunity to maintain privileges, explaining to the child that if they continue to misbehave there will be consequences. Then depriving the child of something that is a privilege to them as a result of not complying. Authoritative parents use which style or approach to discipline? o Inductive approaches What is the most adaptive mode of parenting? o A parent that is present but not intrusive and is very loving and caring but also promotes discipline. What is the predominant parenting style of our cohort era? o Indulgent style How many children are killed per day by abusive parental figures? o About 5 What is guesstimated to be the number of children abused or neglected each year? o More than 3 million What are the 3 different types of abuse? o Physical: using disciplinary techniques and strategies that result in physical harm to the child o Emotional: interact with the children in a way that results in their self esteem and image being compromised o Neglect: failure to provide for the children Could be physical neglect: fail to supervise the child’s safety Could be intellectual neglect: not sending the child to school o Sexual: a form of physical abuse that has nothing to do with parenting style. It is sexualizing the child and the relationship they have with that child. The parent has a mental illness that results in them transferring erotic and impulsive thoughts to children. What makes sexual abuse different from other forms of abuse? o It is purely the parent’s mental illness that gives rise to it What are the causative factors that contribute to child abuse? o Societal factors: depends on the societal comfort with aggression and violence and the use of force against children Individualistic cultures: parents and families are given full responsibility and society doesn’t intervene Collectivist cultures: have laws that are common to be put into play that say children cannot be hit o Child factors Children with difficult temperaments raise the stress of the parent’s environment—can lose their control and harm the child If a child aggresses towards you, your first impulse is to aggress back. Some parents cant control that impulse. Most parents who abuse their children have lost their impulse control HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 8 o Parental factors 10% of child abuse cases have to do with the parent being mentally ill the other 90% are parents who are capable mentally to raise their children in a safe environment a parent with a history of abuse is 3x more likely to be an abusive parent themselves only 2030% of them go on to be abusive parents o Family system factors Scapegoating: detouring/attacking triangles Pattern of family interactions that results in a child being scapegoated and held responsible for the family problems What is a detouring attacking triangle? o When parents detour the conflict and tension to one another by blaming those problems on their child. o Can only be one child out of a number that are being abused/scapegoated What is so special about the early school year age? o Children are able to think about things in more complex ways and are able to evaluate themselves in comparison to others What is gender identification? o Developing a view of ourselves as a gendered individual o Around the age of early school years, children begin to develop gender identity (whether or not they identify as male or female What are the gendered expectations for males and females? o Males Masculinity Boys are expected to exhibit all these characteristics: active, independent, competitive, persistent o Females Femininity Girls are expected to exhibit all these characteristics: open to emotions, helpful, sensitive, warm How does society treat boys differently from girls? o Girls are less likely to be discouraged from having characteristics of males o There is an emphasis in our society on having boys more so than girls conform to gender expectations What does it mean to possess androgyny? o It is developed later on in life and is when a person is high in both masculinity and femininity o This is not the norm What is gender identity learned through? o Social learning being reinforced by social approval or disapproval What is vicarious reinforcement? o The anticipation of getting approval or disapproval from others How do males deal with anxiety? HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 9 o Anxiety comes first and then it is transferred into anger (the more acceptable form of emotion from males) Why do males tend to have much higher anxiety than females? o Males grow up in a narrower set of gender expected roles o Results in emotional flooding: overwhelmed with emotion so cant think or feel (in a panic state and withdraw to escape) What is the primary emotion that men express? o Anger What is the primary emotion that females express? o Anxiety (about their body) What is selfesteem? o The emotional judgments that we place upon ourselves and the attitudes we have about ourselves How do individuals with high selfesteem differ from individuals with low self esteem? o Individuals with high selfesteem trust that they are competent, that relationships are possible, and that people are kind Trust that they can be successful, love oneself, respect oneself Relationships can be a source of joy o Individuals with low selfesteem have negative internal dialogues See selves as ineffective, defective, incompetent, unlovable, unattractive, etc. Have negative expectations of others and about life in general What is confirmation? o Communication through behavior that you respect, value and care for that person What is rejection? o Behavioral messaging that we send to people we interact with which says that they are not valuable, not respected, and don’t matter What is disconfirmation? o It is a destructive form of rejection o Sends the message that a person doesn’t exit on a behavioral level o Ignoring/giving a person the silent treatment What is our responsibility as caregiver/teachers/etc? o To provide children with the tools they need to succeed so that they see themselves as competent sends the message that they are important and loved What is the difference between high selfefficacy and low selfefficacy? o High selfefficacy Trust your capacity to perform and produce the desired results Believe that they are masterful and high in competence Important subset of selfesteem o Low selfefficacy HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 10 A lot of anxiety and doubt about their competency doubt their competency to take on new tasks and challenges can result in lifespan consequences What are the shapers of selfefficacy? o Mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, social persuasion, favorable social comparisons What are the outcomes of early childhood according to Erikson? o Initiative vs. guilt What is the dominant tension in the early childhood stage? o Selfregulation: children are pressured excessively at this age to regulate their behavior and emotions What does it mean when a child has initiative? o That they are willing to embrace the rules of emotion and behavior, willing to conform to social expectations and demands on how they should deal with social interactions. What does it mean when someone experiences guilt? o It means that they feel like they have failed to live up to their internal standards of behavior What are the outcome coping mechanisms of the early childhood stage? o Prime adaptive ego quality: Purpose Live life with a sense of purpose o Core pathology: Inhibition The byproduct about being anxious about competency, the ability to regulate emotion, and regulate behavior. That shame, doubt, and guilt—the person has excessive anxiety. When you challenge the child, they respond by being inhibited: don’t trust their competence. Their anxiety gets in the way of them expressing their competence or trying to master things. What are the outcomes of middle childhood according to Erikson? o Industry vs. inferiority o Industry: having a positive attitude towards work and enjoy the challenges of it o Inferiority: feeling like you are not competent in relationship to your peers What is the central process of middle childhood? o Education What are the outcome coping mechanisms of the middle childhood stage? o Prime adaptive ego quality: competence o Core pathology: inertia What is the difference between inertia and procrastination? o Inertia is when someone gets flooded with anxiety and stops. They will not do their work HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 11 o Procrastination is a mild form of inertia: temporarily paralyzed by the anxiety of their competence What is the looking glass self? o When a child becomes heavily influenced by how other see him or her What is moral development? o It is the process of developing moral ethical standards and underlies people’s understanding of right and wrong What are the levels of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development? o Level 1: Pre Conventional (38 year olds) Little kids think that right or wrong is based on whether the behavior is rewarded or punished this is how all kids operate Only think they are wrong if they get caught Ex. If a child takes a cookie when told not to but is not caught, they think its okay. The only time when it is not okay is when they are caught. o Level 2: Conventional Based on the views that right and wrong are based on what is conventionally accepted as proper behavior in society Laws and rules are used as a guide for behavior Abide by these because want to avoid the risk of disapproval from significant others o Level 3: Post Conventional Based on a persona belief system that is grounded in the importance of being ethical and preserving the welfare of people We act in certain ways because its ethically right and don’t act in certain ways because its ethically wrong Ex. Laws used to say it was right to enslave people—people with moral ethics went against those laws in favor of human rights What factors shape moral development? o Parental approval and modeling, television/media, peers and moral dilemmas Why are some people prejudiced? o Because they lack meaningful contact with that specific group of people they are prejudiced against. What is a sexual script? o The internalized expectations and knowledge about sexual orientation o Working model of what excites and motivates sex What are the 5 “W” questions? o Who you have sex with? Sexual orientation o Why you have sex? Scripts o What you do in sexual situations? HDFS 1070 Exam 2 Study Guide, Page 12 o When do you have sex? What age and time in your life Much earlier today than ever before o Where do you have sex? A shift to “any time, anywhere” What are the 4 culturally endorsed motives for sex? o Traditionalreligious script: have sex with someone because you are married and want children o Romantic script: have sex with someone because you love them (dominant view in our society today) o Recreational script: have sex because it is fun Ex. Hooking up o Utilitarian script: use sex to gain power or advantage over others What sexual script is endorsed for boys? o Recreational What sexual script is endorsed for girls? o Romantic
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