Pre Modern World History
Pre Modern World History HIST-1111
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra Notetaker on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST-1111 at Augusta State University taught by Sandrine Catris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Pre-Mod World Civilization in Global Studies at Augusta State University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Study Guide for Midterm, Premodern World History The exam will have two parts: 1. Identifications: You will be given a choice of 15 terms and you will have to identify 5 (30 points). This means you should answer the 5 Ws: Who? What? When? Where? And Why? (i.e. tell me why the event, person, or concept is significant for world history). 2. Essay question: You will be given a choice of 2 questions, and you will have to answer 1. (70 points) I. Identifications: You will be given a choice of 8 and you will have to identify 5 terms. (30 points) 1. Evolution- Process by which the different species of the world—its plants and animals— made changes in response to their environment that enabled them to survive and increase in numbers. 2. Australopithecines-Hominid species that appeared 3 million years ago and, unlike other animals, walked on two legs. Their brain capacity of today’s African apes. Although not humans, they carried the genetic and biological material out of which modern humans would later emerge. 3. Pastoralism-Herding and breeding of sheep and goats or other animals as a primary means of subsistence. 4. Homo sapiens-The first humans; they emerged in a small region of Africa about 200,000 years ago and migrated out of Africa about 100,000 years ago. They had bigger brains and greater dexterity than previous hominid species, whom they eventually eclipsed. 5. Dogs-a domesticated carnivorous mammal that typically has a long snout, an acute sense of smell, and a barking, howling, or whining voice. It is widely kept as a pet or for work or field sports. 6. Eridu-Eridu is an archaeological site in southern Mesopotamia. Eridu was long considered the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia and is still today argued to be the oldest city in the world. 7. Cuneiform-Wedge-shaped form of writing. As people combined rebus symbols with other visual marks that contained meaning, they became able to record and transmit messages over long distance by using abstract symbols or signs to denote concepts; such signs later came to represent syllables, which could be joined into words. By impressing these signs into wet clay with the cut end of a reed, scribes engaged in cuneiform. 8. Harappa-One of two cities that, by 2500 BC, began to take the place of villages throughout the Indus valley (the other was Mohenjo Daro). Each covered an area of about 250 acres and probably housed 35,000 residents. 9. Mohenjo Daro-an ancient city of the civilization of the Indus valley (c. 2600–1700 BC), now a major archaeological site in Pakistan, southwest of Sukkur. 10. Ma’at-Term used in ancient Egypt to refer to stability or order, the achievement of which was the primary task of Egypt’s ruling kings, and pharaohs. 11. Demotic writing-The second of two basic forms of ancient Egyptian writing. Demotic was a cursive script written with ink on papyrus, on pottery, or on other absorbent objects. It was the most common and practical form of writing in Egypt and was used for administrative record keeping and in private or pseudo-private forms like letters and works of literature. 12. Yangshao-The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the Yellow River in China. It is dated from around 5000 BC to 3000 BC. 13. Stonehenge-a megalithic monument on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England. Completed in several constructional phases from c. 2950 BC, it was probably used for ritual purposes. 14. Chariots-Horse-driven carriages brought by the pastoral nomadic warriors from the steppes that became the favored mode of transportation for an urban aristocratic warrior class and for other men of power in agriculture-based societies. Control of chariot forces was the foundation of the new balance of power across Afro-Eurasia during the second millennium BC. 15. Transhumant Migrants-Nomads who entered settled territories in the second millennium BC and moved their herds seasonally when resources became scarce. 16. Hyksos-A western Semitic-speaking people whose name means “Rulers of Foreign Lands”; they overthrew the unstable Thirteenth Dynasty in Egypt around 1640 BC. The Hyksos had mastered the art of horse chariots, and with those chariots and their superior bronze axes and composite bows (made of wood, horn, and sinew), they were able to defeat the pharaoh’s foot soldiers. 17. Hittite-One of the five great territorial states. The Hittites campaigned throughout Anatolia, then went east to northern Syria, though they eventually faced weaknesses in their own homeland. Their heyday was marked by the reign of king Supiliulimua (138-1345 BC), who preserved the Hittites’ influence on the balance of power in the region between Mesopotamia and the Nile. 18. Amun-Once significantly Egyptian god elevated to higher status by Amenemhet (1991- 1962 BC). Amun means “hidden” in Ancient Egyptian; the name was meant to convey the god’s omnipresence. 19. Hatshepsut-Leader known as ancient Egypt’s most powerful woman ruler. Hatshepsut served as regent for her young son, Thutmosis III, whose reign began in 1479 BC. She remained co-regent until her death. 20. Epic of Gilgamesh-The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from ancient Mesopotamia. Dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur, it is often regarded as the earliest surviving great work of literature. 21. Sargon-King of Akkad, a city state near modern Baghdad. Reigning from 2334-2279 BC, Sargon helped bring the competitive era of city- states to an end and sponsored monumental works of architecture, art, and literature. 22. Hammurapi-The most famous Mesopotamian rulers, who reigned from 1792-1750 BC. Hammurapi sought to create social order by centralizing state authority and creating a grand legal structure that embodied paternal justice. The code was quite stratified, dividing society into three classes: free men, dependent men, and slaves, each with distinct rights and responsibilities. 23. Vedas-Rhymes, hymns, and explanatory texts composed by Aryan priests; the Vedas became their most Holy Scripture and part of their religious rituals. They were initially passed down orally, in Sanskrit. Brahmans, priests of Vedic culture, incorporated the texts into ritual and society. The Vedas are considered the final authority of Hinduism. 24. Sima Qian-Sima Qian, formerly Romanized Ssu-ma Chien, was a Chinese historian of the Han dynasty. He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his work, the Records of the Grand Historian, a Jizhuanti-style general history of China, covering more than two thousand years from the Yellow Emperor to his time, during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. Born 139 BC and died 87 BC. 25. Oracle Bones-Animal bones used by Shang diviners. Diviners applied intense heat to the shoulder bones of cattle or to turtle shells, which caused them to crack, the diviners would then interpret the cracks as signs from the ancestors regarding royal plans and actions. 26. Bronze-Alloy of copper and tin brought into Europe from Anatolia; used to make hard-edged weapons. 27. Linear A and Linear B-Two linear scripts first discovered on Crete in 1900. On the island of Crete and on the mainland areas of Greece, documents of the palace-centered societies were written on clay tablets in these two scripts. Linear A script, apparently written in Minoan, has not yet been deciphered. Linear B was first deciphered in the early 1950s. 28. Tiglath Pileser III-Assyrian ruler from 745-728 BC. This leader instituted reforms that changed the administrative and social structure of the empire to make it more efficient and introduced a standing army. 29. Assyrianization- Assyrianization is a term which describes the Assyrian cultural assimilation in ancient Assyria and the Neo- Assyrian Empire. The Neo-Assyrians forced those they conquered into their religion and law. They were intolerant and ruthless. 30. Cyrus the Great-Founder of the Persian Empire. This sixth-century ruler (559-529 BC) conquered the Medes and unified the Iranian kingdoms. 31. Zoroaster-Sometimes known as Zarathustra, thought to have been a teacher around 1000 BC in eastern Iran and credited with having solidified the region’s religious beliefs into a unified system that moved away from animistic nomadic beliefs. The main source for his teachings is a cosmopolitan called the Avesta. 32. Judaism-Judaism encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people. Judaism is an ancient monotheistic religion, with the Torah as its foundational text, and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel. 33. Confucius-(551-479 BC) Influential teacher, thinker, and leader in China who developed a set of principles for ethical living. He believed that coercive laws and punishment would not be needed to maintain order in society if men following his ethics ruled. He taught his philosophy to anyone who was intelligent and willing to work, which allowed men to gain entry into the ruling through education. 34. Upanishads-Vedic wisdom literature collected in the first half of the first millennium BC. It took the form of dialogues between disciples and a sage. 35. Mandate of Heaven-Ideology established by Zhou dynasts to communicate the moral transfer of power. Originally a pact between the Zhou people and their supreme god, it evolved in the first century BC into Chinese political doctrine. 36. Zhou Dynasty-The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty. Although the Zhou dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the dynasty, surnamed Ji, lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou. Started in 11122 BC and ended in 256 BC. 37. Daoism-School of thought developed at the end of the Warring States period that focused on the importance of following the Dao, or the natural way of the cosmos. Daoism emphasized the need to accept the world as it was rather than trying to change it through politics or the government. Unlike Confucianism, Daoism scorned rigid rituals and social hierarchies. 38. Varna-Caste system established by the Vedas in 600 BC. 39. Jainism-Along with Buddhism, one of the two systems of thought developed in the seventh century BC that set themselves up against Brahmanism. Its founder, Vardhamana Mahavira, taught that the universe obeys its own everlasting rules that no god or other supernatural being could affect. The purpose of life was to purify one’s soul in order to attain a state of permanent bliss, which could be accomplished through self-denial and the avoidance of harming other creatures. 40. Buddhism-Major South Asian religion that aims to end human suffering through the renunciation of desire. Buddhists believe that removing the illusion of a separate identity would lead to a state of contentment. These beliefs challenged the traditional Brahmanic teachings of the time and provided the peoples of South Asia with an alternative to establish traditions. 41. Olmecs-A people who emerged around 1500 BC and lived in Mesoamerica. The name means those who “lived in the land of the rubber.” Olmec society was composed of decentralized villages. Its members spoke the same language and worshipped the same gods. 42. Nubia-an ancient region of southern Egypt and northern Sudan, including the Nile valley between Aswan and Khartoum and the surrounding area. Much of Nubia is now drowned by the waters of Lake Nasser, formed by the building of the two dams at Aswan. Nubians constitute an ethnic minority group in Egypt. 43. Nok Culture-Spectacular culture that arose in what is today Nigeria in the sixth century BC. Iron smelting occurred there around 600 BC. Thus the Nok people made the transition from stone to iron materials. 44. Alexander the Great-(356-323 BC) Leader who used novel tactics and new kinds of armed forces to conquest the Persian Empire, which extended from Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea to the interior of what is now Afghanistan and as far as the Indus River valley. Alexander’s conquests broke down barriers between the Mediterranean world and Southwest Asia and transferred massive amounts of wealth and power to the Mediterranean transforming it into a more unified world of economic and cultural exchange. II. Essay Question: You will be given a choice of 2 questions and you will have to answer 1. In answering the questions, use specific examples of place, people, and times. Make sure to consider change over time. (70 points) 1. How did the environment affect cultures and politics in Afro-Eurasia? Give at least examples for three distinct regions of Afro-Eurasia and three different time periods. The environment can affect politics in many different ways. It can lead to war, unification, or success. One example is Egypt. The Nile River was a natural resource that made the nation strong. It provided irrigation and made the soil rich of nutrients, so they had prosperous crops. Ancient Egypt was a blended melting pot, full of culture and technology. Also, they believed that their gods controlled many things, including the environment. It was important for the Pharaoh to please the gods in order for them to make the nation successful. The Pharaoh was looked at as a god among his people; his responsibility was to protect them and provide resources. The nation was unified, successful, and strong. Another example is the Shang Dynasty which was decentralized and a network of towns and cities. The economy was limited because of the mountainous terrain and desserts. They did have good natural resources, such as jade. They had a strong military and was able to use chariots and composite bows. Similar to the Egyptians, their religion was immensely important to them. However, the Shang King had a special relationship with the gods; they were the only ones who were allowed to perform rituals. They believed in ancestor worship. If they did not honor their ancestors properly, they could punish them but if they did, they could protect and bless them. The Shang Dynasty was also unified and highly successful in their own technology. The last example is the Neo-Assyrian Empire. It was a centralized society and had two phases of expansion: the first expansion was during 910-745 BC, they expanded into upper Mesopotamia and the neighboring cities. The second expansion, from 745-612 BC, they expanded all the way to Anatolia. Their expansion could be because they lacked the natural resources to remain in their own land, or it could have been simply because of greed. The Neo-Assyrians were known for their ruthlessness and their ruler wanted to govern its own people, resources, and trading along with those of distant lands under force. They were basically totalitarian. They had a strong military advantage; a professional army, officers recruited for merit rather than birth, and they used infantry, cavalry, and chariots. They also used iron and siege warfare. The Neo-Assyrian rulers used religion as an excuse for expansion. They claimed that their god wanted them to expand westward to the Mediterranean. The Neo-Assyrian rulers used force and propaganda to obtain the loyalty of the people, and many of those who they conquered resisted their rule. All three of these nations used their resources and environment to become successful and strong. 2. Compare the societies that emerged in the Americas to those that emerged in sub-Saharan Africa. In answering this question make sure to take into consideration change over time. Early inhabitants in the Americas lived in dispersed villages. They had some contact between different regions of America, used the canoe for travel and trade, and did not have domesticated animals. They also did not have the wheel and there was limited traveling for people. One example of a village in the Americas is the Chicama Valley of Peru. It was a village that fished, hunted, and grew beans, chili pepper, cotton, and other various resources. They also had an elaborate religious life. They believed in many deities, religious rituals, and respect for their ancestors. Common cultures did influence sub-Saharan Africa from 1000 BC onward. In the savanna, the primary food crops were millet and sorghum. In the rain forests, yams and other kinds of roots were dominate. There were relatively large populations which inhabited the Sudanic savanna. The people were not completely dependent on their own feet to get around, unlike many parts of the Americas. They had domesticated several horses, including cattle, goats, and small horses. All of the communities in sub-Saharan Africa had a cosmology dominated by a high god, polities led by sacred kings, and burial customs of interning servants alongside dead rulers to serve them in the afterlife. Nubia was one of the most advance communities in sub-Saharan Africa. It had contact with both the northern and southern parts of the African land mass. It was one of the few parts of sub-Saharan Africa known to the outside world. Kush, a state in Nubia, was heavily influenced by Egypt because of the geographical closeness. Nubia had good resources in gold, ivory, and slaves. 3. How did political and economic innovations in the Mediterranean World, South Asia, and China affect the social structures and cultural practices of the respective societies? Take into consideration change over time. One example is Alexander the Great. He was a Babylonian prince but became a great conqueror. He overcame Persia, one of the strongest empires, by taking them by surprise. His conquests were many and the results were massive. He created a unified nation in Afro-Eurasia. They called themselves a cosmopolitan city. They were extremely diverse and instead of warfare, dealt with each other in diplomacy. The Silk Road was also a result of this, and it was multiple roads used as trade routes.
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