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Exam #2 Study Guide

by: Samantha Allison

Exam #2 Study Guide HIST 1020-002

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020-002 > Exam 2 Study Guide
Samantha Allison
GPA 3.54

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Study guide for EXAM #2 with full answers.
World History II
Dr. Christopher J. Ferguson
Study Guide
world history 2
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Allison on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Christopher J. Ferguson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Exam #2 Study Guide 1. How to apply Robert Strayer’s “3cs” of world history to the historical developments of  the nineteenth century: First, the “3 Cs” are change, comparison, and connection.  Where do historians identify change in this period? Change is identified in the  industrialization process, at the end of the Chinese Dominance. This began the  Era of European Dominance.  Where do they identify useful points of comparison and connection in this era?  Larger connection from transportation and communication innovations. Growth in comparison between cultures and religion and classes. People began to think more about how their own country differed. 2. What was the relationship between industrialization and consumerism in the nineteenth  century? The products being created were made to fit the consumer. Mass production  made it easier to make more goods to appeal to more consumers.  3. How did the Industrial Revolution help to create an era of European dominance? Because coal was a catalyst for the industrial revolution and Europe had a lot of coal; it’s set right  over a major coal deposit. Also wages were higher at the time, and energy was cheap.  These prices led directly to the Industrial revolution by giving firms strong incentives to  invent technologies that substituted capital and coal for labor. 4. How did industrialization and urbanization transform the experience of everyday life in  the nineteenth century? More people moved and urbanized from rural parts of the area to  urban parts. Industrial Revolution produced need for staple goods and urbanization  required raw materials. Industrialization and urbanization influenced the religious  resurgence 5.  How did the railway and the city exemplify the broader sets of conditions people came to associate with the “culture of modernity”? Progression, westward expansion,  consumerism, colonization 6. What was the role of cotton in nineteenth­century world history? Cotton goods shift from  a luxury to a mass­produced good.  What was the Plantation­Factory nexus? Industrialized manufacturing and plantation  slavery. Uses a 12­step process that shows labor distribution.  Why was cotton so appealing to consumers? Comfort, variety, easily cleaned, absorptive,  style.  How did it change slavery in America and labor in Britain? American slaves started  producing more and more cotton and laborers in Britain retaliated with the "Luddite  Movement" (“machine breakers” in factories). Also, keeping American slaves alive and  healthy became an important factor unlike before.   How did cotton change health, consumer culture, and the structure of the global  economy? It changed health because when people wear clothing that is easier to clean  and doesn’t attract pests, they are less susceptible to disease and sickness (this is known  as the “Cotton Underwear Thesis”). It changed consumer culture because more people  buy more cotton goods than ever before and it isn’t seen as a luxury item only for the  rich, but as an everyday good that middle and lower class people can buy too. It changed  the structure of the global economy because cotton production shifted from Asia to  Europe and the Americas. 7. What do quilts and “quilt culture” tell us about nineteenth­century history? Quilting was  seen as a universal female skill where they created “beautiful and useful creations”  through domestic recycling to have archives of family history. It also created a place for  women to come together with other women in a community sense which allowed them to be more social and mobile outside of the home unlike before (this is known as the  “Quilting Bee”).  8. How did the American Civil War (1861­1865) affect the global economy? The American  Civil War lead to the complete shutdown of cotton production, “The Cotton Famine,”  which in turn reversed the global economic structure forcing Europeans to seek new  sources of cotton such as Asia like before. 9. How and why did European empires grow during the nineteenth century? Colonization  and more importantly industrialization, which restructured the global economy, allowed  Europe to dominate trade, and provided new technologies used in empire­building.  10. How did Europeans justify imperial expansion in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and  Australia and New Zealand? They had 3 justifications: 1) Civilizing Mission – “The  White Man’s Burden” having to make everyone else “better and civilized,”  enlightenment belief in the “perfectibility” of humanity, Christian missionaries trying to  convert everyone else. 2) Social Darwinism ­ ability = racial superiority, hierarchy of  races, those who are more successful represent a superior race, “survival of the fittest”  attitude.” 3) Nationalism – being part of a specific/unique community, concept of  national uniqueness and superiority, national competition. 11. How did different technological inventions help Europeans to conquer parts of Asia and  Africa during the nineteenth century? (Be sure to know examples of these technologies  and how they specifically aided European colonization.) Technological inventions helped Europe by facilitating military conquest, facilitating colonial rule, and providing a source  of awe and respect to attract collaborators. Examples: Marine chronometer, steamships,  improved iron and steel, quinine (pharmaceutical drug protects against malaria), light­ weight clothing, telegraph, machine guns, rifled breech­loading firearms.  12. How did possessing superior technology shape Europeans perceptions of themselves and  their relationship to non­European peoples? They thought of themselves as highly  superior to non­Europeans. It created “The Rule of Difference” mindset, where Europe  kept the indigenous colonized people and the European colonizers separate in order to  stay strong on top. No creolization. “Divide and conquer, divide and rule.”  13. What role did Native Collaborators and Local Conflicts in Asia and Africa play in the  growth of nineteenth­century European Empires? They helped the Europeans gain control in Asia and Africa by having the native collaborators (local social elites) inform them of  local conflicts and exploiting the local conflicts for their own benefit. By keeping this  process going, it made Europe seem omniscient and more powerful than they actually  were. 14. What was the relationship between nationalism and European empire building during the  nineteenth century? If you were a nationalist, you had to be in favor of empire building,  because that was a way to boost the economy. 15. What is the difference between Economic/Business/Informal Imperialism,  Political/Formal Imperialism, Semi­Colonialism, and Settler Colonialism (Settlerism)?  Economic/Business/Informal Imperialism: world dominated by European products,  investments, people worry about losing trade/business with Europe which creates  dependent economies and allows Europe to have control, political dominance without the use of military force (Europe over China).  Political/Formal Imperialism: combination  of economic, political, and missionary motives, military conquest and establishment of  political control (Europe over Africa). Settler Colonialism: imperial domination  spreading Western Civilization to people in those territories, and to integrate them into  the imperial state and economy. Semi­Colonialism: states/countries that were  colonized/settled by Europeans but were still able to preserve their independence. 16. The extent of European Empires during the nineteenth century:   What parts of the world were colonized and ruled by Europeans by 1900? Africa, parts of Asia including India, China, Japan, "east indies" and the Americas.  What parts of the world were subject only to European Business Imperialism by 1900?  China, Pacific Islands, some parts of Africa.  What parts of the world remained free from European colonization or Economic  Imperialism in 1900? Remote parts of the World to Europe, places without many  resources, and inland places. 17. What made nineteenth­century empires different from the empires of the early­modern  era? 19  century empires settled rather than taking over existing cultures and reforming  them to be like Europeans. 18. What types of short and long­term effects did European empires have on the rest of the  world? Short term effects: being ruled directly by Europeans which created economies  of dependency. Long term effects: cultural, political, social influences, and a weakened  economy. 19. How did Asians and Africans respond to European imperialism? Local social elites  submitted to keep their positions of power (collaborators) or they fought back  (resisters/protesters). 20. What happened to the Mughal Empire in the nineteenth century? The Mughal Empire  was destroyed due to internal rebellions, internal and external threats, and semi­ colonialism. 21. Why did the Chinese and Ottoman Empires experience a period of political and economic crisis and decline during the nineteenth century? Both were unable to handle internal and  external threats. Chinese Empire: population growth and resistance to economic  development (disease, not enough food, not buying luxury goods), resistance to state  reform, extraterritoriality­they have no control/power over the British foreigners, internal  threats­Taiping and Boxer rebellions, external threats­Opium wars. Ottoman Empire:  nationalism vs. religion, rival reformers (Tanzimat, Young Ottomans, Young Turks)­all  had limited effects, made things worse, and led to a major decline (only Middle­Eastern  instead of Mediterranean), joined the losing side of World War 1 which led to the  disintegration of the empire.  22. How did Japan avoid European colonization or economic dependence, and instead build  their own empire in Asia? Japan was very isolated with a weak emperor and powerful  nobility ignoring the rest of the world before the 1850s, when Commodore Perry was  sent by the U.S. to explore/establish trade routes and connections with the Pacific region  where he then “opened” Japan to the rest of the world. Japan was able to keep its  economic dependence and build its own empire once it acknowledged the rest of the  world through reconsideration of Western culture, politics, and industry, realization of the other countries’ success, and re­examination of its own culture, politics and industry  (they were wrong to isolate themselves). This led to the Meiji Restoration in the 1860s:  voyages of study in Europe and U.S., building a modern industrial nation­state,  imperialism, proves Japan is most prominent power in Asia.  23. How did patterns of migration change in the nineteenth century, and what caused these  changes? How was the history of the world transformed by migration in the nineteenth  century? People began to move into cities and out of the rural areas to find work in the  factory. 24. Settler Colonies:   Who built settler colonies? (Who moved overseas?) European settlers: permanent settlers  (British, Irish, Germans, Russians). *Extra: Sojourners: temporary migrants (Indians,  Chinese, Spanish, Italian).  Where did settlement occur? U.S. and Canadian westward expansion, Australia, New  Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Siberia.  Why did they grow? Industrial Revolution, changing perceptions of immigration  (positive and permanent), decentralized autonomous political traditions, the rise of “Mass Transfer”: U.S. West, Canada, Siberia­the railway and Australia and New Zealand­the  steamship.  How did they grow? (Review the 3­phases, 3­waves models of settlement) 3 phases: 1)  Boom, 2) Bust, 3) Export Rescue – James Belich: “Progress Industries and Human  Tsunamis”, “Fiscal Corpses” meaning that colonies are built off of the bankruptcies of  failed companies. 1  Wave: young men (“Crew Cultures”), 2  Wave: families.  How did they effect the physical environment and indigenous peoples? How was their  creation justified? The physical environment was slowly being overtaken and destroyed  by industrialization and urbanization. The indigenous peoples were being treated as lesser than the settlers. They justified this with progress and evolutionary competition.  25. What were the myths of the “empty land” and “dark vanishings” and how did they relate  to the growth of settler colonies? Myth: When settling on land that has already been  settled, indigenous peoples were seen as barbaric and bound to go extinct through  evolutionary competition with new settlers. Reality: Settling on land that has already  been settled creates war and forced assimilation.  26. How did the nineteenth century create a world where relationships between “strangers”  were more important than in previous periods of human history? If you had relationships  with strangers you could learn from people all over the world. 27. How did the Industrial Revolution change the practice and organization of religions and  political parties in the nineteenth century? Information spreads at a faster rate. The way  people are grouped in factories encourages idea sharing, and allows the spread of ideas to be quicker especially in Europe. 28. How did the beliefs, doctrines, and ritual practices of the major world religions change  during the nineteenth century? What factors encouraged these changes? The major  religions adapted practices and beliefs to conform to the societal changes brought on by  the industrial revolution.  29. How did Charles Finney’s 1830 revival in Rochester, New York, exemplify the history of religion in the nineteenth century? His revival emphasized individuals’ personal  relationship with God as foundation for a moral society (personal choices, community  consequences) and the ritual of prayer. This created a community founded on the  principles of “Christian self­control” which inspired further revival and missionary work. 30. Why do historians refer to socialism and nationalism as “secular” religions? Why did  these political movements come to compete with religious movements by the end of the  nineteenth century? Secular refers to non­sacred, so socialism and nationalism are non­ sacred mass­movement beliefs. Many people follow these philosophies/ideologies as the  Church and state start to separate. Socialism and nationalism competed with religious  movements because of the rise of sciences and social sciences, the separation of church  and state, and political ideologies provide unity and community in a “world of strangers.” 31. What was nationalism? How did nationalist political parties and national governments  foster nationalist sentiments among populations? Nationalism is pessimistic  ethnocentrism­ the thinking that one’s group or country is not as good as yours, and they  are bad. The government imposed this idea through mandatory primary school education, civil requirements (forced participation in culture), mandatory military service, and  cultural projects. 32. How did nationalism transform the map of Europe before 1900? Since secularization led  to an extension of the franchise (more people have the right to vote), this allowed more  movement and mobilization of people. Also, there were imagined communities (don’t  correspond to realities on the ground).  33. What conditions made mass politics possible in the late nineteenth century?  Technological changes, newspaper, proliferation of print media, and the fact that people  were living in mass environments/populations. 34. What conditions helped to create the ideas of socialism? Industrialization creates a lot of  immiseration­people are working in very different ways. This leads to rising inequality in living standards, which leads to rising class conflict, which leads to rising class  consciousness, resulting in the expansion of socialism.  35. What were the different strands of socialism? Reform/Fabian Socialism (“bread and  butter socialism”): working for the “now” with the government while also working  towards the big picture reform. Marxist Socialism: opposite of Fabian, think that if the  workers’ living conditions improve too much then they won’t be good revolutionaries.  Bolshevism: elitist, impatient Marxists, think they don’t need to wait for all of the  workers to be ready and educated. Anarchism: think that the only way you’ll get a utopia is by some sort of violent shock, they bomb places (terrorists). 36. Nineteenth­Century Cities:   How and why did they grow? They grew in 2 stages: 1) in­migration from country­side  (young men and women); high mortality. 2) Internal reproduction with continual in­ migration; public health. They grew because of increased agricultural production,  industrialization, concentration and centralization of commercial, financial, and political.   What types of social functions did they serve? They were the centers of: trade and  commerce, government, manufacturing, culture, the arts, and ideas.   What types of problems did they present and how did governments respond to them (or  did they)? Problems: overcrowding and insufficient infrastructures, disease,  degeneration? Maybe cities contribute to reverse evolution, crime, mass anonymity, class  conflict, and the crisis of community. Governments’ response: they continued to  become more intrusive in order to control all of the growing cities and make them more  efficient, and implemented the London Police officer (c.1880).   What differentiated cities in Europe, Japan, and the U.S. from cities in European  Empires? Cities in Europe, Japan, and the U.S. were primary beneficiaries of the Second  Revolution, whereas cities in European Empires were primary beneficiaries of the First  Industrial Revolution.  What was the relationship between urban life and the broader “culture of modernity”?  Urban life and the Modern Culture are both mainly centered around and influenced by the Industrial revolution. Industrial Society­ culture of: empowered consumers, choice and  change, spectacle (gain consumers’ attention at extreme length), and speed. 37. Why had Western governments become more involved in various aspects of their  individual citizens’ lives by 1900? Western governments became more involved because  of overcrowding and insufficient infrastructures, disease, crime, mass anonymity, class  conflict, and the crisis of community in the urban areas/cities.


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