Exam #2 Study Guide
Exam #2 Study Guide HIST 1020-002
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Allison on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher J. Ferguson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Exam #2 Study Guide 1. How to apply Robert Strayer’s “3cs” of world history to the historical developments of the nineteenth century: First, the “3 Cs” are change, comparison, and connection. Where do historians identify change in this period? Change is identified in the industrialization process, at the end of the Chinese Dominance. This began the Era of European Dominance. Where do they identify useful points of comparison and connection in this era? Larger connection from transportation and communication innovations. Growth in comparison between cultures and religion and classes. People began to think more about how their own country differed. 2. What was the relationship between industrialization and consumerism in the nineteenth century? The products being created were made to fit the consumer. Mass production made it easier to make more goods to appeal to more consumers. 3. How did the Industrial Revolution help to create an era of European dominance? Because coal was a catalyst for the industrial revolution and Europe had a lot of coal; it’s set right over a major coal deposit. Also wages were higher at the time, and energy was cheap. These prices led directly to the Industrial revolution by giving firms strong incentives to invent technologies that substituted capital and coal for labor. 4. How did industrialization and urbanization transform the experience of everyday life in the nineteenth century? More people moved and urbanized from rural parts of the area to urban parts. Industrial Revolution produced need for staple goods and urbanization required raw materials. Industrialization and urbanization influenced the religious resurgence 5. How did the railway and the city exemplify the broader sets of conditions people came to associate with the “culture of modernity”? Progression, westward expansion, consumerism, colonization 6. What was the role of cotton in nineteenthcentury world history? Cotton goods shift from a luxury to a massproduced good. What was the PlantationFactory nexus? Industrialized manufacturing and plantation slavery. Uses a 12step process that shows labor distribution. Why was cotton so appealing to consumers? Comfort, variety, easily cleaned, absorptive, style. How did it change slavery in America and labor in Britain? American slaves started producing more and more cotton and laborers in Britain retaliated with the "Luddite Movement" (“machine breakers” in factories). Also, keeping American slaves alive and healthy became an important factor unlike before. How did cotton change health, consumer culture, and the structure of the global economy? It changed health because when people wear clothing that is easier to clean and doesn’t attract pests, they are less susceptible to disease and sickness (this is known as the “Cotton Underwear Thesis”). It changed consumer culture because more people buy more cotton goods than ever before and it isn’t seen as a luxury item only for the rich, but as an everyday good that middle and lower class people can buy too. It changed the structure of the global economy because cotton production shifted from Asia to Europe and the Americas. 7. What do quilts and “quilt culture” tell us about nineteenthcentury history? Quilting was seen as a universal female skill where they created “beautiful and useful creations” through domestic recycling to have archives of family history. It also created a place for women to come together with other women in a community sense which allowed them to be more social and mobile outside of the home unlike before (this is known as the “Quilting Bee”). 8. How did the American Civil War (18611865) affect the global economy? The American Civil War lead to the complete shutdown of cotton production, “The Cotton Famine,” which in turn reversed the global economic structure forcing Europeans to seek new sources of cotton such as Asia like before. 9. How and why did European empires grow during the nineteenth century? Colonization and more importantly industrialization, which restructured the global economy, allowed Europe to dominate trade, and provided new technologies used in empirebuilding. 10. How did Europeans justify imperial expansion in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Australia and New Zealand? They had 3 justifications: 1) Civilizing Mission – “The White Man’s Burden” having to make everyone else “better and civilized,” enlightenment belief in the “perfectibility” of humanity, Christian missionaries trying to convert everyone else. 2) Social Darwinism ability = racial superiority, hierarchy of races, those who are more successful represent a superior race, “survival of the fittest” attitude.” 3) Nationalism – being part of a specific/unique community, concept of national uniqueness and superiority, national competition. 11. How did different technological inventions help Europeans to conquer parts of Asia and Africa during the nineteenth century? (Be sure to know examples of these technologies and how they specifically aided European colonization.) Technological inventions helped Europe by facilitating military conquest, facilitating colonial rule, and providing a source of awe and respect to attract collaborators. Examples: Marine chronometer, steamships, improved iron and steel, quinine (pharmaceutical drug protects against malaria), light weight clothing, telegraph, machine guns, rifled breechloading firearms. 12. How did possessing superior technology shape Europeans perceptions of themselves and their relationship to nonEuropean peoples? They thought of themselves as highly superior to nonEuropeans. It created “The Rule of Difference” mindset, where Europe kept the indigenous colonized people and the European colonizers separate in order to stay strong on top. No creolization. “Divide and conquer, divide and rule.” 13. What role did Native Collaborators and Local Conflicts in Asia and Africa play in the growth of nineteenthcentury European Empires? They helped the Europeans gain control in Asia and Africa by having the native collaborators (local social elites) inform them of local conflicts and exploiting the local conflicts for their own benefit. By keeping this process going, it made Europe seem omniscient and more powerful than they actually were. 14. What was the relationship between nationalism and European empire building during the nineteenth century? If you were a nationalist, you had to be in favor of empire building, because that was a way to boost the economy. 15. What is the difference between Economic/Business/Informal Imperialism, Political/Formal Imperialism, SemiColonialism, and Settler Colonialism (Settlerism)? Economic/Business/Informal Imperialism: world dominated by European products, investments, people worry about losing trade/business with Europe which creates dependent economies and allows Europe to have control, political dominance without the use of military force (Europe over China). Political/Formal Imperialism: combination of economic, political, and missionary motives, military conquest and establishment of political control (Europe over Africa). Settler Colonialism: imperial domination spreading Western Civilization to people in those territories, and to integrate them into the imperial state and economy. SemiColonialism: states/countries that were colonized/settled by Europeans but were still able to preserve their independence. 16. The extent of European Empires during the nineteenth century: What parts of the world were colonized and ruled by Europeans by 1900? Africa, parts of Asia including India, China, Japan, "east indies" and the Americas. What parts of the world were subject only to European Business Imperialism by 1900? China, Pacific Islands, some parts of Africa. What parts of the world remained free from European colonization or Economic Imperialism in 1900? Remote parts of the World to Europe, places without many resources, and inland places. 17. What made nineteenthcentury empires different from the empires of the earlymodern era? 19 century empires settled rather than taking over existing cultures and reforming them to be like Europeans. 18. What types of short and longterm effects did European empires have on the rest of the world? Short term effects: being ruled directly by Europeans which created economies of dependency. Long term effects: cultural, political, social influences, and a weakened economy. 19. How did Asians and Africans respond to European imperialism? Local social elites submitted to keep their positions of power (collaborators) or they fought back (resisters/protesters). 20. What happened to the Mughal Empire in the nineteenth century? The Mughal Empire was destroyed due to internal rebellions, internal and external threats, and semi colonialism. 21. Why did the Chinese and Ottoman Empires experience a period of political and economic crisis and decline during the nineteenth century? Both were unable to handle internal and external threats. Chinese Empire: population growth and resistance to economic development (disease, not enough food, not buying luxury goods), resistance to state reform, extraterritorialitythey have no control/power over the British foreigners, internal threatsTaiping and Boxer rebellions, external threatsOpium wars. Ottoman Empire: nationalism vs. religion, rival reformers (Tanzimat, Young Ottomans, Young Turks)all had limited effects, made things worse, and led to a major decline (only MiddleEastern instead of Mediterranean), joined the losing side of World War 1 which led to the disintegration of the empire. 22. How did Japan avoid European colonization or economic dependence, and instead build their own empire in Asia? Japan was very isolated with a weak emperor and powerful nobility ignoring the rest of the world before the 1850s, when Commodore Perry was sent by the U.S. to explore/establish trade routes and connections with the Pacific region where he then “opened” Japan to the rest of the world. Japan was able to keep its economic dependence and build its own empire once it acknowledged the rest of the world through reconsideration of Western culture, politics, and industry, realization of the other countries’ success, and reexamination of its own culture, politics and industry (they were wrong to isolate themselves). This led to the Meiji Restoration in the 1860s: voyages of study in Europe and U.S., building a modern industrial nationstate, imperialism, proves Japan is most prominent power in Asia. 23. How did patterns of migration change in the nineteenth century, and what caused these changes? How was the history of the world transformed by migration in the nineteenth century? People began to move into cities and out of the rural areas to find work in the factory. 24. Settler Colonies: Who built settler colonies? (Who moved overseas?) European settlers: permanent settlers (British, Irish, Germans, Russians). *Extra: Sojourners: temporary migrants (Indians, Chinese, Spanish, Italian). Where did settlement occur? U.S. and Canadian westward expansion, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Siberia. Why did they grow? Industrial Revolution, changing perceptions of immigration (positive and permanent), decentralized autonomous political traditions, the rise of “Mass Transfer”: U.S. West, Canada, Siberiathe railway and Australia and New Zealandthe steamship. How did they grow? (Review the 3phases, 3waves models of settlement) 3 phases: 1) Boom, 2) Bust, 3) Export Rescue – James Belich: “Progress Industries and Human Tsunamis”, “Fiscal Corpses” meaning that colonies are built off of the bankruptcies of failed companies. 1 Wave: young men (“Crew Cultures”), 2 Wave: families. How did they effect the physical environment and indigenous peoples? How was their creation justified? The physical environment was slowly being overtaken and destroyed by industrialization and urbanization. The indigenous peoples were being treated as lesser than the settlers. They justified this with progress and evolutionary competition. 25. What were the myths of the “empty land” and “dark vanishings” and how did they relate to the growth of settler colonies? Myth: When settling on land that has already been settled, indigenous peoples were seen as barbaric and bound to go extinct through evolutionary competition with new settlers. Reality: Settling on land that has already been settled creates war and forced assimilation. 26. How did the nineteenth century create a world where relationships between “strangers” were more important than in previous periods of human history? If you had relationships with strangers you could learn from people all over the world. 27. How did the Industrial Revolution change the practice and organization of religions and political parties in the nineteenth century? Information spreads at a faster rate. The way people are grouped in factories encourages idea sharing, and allows the spread of ideas to be quicker especially in Europe. 28. How did the beliefs, doctrines, and ritual practices of the major world religions change during the nineteenth century? What factors encouraged these changes? The major religions adapted practices and beliefs to conform to the societal changes brought on by the industrial revolution. 29. How did Charles Finney’s 1830 revival in Rochester, New York, exemplify the history of religion in the nineteenth century? His revival emphasized individuals’ personal relationship with God as foundation for a moral society (personal choices, community consequences) and the ritual of prayer. This created a community founded on the principles of “Christian selfcontrol” which inspired further revival and missionary work. 30. Why do historians refer to socialism and nationalism as “secular” religions? Why did these political movements come to compete with religious movements by the end of the nineteenth century? Secular refers to nonsacred, so socialism and nationalism are non sacred massmovement beliefs. Many people follow these philosophies/ideologies as the Church and state start to separate. Socialism and nationalism competed with religious movements because of the rise of sciences and social sciences, the separation of church and state, and political ideologies provide unity and community in a “world of strangers.” 31. What was nationalism? How did nationalist political parties and national governments foster nationalist sentiments among populations? Nationalism is pessimistic ethnocentrism the thinking that one’s group or country is not as good as yours, and they are bad. The government imposed this idea through mandatory primary school education, civil requirements (forced participation in culture), mandatory military service, and cultural projects. 32. How did nationalism transform the map of Europe before 1900? Since secularization led to an extension of the franchise (more people have the right to vote), this allowed more movement and mobilization of people. Also, there were imagined communities (don’t correspond to realities on the ground). 33. What conditions made mass politics possible in the late nineteenth century? Technological changes, newspaper, proliferation of print media, and the fact that people were living in mass environments/populations. 34. What conditions helped to create the ideas of socialism? Industrialization creates a lot of immiserationpeople are working in very different ways. This leads to rising inequality in living standards, which leads to rising class conflict, which leads to rising class consciousness, resulting in the expansion of socialism. 35. What were the different strands of socialism? Reform/Fabian Socialism (“bread and butter socialism”): working for the “now” with the government while also working towards the big picture reform. Marxist Socialism: opposite of Fabian, think that if the workers’ living conditions improve too much then they won’t be good revolutionaries. Bolshevism: elitist, impatient Marxists, think they don’t need to wait for all of the workers to be ready and educated. Anarchism: think that the only way you’ll get a utopia is by some sort of violent shock, they bomb places (terrorists). 36. NineteenthCentury Cities: How and why did they grow? They grew in 2 stages: 1) inmigration from countryside (young men and women); high mortality. 2) Internal reproduction with continual in migration; public health. They grew because of increased agricultural production, industrialization, concentration and centralization of commercial, financial, and political. What types of social functions did they serve? They were the centers of: trade and commerce, government, manufacturing, culture, the arts, and ideas. What types of problems did they present and how did governments respond to them (or did they)? Problems: overcrowding and insufficient infrastructures, disease, degeneration? Maybe cities contribute to reverse evolution, crime, mass anonymity, class conflict, and the crisis of community. Governments’ response: they continued to become more intrusive in order to control all of the growing cities and make them more efficient, and implemented the London Police officer (c.1880). What differentiated cities in Europe, Japan, and the U.S. from cities in European Empires? Cities in Europe, Japan, and the U.S. were primary beneficiaries of the Second Revolution, whereas cities in European Empires were primary beneficiaries of the First Industrial Revolution. What was the relationship between urban life and the broader “culture of modernity”? Urban life and the Modern Culture are both mainly centered around and influenced by the Industrial revolution. Industrial Society culture of: empowered consumers, choice and change, spectacle (gain consumers’ attention at extreme length), and speed. 37. Why had Western governments become more involved in various aspects of their individual citizens’ lives by 1900? Western governments became more involved because of overcrowding and insufficient infrastructures, disease, crime, mass anonymity, class conflict, and the crisis of community in the urban areas/cities.
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