Psychology Midterm Study Guide II
Psychology Midterm Study Guide II PSYC 1010
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lani Nguyen on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 323 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
Made By Lani T. Nguyen Intro Psych Midterm Study Guide Ch. 5: Developing Through the Lifespan A.) Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues 1. Nature vs Nurture 2. Continuity and Stages( How development works, does it happen in gradual steps or major steps?) 3. Stability and Change(How much do we change and how much do we stay the same; ex: correlation between happy marriages later in life and if they smiling in school pictures ● Stages ○ Prenatal ■ Conception sperm and egg( will travel in the Fallopian Tubes ~ 624 hours) ■ sperm can live for a few days if there is cervical fluid in the woman ■ sperm and egg unite to bring genetic material together and form an organism = zygote ○ Prenatal Development ■ it takes about 10 14 days for the zygote to transplant in the uterus ■ Embryo Phase: weeks 38 ● organogenesis creation of organs,completed by 8 weeks after conception ■ Fetus Phase: weeks 9 birth ★ Dangers to a Fetus/Embryo ○ Teratogens substances that can damage the developing fetus ○ ex: alcohol( Fetal Alcohol Syndrome), smoking, drugs ○ Newborns ■ Inborn Skills: ● reflexes responses that are inborn and do not have to be learned ● babies develop cognitively(mentally) faster than physical ● Rooting reflex if something touches their cheek, they turn their face towards it for breastfeeding ● Sucking reflex newborns will suck on things put in their mouths ● crying their way of saying that they need something ● have a sense of smell and taste are developed before birth ○ ex: babies know the scent of their mother Made By Lani T. Nguyen ■ Habituation ● getting used to something because your brain stops focusing on it and pays attention to something else, so you don’t respond as much ● ex: babies are given a test where colored triangles are shown to them. After seeing the same colored and oriented triangle multiple times, they get disinterested. When the triangle is turned upside down, more similar to the shape of a face, babies become much more interested ○ Infancy and childhood ■ maturation biologically driven growth and development, enabling orderly sequential changes in behavior ■ sequence of motor development is universal, children around the world develop in the way ■ brains during development, overproduce neurons ■ beginning at birth, the connections among neurons proliferate ■ pruning process of neurons eliminates the unused neurons and strengthens others B.) Cognitive Development cognitionthinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating ● Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory ○ Jean Piaget(1896 1980) thought that children are internally motivated to make sense of their experiences ○ children grow by maturation as well as by learning through interacting/ playing with their environment ○ has a discontinuous stage theory ○ felt that kids in the 02 years age range could not think abstractly, yet there is evidence that kids in this stage can notice violations in physics( children will notice more when a ball floats up rather than just dropping down on the ground) ● Maturing Beyond Egocentrism Developing a “Theory of Mind” ○ Theory of Mind refers to the ability to understand that others have their own thoughts and perspectives ● Autism Spectrum Disorders ○ difficulties in : ■ establishing mutual social interactions ■ using language and play symbolically ■ displaying flexibility with routines, interests, and behaviors ■ mental mirroring hard time seeing others perspectives ● Social Development Attachment ○ refers to emotional ties to another person Made By Lani T. Nguyen ○ origins of attachment are based on physical affection and comfort rather than being provided food ■ ex: experiment with baby monkeys where they were given two fake mothers, one soft blanket mother that didn’t give food, and another metal wire “mother” that gave food. The baby monkeys still clung to the cloth blanket mothers ■ attachment is ingrained for babies to survive, considering that is all they have to survive ■ primary need is touch/closeness→ it means guaranteed food and protection ★ Parents need to give sensitive, responsive caregiving→ promotes secure attachment ★ Relationship of parents carries on/affects later adulthood relationships ● Influences on Separation Anxiety ○ separation anxiety peaks and fades whether the child is in daycare or at home C.) Childhood: Parenting Styles ● Authoritarian “Too Hard” : ○ parents impose rules “ because I said so” and expect obedience ● Permissive “Too Soft” : ○ parents submit to kids’ desires, not enforcing limits or standards for child behaviors ● Authoritative “ Just Right” : ○ Parents enforce rules, limits, and standards, but also explain, discuss, listen, and express respect for child’s ideas and wishes ★ Warm control is the best( control with a warm, nice approach) D.) Adolescence transition for childhood→ adulthood ● Brain Development ○ brain stops automatically adding new connections and becomes more efficient by “rewiring”/ pruning ○ the myelin sheaths of the wellused connections are coated thicker to speed up nerve connection ○ Frontal lobes are last to “rewire” it is responsible for self control, planning, and judgement ○ the limbic system gets wired for puberty before the frontal judgement centers of the brain get wired for adulthood ○ adolescents outweigh benefits rather than the risks of situations more often ● Parents and Peer Relationships ○ during adolescence, peer relationships take center stage ○ adolescents still see their parents as the primary influence in many areas( careers, religion, politics) Made By Lani T. Nguyen ○ most parentchild conflict is over minor daily life issues ○ the parental attachment is still needed, but in different ways E.)Happiness ★ Happiness is not a function of age ● Older People seem a little more happy because: ○ older people attend more to positive information than negative ○ possibly because they have accumulated more positive memories ○ have more sense of control and stability End of Ch. 5 Made By Lani T. Nguyen Ch. 7: Learning is the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors A.) Types of Learning ● Associative Learning: ○ Classical Conditioning ■ after repeated exposure to two stimuli occurring together in sequence, we associate those stimuli with each other ■ ex: lightning and thunder ○ Operant Conditioning ■ associates a behavior with specific consequences/results ■ ex: saying please and receiving something you want; smiling more at work to get larger tips ■ Thorndike’s Law of Effect ● behaviors followed by favorable consequences are learned easier than behaviors that are followed by punishment ■ BF Skinner’s Operant Chamber ● he extended Thorndike’s principles ● made more controlled methods of conditioning and detailed the rates of behavior change ■ a chosen behavior is followed by a reward or punitive feedback ● reinforced behavior→ more likely to be tried again ● punished behavior → less likely to be tried ■ Reinforcement any feedback from the environment that makes a behavior more likely to recur ● positive reinforcement(adding): giving something desirable ○ ex: giving candy to a behavior ● negative reinforcement(taking away): taking away something unpleasant ○ ex: the beeping of the car seat belt to stop when you put your seatbelt on ● Cognitive Learning: ○ refers to acquiring new behaviors and information mentally, rather than from direct experience ● Behaviorism: ○ John B. Watson, proponent of classical conditioning as well by BF Skinner, a leader in research about operant conditioning ○ both scientists felt mental life was not important, and observable behavior was more important ● Ivan Pavlov’s Discovery: Made By Lani T. Nguyen ○ while studying salivation in dogs, found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should be a neutral stimuli ○ ex: when they saw the dish or the person that usually feed them, they’d salivate B.) Learning Process ● Acquisition refers to the initial stage of learning/ conditioning ○ association between a neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus ○ the unconditioned response now gets triggered by a conditioned stimulus(drooling now gets triggered by a bell) ○ timing is very important, ex: the dog must be fed very soon after ringing the bell ● Extinction refers to the diminishing of a conditioned response ○ ex: if the unconditioned stimulus(food) stops appearing with the conditioned stimulus(bell ringing), the controlled response decreases ● Spontaneous Recovery return to the controlled response ● Generalization and Discrimination ○ Pavlov conditioned dogs to drool when rubbed, they then also drooled when scratched ○ generalization tendency to have the conditioned response triggered to related stimuli ○ discrimination ability to respond to some triggers but not triggers that might be similar ● John B. Watson and Classical Conditioning: FEAR ○ used a 9 month baby, Albert, and a white rat ○ the baby wasn’t initially afraid of the rat, but was conditioned to fear it by the experimenters loudly clanging when the white rat appeared ○ his fear generalized to all white, fluffy creatures C.) Shaping Behavior reinforcing successive approximations of behaviors that a person/creature is not likely to perform ● Discrimination ○ ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response ● How Often Should You Reinforce(give rewards)? ○ continuous: ■ giving a reward every single time ■ it’s good when first trying to teach a behavior ■ but not good at maintaining a behavior ○ partial/ intermittent: ■ giving a reward sometimes ■ very good at maintaining a behavior Made By Lani T. Nguyen ● Punishment: ○ Positive punishment( + ) adding something unpleasant ■ ex: giving a spanking ○ Negative punishment( ) taking away something wanted ■ ex: timeout, getting your phone taken away ○ both overall makes consequences less likely to occur ○ punishment does not work on animals; they only respond and learn from rewards ○ punishment works best when it approximates the way we naturally encounter immediate consequences ○ severity of punishments is not helpful, compared to punishing immediately after the wrong behavior and consistently, every time it happens ● Problems with Physical Punishment: 1) punished behaviors may restart when punishment is over 2) instead of learning behaviors, child may learn to discriminate among situations a) ex: they may act bad at school, but not at home because they know they’ll be punished at home 3) punishment can teach fear 4) physical punishment models aggression as a method to deal with problems a) ex: a kid who gets hit as punishment, may hit other children because they think that that’s the way you deal with problems ● Problems with Punishment: ○ punishing focuses on what NOT to do, and not what SHOULD be done, which doesn’t guide people to the desired behavior ○ finding a replacement behavior and teaching that is more effective ■ ex: teaching a child that hits kids to, instead, go play with other toys when they are angry ○ reinforcing and focusing on the right behavior is more effective ● Applications of Operant Conditioning: ○ School and Parenting ■ rewarding small behaviors toward desired behaviors works better than expecting complete success ● ex: saying good job to a young child who’s trying to learn how to spell when they make the effort, even if it’s not correct spelling ○ Sports ■ athletes improve most in the shaping approach in reinforcement ○ Work ■ incentives, targeting specific behaviors and giving reinforcement ○ Self Improvement ■ stating a realistic goal, deciding on how/when/where you will work toward that goal and rewarding yourself when you reach it Made By Lani T. Nguyen D.)Role of Biology in Conditioning Biological constraints in conditioning = animal’s capacity for conditioning(learning) is constrained by its genes ● Classical Conditioning ○ John Garcia and others found it was easier to learn associations that make sense if it was necessary for biological survival, species will better learn behaviors if it aids in survival ■ males find the color red more attractive because females show more red tones in their skin, lips, and other places * cough cough* when they are ovulating, when the female is most fertile ○ Food aversions can be acquired even if the unconditioned response does not immediately follow the neutral stimulus ■ ex: Not eating seafood anymore because you had seafood the day you threw up ● Operant Conditioning ○ trying to train a behavior that overrides the biological constraints probably won’t work or have long term effects ○ But humans do respond to delayed reinforcement, unlike most animals ■ ex: we work for paychecks that we get later on after we work E.) Learning, Rewards, and Motivation ● Intrinsic motivation ○ desire to perform a behavior well because you just like to ○ BUT if you get rewarded for doing something every time, the behavior can lose its intrinsic value and is started to be done just for the reward ○ maintaining a behavior use as few as possible rewards and fade the rewards over time ● Extrinsic motivation ○ doing a behavior to receive awards ● Learning by Observation ○ observational learning learning without direct experience, but from seeing someone else do it ○ modelling seeing a certain situation and learning to model after it ○ vicarious conditioning vicarious reinforcement and punishment from seeing others experiences ■ ex: seeing someone else get a cookie when they answered a question right, so you go and try to answer a question correctly to get a cookie too ■ ex: or seeing someone being yelled at when they drop some fruit at bruff, so now, you know you shouldn’t be dropping raspberries accidently especially if a Bruff worker is watching you( not like I can speak from experiences or anything) Made By Lani T. Nguyen ○ Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment(1961) ■ kids saw an adult being aggressive and kicking/punching a toy for no reason while saying aggressive statements, the bobo doll( one of those blow up dolls, haha, that will always stay upright) ■ kids were then put in a situation where they got upset, the doll would be off in the corner of the room and so they’d model the adult they saw from earlier and be aggressive towards the doll, and even say the word for word statements the adults would yell at the doll ○ Mirroring in the Brain ■ mirror neurons ● when we watch others doing or feelings something fire in patterns that would fire if we were doing the action or having the feelings ourselves ● we can grasp other’s states of mind ○ From Mirroring to Imitation ■ from 18 months of age, humans will over imitate routinely copy adults behaviors that may have no function or reward ■ this reflects an evolutionary adaptation that is essential to the transmission of human culture ■ children with autism are less likely to cognitively mirror and are less likely to follow someone’s gaze ○ Prosocial Effects of Observational Learning ■ prosocial behavior ● refers to actions which benefit others, contribute value to groups, and follow moral codes and norms ● this behavior is taught by modeling ○ Antisocial Effects of Observational Learning ■ antisocial behavior actions that are harmful to individuals and society ■ children who witness violence in the home are more likely to become more violent ■ under stress, we act out modeled behavior F.) Media Models of Violence ● viewing media violence leads to increased aggression and reduced prosocial behavior ● imitation mirror neurons, modeling and also by, ● desensitization toward pain in others, aka becoming indifferent and not caring End of Ch. 7 Made By Lani T. Nguyen Ch. 8 Memory A.) Why do we need memory? to retain skills, knowledge, and expertise know faces and places language enjoy, share, and sustain culture build a sense of self learn from past experiences ● Memory ○ refers to the persistence of learning overtime through the storage and retrieval of information and skills ○ 3 behaviors show that memory is functioning 1) Recall 2) Recognition 3) Relearning( ex: reviewing and remembering what you’ve already learned) B.)How Does Memory Work? ○ encoding getting information into brain ○ storage keeping the information in the brain ○ retrieval recalling the information ○ out memory is less literal and completely exact to detail; it is more fragile and not exact ○ our brain process many things at the same time by means of parallel processing(some unconscious thought) ● Models of Memory Formation 1) Atkinson Shiffrin Model(1968) a) stimuli are recorded by senses and held briefly in SENSORY MEMORY b) some information is processed into short term(aka WORKING MEMORY) and is encoded through rehearsal c) information then moves into long term memory d) Automatic Processing when information goes straight from sensory memory to long term memory ( Working Memory: Functions) short term is “working” in many ways holds information not just to rehearse it, but to process it makes sense of new input Made By Lani T. Nguyen 2) DualTrack Processing: Explicit vs Implicit Memories a) Explicit i) events and experiences we know and can recall ii) requires effortful processing b) Implicit i) some information skips conscious encoding track and goes straight to storage ii) formed through automatic processing iii) Automatic Processing of Implicit Memories: (1) procedural memory automatic skills and well practiced knowledge ex: recalling word meaning (2) conditioned associations (3) information about space (4) information about time (5) information about frequency 3) Encoding: Effortful Processing Strategies: a) a way to keep information in and keep it from disappearing b) without active processing short term memories disappear c) AKA Studying (ex: grouping, mnemonics, categories, rehearsal, making informational personally involved) i) Rehearsal and Distributed Practice (1) massed practice cramming (2) spacing effect better memory retention when studying at spaced intervals ii) Testing Effect (1) having to answer questions about material and you will learn more and retain more information d) Deep/Semantic Processing i) we’re more likely to retain info. if we focus on what the meaning of the information is e) Making Information Personally Meaningful i) memorizing personally meaningful material takes 1/10 effort ii) Self Reference Effect relating material to yourself to learn it C.) Processing Memory and Storing it ● Memory Storage : Capacity and Location ○ memories are not in isolated areas, but are in overlapping neural networks, distributed throughout the brain ○ brain's long term memory storage is limitless; it gets more elaborately rewired and interconnected Made By Lani T. Nguyen ● Explicit Memory Processing ○ frontal lobes retrieval and use of explicit memories ○ encoding and storage of explicit memories is facilitated by the hippocampus ○ Information is held there for a couple days before consolidating, moving to other parts of the brain for long term storage ○ Consolidation occurs during sleep ● Implicit Memory Processing ○ cerebellum forms and stores the implicit memories created by classical conditioning ○ basal ganglia controls movement, forms, and stores procedural memory and motor skills ● Infantile Amnesia ○ Implicit memory from infancy can be retained ○ How ever explicit memories, our recall for episodes only goes back to about 3 years old→ infantile amnesia(not remembering stuff when you were a baby) ○ Hippocampus is one of the last to mature/develop ○ it’s hard to retrieve memories at a time when we wouldn’t use words ● Emotions, Stress Hormones, and Amygdala and Memory strong emotions, especially stress, can strengthen memories ○ emotions can trigger a rise in stress hormone ○ Hormones→ trigger amygdala ○ Amygdala increases memoryforming activity and engages the frontal lobes and basal ganglia to “tag” the memory as important as a result, the memories are stored with more sensory and emotional details ● Brain Processing of Memory: Synaptic Changes ○ neurons release neurotransmitters across the synapses ○ with repetition, the synapses undergo long term potentiation → signals are sent across more efficiently ○ Synaptic changes include a reduction in the prompting needed to send a signal and an increase in the number of neurotransmitters D.) Reaching into Memory ● Memory Retrieval ○ Retrieval cues: memory is a web of associations and is conceptual, contextual, and emotional ■ ex: you might smell pancakes and it reminds you of a memory when your grandmother last made you pancakes for your birthday ● Priming ○ triggers a thread of associations and can affect us unconsciously Made By Lani T. Nguyen ● Context Dependent Memory ○ we retrieve a memory more easily when in the same context(situation/place) as when/where we formed the memory ● StateDependent Memory ○ memories can also be tied to the emotional state we were in when we formed the memory ○ aka mood congruent memory ● Forgetting ○ without the Hippocampus, you can’t have long term memories ○ encoding failures can occur what we fail to encode, we don’t remember ○ Storage Decay ■ material encoded into the long term memory will decay if the memory is never used, recalled, or restored again ■ Decay LTP(Long Term Potentiation) pruning memories ○ Tip of the Tongue: Retrieval Failure ■ sometimes the memory is in the brain, but retrieval and associations are gone and it’s “ at the tip of your tongue” ○ forgetting can happen at any memory stage ● Why Is Our Memory Full of Errors? ○ memory gets continuously revised → reconsolidated ○ even repeatedly imaging a non existent event can create a false memory ○ Misinformation Effect ■ incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event ■ is very much influenced by wording when someone asks about the event and the wording you use to describe it ● Source of Amnesia /Misattribution ○ having “memories” that actually came from a book, movie, or story that didn’t actually happen to you ● Constructed Memories(Fake memories) ○ can be mistaken testimonies in court ○ people are overconfident about their memories ○ unreal memories feel like real memories ○ In children, because the frontal lobes are underdeveloped, they’re more prone to implant memories because it’s harder to differentiate real from imagined events ● Recovered Memories of Past Abuse ○ can people recover memories that are “repressed” ? There’s no evidence ○ abuse memories are actually more likely to never be forgotten ○ An active process of searching for such memories is more likely to be constructed, and detailed enough to feel real when it’s not ○ “recovered” memories are unreliable Made By Lani T. Nguyen Ch. 10 Intelligence ★ Do we have an inborn level of talent, a general capacity or set of abilities, and can that be measured and represented by a score on a test? A.) Definitions of Intelligence ● Tests ○ intelligence can be defined as how well you do on a test ○ general scores allow us to compare individually ○ college entrance tests try to measure how well you do just on that one test ● Definition Beyond Testing ○ the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use past experiences ○ General Intelligence, AKA g : ■ Charles Spearman believed everyone has a general factor of intelligence ■ factor analysis it’s a statistical technique that determines how different variables relate to each other, believed all intelligences correlate together( if you’re good at math then you’re probably going to be good at science, so this is viewed as intelligence being more of a broad idea) ○ Thurstone’s 7 Clusters of Abilities: ■ Louis Thurstone thought intelligence was composed of 7 branches ○ Howard Gardener’s Multiple Intelligences ■ 8 relatively independent intelligences ■ he studied savants ○ Sternberg’s Intelligence Triarchy ■ Analytical Intelligence ■ Practical Intelligence ■ Creative Intelligence ● Intelligence and Success ***Success in life is more than high intelligence*** ○ Wealth tends to be related to intelligence test scores PLUS: ■ focused daily effort/practice ■ social support and connections ■ hard work and energetic persistence ● Social and Emotional Intelligence ○ being socially aware and selfaware ○ components of Emotional Intelligence: ■ perceiving emotions ■ understanding emotions ■ managing emotions ■ using emotions ■ BENEFITS: ● you can control your impulses and be able to delay gratification and pursue long term goals ● contributes to success in a career, marriage, and parenting Made By Lani T. Nguyen ● Aptitude vs. Achievement ○ Achievement tests measure what you’ve already learned ○ Aptitude tests attempt to predict your ability to learn new skills B.) Testing ● Origins of the IQ Test( Intelligence Quotient) ○ In the 1800s Paris schools needed to objectively identify children in need of special classes to get them caught up if they had never been to school before ○ Alfred Binet created a test to devise mental age and he had no intention to score intelligence ○ Lewis Terman(Stanford) modified Binet’s test for American children ○ became the StanfordBinet intelligence test ○ William Stern’s scoring of this test resulted in the concept of IQ ○ IQ = mental age × 100 actual age ● What Do Scores Mean? ○ Lewis Terman began with a different assumption than Binet; Terman thought that intelligence was inherited ○ Binet thought that it wasn't and you could improve on your intelligence ○ Terman believed that people who scored low on these test shouldn’t reproduce(eugenics) ● David Wechsler’s Tests: Intelligence= Genes PLUS: ○ verbal comprehension ○ perceptual organization ○ processing speed ○ working memory ○ (There’s an adult and child version) ● Principles of Test Construction ○ Standardization ■ to evaluate performance, you need to find what is food, bad, and average by pretesting a large group ● ex: IQ scores usually fall in a normal curve with the average being 100 ○ Reliability ■ the test should generate consistent results ■ Split Half Reliability: when you split the test in two halves, those halves should show the same results ■ Testretest Reliability doing it over and over and getting consistency ○ Validity ■ the test should actually test/measure what if should ■ Content Validity does the contents of the test relate with what you’re trying to prove Made By Lani T. Nguyen ● Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence ○ are people “successful” because of inborn talents? ○ or are they “successful” because of access to better nurture ○ adopted kids show they’re more like their biological parents in range of IQ ○ environment has more influence under extreme conditions like abuse, neglect, and extreme poverty ○ Schooling and Intelligence ■ school and intelligence interact and both boost children’s chances for success ■ What predicts college students academic achievement? ● study motivation ● study skills ● time management ■ Fixed Mindset intelligence is biologically set, unchangeable ■ Growth Mindset intelligence can change ■ Praise effort is more effective than praise on “being smart” ● ex: telling a kid that they did a great job and they must have worked hard is better than convincing them they are just smart, so they correlate hard work with success ○ Understanding Group Differences in Test Scores ■ Male vs Female: ● boys are more likely to be at the low and high end of the IQ spectrum ● more females make up of the middle of the curve, average ■ Male vs Female Ability Differences: ● females are better at locating objects, detecting emotions, and tend to be more verbally fluent ● males tend to perform better on spatial ability tests ● In overall math performance, girls and boys are very similar ■ Withingroup vs. Between Group Differences ● racial groups can be used as between group differences and differences are caused by Environmental factors and not genes ● genetically, different racial groups are not distinctly different ● within group differences are much larger than between group End of Ch. 10 Made By Lani T. Nguyen Ch. 11 Motivation and Work A.) Motivation: ● Definition need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal ● Perspectives on Motivation: 1) Instinct Theory 2) Drive Reduction 3) Seeking Optimum Arousal Theory 4) Hierarchy of Needs/ Motives ★ Instinct Theory: ○ instinct a fixed pattern of behavior that is not acquired by learning and is rooted in genes ○ Humans ■ babies show certain reflexes, but in general, out behavior is less prescribed by genetics ■ we may have genetic predispositions to act in certain ways(addiction) ★ Drive Reduction Theory: ○ drive an arousal/tense state related to an uncomfortable physical need( hunger, thirst) ○ believes that we’re motivated to reduce this drive and restore homeostasis ○ Drives “Push “ Behavior ■ drives are internal motivations ○ Incentives “Pull” Behavior ■ are external stimuli that can pull you in action because it is something you want ■ if incentive is really good, drive can be low( if there are free donuts, you want it because they are donuts(duh), but you don’t really want them(low drive) ■ if the drive for something is very high, you don’t really need an incentive to do it( thirst for water) ★ Seeking Optimum Arousal Theory: ○ some behavior is not directly linked to a biological need ○ Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal, but to seek optimum levels of arousal(moderate want) ★ Hierarchy of Needs/ Motives: ○ Abraham Moslow proposed that humans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied before they find motivation to pursue goals that are higher on this hierarchy ○ bottom of pyramid of needs physiological needs(food, water) ○ top of pyramid need to find meaning in life, identity ○ you have to have your lower needs met before moving up the hierarchy of your needs Made By Lani T. Nguyen B.) Hunger, Food, and Weight ● Hunger ○ studies using semistarvation show that when we are hungry, thoughts about food dominate our consciousness ○ physiology of hunger: ■ stomach contractions ○ Hypothalamus and hunger: ■ receptors throughout the digestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to hypothalamus in brain ■ hypothalamus can send out appetite stimulating or appetite suppressing hormones ● Regulating Weight ○ most mammals have a stable weight to which they keep returning to ○ when a person’s weight drops or increases, the body adjusts hunger and energy use ○ body is always trying to get you back to a stable state ○ Basal Metabolic Rate rate of energy expenditure or maintaining body functions while doing/ at rest ● How much do we eat? ○ eating depends in part on situational influences ○ Unit Bias eating more or less based on serving size/size of plate ○ Buffet Effect more choices will probably lead you to eat more ● Obesity and Weight Control ○ Physiology of Obesity: ■ Glucose is short term energy; Fat is an ideal form of stored en rgy ■ Once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it ■ ating less slows metabolism ■ A formerly obese person who lost weight will have to eat less than an average person just to prevent weight gain ● Social Psychology of Obesity ○ Weight discrimination stronger than race and gender discriminat on ○ People who are obese are more likely to be depressed or isolated ● Genetics and Obesity ○ Weight resembles biological parents\ ○ Identical twins (even when raised apart) are more similar than fraternal twins ○ Many genes involved – burning calories converting calories to fat, when intestines send “full” signal, how much to fOW3], etc. Made By Lani T. Nguyen ● Lifestyle Factors and Obesity ○ Restlessness, fidgeting ○ Inadequate sleep affects appetite hormones ○ Obese friends ○ Sedentary lifestyles ○ Fast food C.) Another Human Motivation: Sex ○ Sexual motivation enables our species’ survival ○ Sexual arousal depends on the interplay of internal and external stimuli ○ Hormones and Sexual Motivation ■ Sexual desire and response is not as tied to hormone levels in humans as it is in animals ■ During ovulation, women show a rise in estrogen and testosterone ■ As this happens, sexual desire rises in women and also in the men around them (whose testosterone levels rises) ■ Increase in sexual arousal <<>> Increase in testosterone ● The Effect of External Stimuli ○ The brain is our most significant sex organ ○ Men and Women become aroused when they see, hear, or read erotic material (the effects are stronger for men) ○ Psychological & socialcultural factors play a bigger role in sexual motivation than biological factors ■ Sexuality in media (tv, internet, magazines, etc) ■ Extremely stereotypical in portrayal of the sexes, especially females ■ Women as sexual objects ■ With repeated exposure to any erotic stimulus, response lessens (habituates) ■ erception of peers; permissive attitudes; early sex ● Sexual Orientation ○ en – 34% are exclusively homosexual; ○ women – 2% are exclusively homosexual ○ Having a homosexual orientation puts one at risk for anxiety and mood disorders (because of discrimination, rejection, isolation) ○ Causes of homosexuality ■ NOT related: domineering mother, absent father, hatred of other sex, molested as a child by a homosexual adult ■ IS related: differences appear to begin in the prenatal period >> genetic or exposure to hormones or antigens in the womb, fraternal birth order effect (more older brothers leads to higher chances of being homosexual Made By Lani T. Nguyen ■ Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed D.)Biological and Behavioral differences Associated with Sexual Preferences ● Prenatal Hormones ○ In mammals, female fetuses exposed to extra testosterone, and male fetuses exposed to low levels of testosterone, often grow up with: ■ Bodies, brains, and faces with traits of the opposite sex ■ amesex desires ● Another Motivation: “To Belong” ○ We have a need to affiliate with others, even to become strongly attached to certain others in enduring, close relationships ○ Why do we have a need to belong: ■ Evolutionary psychology perspective: seeking bonds others aids survival in many ways ■ Emotional support to get through crises ■ Keeping children close to caregivers ■ Mutual protection in a group ■ Cooperation in hunting and sharing food ■ Division of labor to allow growing food
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