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Exam #2 Study Guide

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by: Christine Notetaker

Exam #2 Study Guide PSYC 2300

Christine Notetaker

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Study Guide for Exam #2
Abnormal Psychology
Joshua Green
Study Guide
50 ?




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"Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class."
Alisha Flatley

Popular in Abnormal Psychology

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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christine Notetaker on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2300 at University of Connecticut taught by Joshua Green in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.

-Alisha Flatley


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Date Created: 03/07/16
Exam #2 Information - Stressor —event that creates demands - stress response—person’s reactions to the demands - Stress, Coping and the Anxiety Response • When we view a stressor as threatening, the natural reaction is arousal and fear • Stress reactions, and the fear they produce, are often at play in psychological disorders • fear is an umbrella term - there is an increase in heart rate - get jittery - involves many things • Stress and psychological disorders - Acute stress disorder - PTSD - Fight-or-Flight-Response • set in motion by the hypothalamus • two important systems are activated - automatic nervous system (ANS) - Endocrine System • There are two pathways, or routes, by which the ANS and the endocrine system produce arousal and fear reactions: - Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) - Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway (HPA) - The psychological stress disorder • Acute stress disorder - symptoms begin within four weeks of an event and last for less than one month • PTSD - symptoms may begin either shortly after the event or months or years after the event occurred • Aside from the difference in onset and duration, the symptoms of acute stress disorder and PTSD are almost identical: - Re-experiencing the traumatic event - avoidance - reduced responsiveness - increased arousal, anxiety and guilt - Ratio of women to men is 2:1 (the people who have PTSD and Acute Stress Disorders) - Around 2/3 seek treatment - They failed to recognize women got PTSD from rape and other sexual abuse until the 1990s - Combat and Stress disorders • called “shell shock” or “combat fatigue” - because it was found that veterans came back from war had this - What triggers Acute and PTSD? • Disaster and stress disorders • victimization and stress disorders • Terrorism and torture - Why do people develop acute stress disorder and PTSD? • Biological and genetic factors - changes the brain and the body that may lead to serve stress reactions and in some cases to stress disorders • Personality Disorders - suggest that people with certain personalities, attitudes, and coping styles are particularly likely to develop stress disorders • risk factors include - pre-existing anxiety • because anxiety include lots of fight of flight symptoms - negative worldview • “I am weak and I cannot handle this” • A set of positive attitudes • Childhood experiences - researchers have found that certain childhood experiences increase the risk for later stress disorders • risk factors include: - an impoverished childhood - psychological disorders in the family - the experience of assault, abuse, or catastrophic at and early age - being younger than 10 when your parents separate or get divorced • Social Support - people whose social support systems are weak are more likely to develop a stress disorder after a traumatic event • Multicultural Factors - Rates of PTSD may differ among ethnic groups in the US • is seems to be more Hispanic Americans might be more vulnerable to PTSD than other cultural groups - Possible explanations include their cultural beliefs Page 1 of 12 Exam #2 Information • Severity of the trauma - generally the more severe the trauma and the more direct one’s exposure to it, the greater the likelihood of developing a stress disorder - General goal for treatment • end the lingering stress reactions • gain perspective on painful experiences • return to constructive living - Treatment for combat veterans • Drug therapy • behavioral exposure techniques • insight therapy • often use couple, family, or group therapy - and even rap groups - Psychological debriefing • a form of crisis intervention that has victims of trauma talk extensively about their feelings and reactions within days of the critical incident - there is a 4 stage approach • normalize responses to the disaster • encourage expressions of anxiety, anger and frustration • teach self-help skills (relaxation) • provide referrals - for longer treatment - Dissociative Disorders • They key to our identity—a sense of who we are and where we fit in our environment - is memory - our recall of past helps us to react to present events and guides us in making decisions about the future - people sometimes experience a major disruption of their memory • When such changes in memory lack a clear physical cause, they are called “dissociative” disorders - Self - Memory - Attention • Types of dissociative disorders: - Dissociative Amnesia • people with this are unable to recall important information, usually of an upsetting nature, about their lives - loss of memory is much more extensive than normal forgetting and is NOT caused by physical factors • it may be: - localized—which is the most common type; loss of all memory of event that occurred within a limited period - selective—loss of memory for some, but not all, events occurring within a period - generalized—loss of memory beginning with an event, but extending back in time, may lose sense of identity; may fail to recognize family and friends - Continuous—forgetting continues into the future; quite rare - Dissociative fugue • people with this not only forget their personal identities and details of their past, but also less to an entirely different location - they tend to end abruptly - usually less than a week - someone with multiple personality disorder might have this • more controversial - Dissociative Identity Disorder (multiple personality disorder) • Develops two or more personalities (sub-personalities) each of which is unique set of memories, behaviors, thoughts, and emotions • at any given time one of the personalities dominates the person’s functioning • most cases are first diagnosed in late adolescence and early adulthood • women receive the diagnosis three times as often as men • How do the sub-personalities interact? - Three kinds of relationships: • Mutually amnesic relationship—sub-personalities have no awareness of one another • mutually cognizant patterns—each sub personality is well aware of the rest • One way amnesic relationship—most common pattern; some personalities are aware of others, but the awareness is NOT mutual • 15 or women and 8 for men • How do sub-personalities differ? - often display dramatically different characteristics • identifying features • abilities and personalties • physiological response Page 2 of 12 Exam #2 Information • Psychodynamic View - caused by repression of childhood memories (based on the ego defense mechanism) • Behavioral View - Operant Conditioning - case histories • State dependent learning - if people learn something when they are in a particular state of mind, they are likely to remember if best when they are in the same condition • Self-Hypnosis - can help people remember events that occurred and were forgotten years ago, if can also help people forget facts, events, and their personal identity • How do therapists help people with dissociative amnesia and fugue - psychodynamic therapy • guide parents to search their unconscious and bring forgotten experiences into consciousness - hypnotic therapy • hypnotized and guided to recall forgotten events - drug therapy • barbiturates are used to help the patients regain the lost memories • How do therapists help individuals with DID - typically do not recover without treatment - Recognizing the disorder - Recovering memories - integrating the sub personalities - Depersonalization-derealization disorder • Depersonalization—the sense that one’s own mental functioning or bad are unreal or detached • Derealization—the sense that one’s surroundings are unreal or detached • people with this disorder feel as though they have become separated from their body and are observing themselves from outside • hardly ever see it in people older than 40 - why not? • cultural bound • having a stable personality for such a long time that it is harder to disrupt - Unipolar—depression - bipolar—there is a manic episode - What are the symptoms of unipolar depression • five main areas of functioning may be effected • emotional symptoms - feeling “miserable” • motivational symptoms - lacking drive, initiative • behavioral symptoms - less active, less productive • cognitive symptoms - hold negative views of themselves - blame themselves • physical symptoms - headaches, dizzy spells and general pain - Diagnosing Unipolar Depression • Major depressive episode - marked by 5 or more symptoms lasting 2 or more weeks - NO history of mania - Also consider: • major depressive disorder - that the two that are listed above are met • dysthymic disorder - symptoms are mild but chronic • depression can last longer but less disabling • consistent symptoms for the last two years - also called “Double Depression” - What causes Unipolar Depression • Stress may trigger for depression - split internal and external factors • Genetic Factors - family - twins • identical—46% Page 3 of 12 Exam #2 Information • Fraternal—20% • this means that there is a small connection between genetics and people who get depression • Biochemical - Serotonin and norepinephrine - endocrine system and hormone release - melatonin secretion • Brain anatomy and brain circuits • Immune System - it goes all the way to the brain it does not just stop at the spinal cord, like the thought was for so long - Three Main models • Psychodynamic - no strong research - subconscious thoughts - if it doesn't resolve then it becomes something like depression - LIMITATIONS • early losses and inadequate parenting sometimes lead to depression but may not be typically responsible for development of the disorder • behavioral model - modest research support - reward/conditioning/punishments - increase in punishment means that there is depression (can set you up for this) - being rejected by family and friends can also effect depression • Cognitive views - considerable research support • Negative thinking - Beck • maladaptive thinking • cognitive triad • errors in thinking • automatic thoughts • learned helplessness - this theory asserts that people become depressed when they think that: • they no longer have control over the reinforcements in their lives • they themselves are responsible for this helpless state - Sociocultural Views • who are you in the family • where do you live • who are your friends - Family-Social Perspective • what is your relationship with family members • become socially isolated - Multicultural Perspective • women are more likely to get help • two kinds of relationships - gender - and depression • Mean think that it is “weak” to go to get help - Bipolar Disorders • ADD A MANIC EPISODE • Symptoms - emotional symptoms • active powerful emotions in search of outlet - motivational • need for constant excitement, involvement companionship - behavioral symptoms • very active—more quickly, talk loudly or rapidly • extroverted - cognitive • show poor judgement or planning - make have trouble maintaining coherent or in touch with reality - Physical • high anxiety level—often in the presence of little or NO rest - Diagnosing Bipolar Disorders • Manic episode - three or more symptoms of mania lasting one week or more • History of mania Page 4 of 12 Exam #2 Information - if currently experiencing hypomania or depression - Bipolar ! • full manic and major depressive episodes - Bipolar 2 • Hypomanic episode alternate with major depressive episodes - What causes bipolar disorders - biological research had produced some promising clues • lead to NT activity and ion activity, brain structure and genetic factors - there are 10 ways to treat depression - Treatments for Unipolar depression: psychological approaches • psychodynamic—widely used despite no strong research evidence of its effectiveness - that it comes from the unconscious grief over real or imagined losses - they are going to use • free association • therapist interpretation • review of past events and feelings • behavioral—primarily used for mild or moderate depression but practiced less than in past decades - reintroduce clients to pleasurable activities and events (mainly by using a weekly schedule) - reinforce their depressive and non depressive behaviors - help them improve their social skills • cognitive—has performed so well in research that it has a large and growing clinical following - BECK - resulting from a pattern of negative thinking that may be triggered by current upsetting situations - maladaptive thinking may lead people to a “cognitive triad” - designed to help clients recognize and change their negative thinking - usually lasts 20 sessions - phases • increasing activities and elevating mood • challenging automatic thoughts • identifying negative thinking and biases • changing primary attitudes • Sociocultural Approaches - depression comes from the roles that people play and where they live - two groups of treatments are now widely applied—multicultural approaches and family-social approaches - Mood Tracking • mood is fluid - it changes day by day, hour by hour, minute by minute - Multicultural Treatment • culture-sensitive approaches increasingly are being combines with traditional forms of psychotherapy to help maximize the likelihood of minority clients • it also appears that the medication needs of many depressed minority clients are inadequately addressed • the effects are NOT all equal across all races - Family-Social Treatments • Interpersonal Theory (IPT) - holds that there are 4 interpersonal problems that may lead to depression and must be addressed • interpersonal loss • interpersonal role dispute • interpersonal role transition • interpersonal deficits (social skills) • Couple Therapy—the main tore of couple therapy is behavioral marital therapy (BMT) - Biological Approaches • antidepressant drugs, but for severely depressed individuals who do not respond to other forms of treatment, it sometimes includes ECT or brain stimulation • Electroconvulsive Therapy - one of the most controversial forms of treatment - the procedure consists of targeted electrical stimulation to cause a brain seizure - much faster than other treatments - LAST RESORT - patients resort to memory loss due to the anesthesia - we don't know why it works - about 60-80% of the people respond • Antidepressant Drugs - SSRIs - MAO inhibitors • Break down norepinephrine • stop the creak down from happening Page 5 of 12 Exam #2 Information • leads to the rise in NOREPI activity and a reduction in depressive symptoms - Tricyclics • have a 3 ring molecular structure • people taking this improved much more than similar patients taking placebos • most patients who immediately stop taking these upon relief of symptoms relapse within one year • believed to reduce depression by affecting NT re-uptake mechanisms • when ingested they initially slow down the activity of the neurons that use NOREPI and serotonin • after a week or two, the neurons adapt to the drugs and go back to releasing normal amounts of the NT and the re- uptake mechanism beings to have the desired effects - you have to watch the diet that you are on as well since some foods have molecules that might effect the effectiveness of the drugs - MAO inhibitors pose a potential danger • there is a new form of a skin patch • increase in BP - Second generation antidepressants • in effectiveness and speed of action of these drugs are on a par with tricyclics, but the sales have skyrocketed • these drugs may cause some undesired effects of their own, including reduction in the sex drive • Brain stimulation - biological approaches - vagus nerve stimulation • depression researcher surmised they might be able to stimulate the brain by electrically stimulating the vagus nerve through the use of a pulse generator implanted under the skin in the chest - Transcrainial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) • another technique designed to stimulate the brain without the undesired effects of ECT, TMS had been found to reduce depression when administered daily for 2-4 weeks - Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) • Theorizing “depression switch” located deep within the brain, researchers have successfully experimented with electrode implantation in the brain - Brain Stimulation • while such positive initial findings have produced considerable enthusiasm in the clinical field, it is important to recognize and remember that, in the past, certain promising interventions later proved problematic and even dangerous upon closer inspection - unipolar depression seems to be an exception, responding to any of several approaches • responds to LOTS of treatments - more causes means that there are more treatments - cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal, and biological therapies are all highly effective treatments for mild severe unipolar depression • they are highly relapse-proof - Psychotherapy alone is rarely helpful for persons with bipolar disorder - The mains is an extremely strong effect—thus therapy might not be the best route because they could be having real hallucinations SO first you might want to get them on stabilizers - medication adherence—will the patient take the medication, if they do not believe that anything is wrong with them they might not always be consistent with taking their medication - Unlike psychophysiological disorders, in which psychosocial factors interact with genuine physical ailments, somatoform disorders are psychological disorders masquerading as physical problems - These disorders include • factitious disorder • conversion disorder • somatic symptom disorder - Somatic Symptom Disorder • severe stress • escape from stress • a number of individuals suffer from both types of disorders • hard to distinguish from genuine medical problems - Factitious Disorder • the individual induces physical symptoms, typically for the purpose of assuming the role of a sick person • Munchausen Symtoms • can be done to oneself or others • clinicians have been unable to develop dependably effective treatments for this disorder - Conversion Disorder • RARE • women are affect 2x as men • psychosocial conduct or need is converted into dramatic physical symptoms that affect voluntary or sensory functioning • similar to “genuine” medical ailments, physicians sometimes rely in oddities in the patient’s medical picture to help distinguish the two - Somatic Symptom Disorder Page 6 of 12 Exam #2 Information • excessively distressed, concerned and anxious about bodily symptoms that they are experiencing, and their lives are greatly disrupted by the symptoms • longer lasting but less dramatic than those found in conversion disorder • in some cases, the symptoms have no known cause - Somatization Pattern • may have long-lasting physical ailments that have little or no organic basis • to receive diagnosis—the patient must have a range of ailments, including several pain symptoms, GI, and a sexual symptoms and nerurglogial symptoms • patients generally go from doctor to doctor in search for relief - Predominant Pain Pattern • a pain disorder that is associate with psychological factors - although the precise prevalence has not been determined, it appears to be fairly common • the disorder often develops after an accident, or illness that has caused genuine pain - Psychodynamic View: Somatic Symptom Disorders • Electa Complex • women are unconsciously hide their sexual feelings in adulthood by converting them into physical symptoms • two mechanisms that work in this disorder - primary gain—symptoms keep internal conflicts our of conscious awareness - secondary gain—symptoms further enable people to avoid unpleasant activities or receive sympathy from others - Behavioral views • the physical symptoms of these disorders bring rewards to the sufferers • since there are rewards, people learn to display symptoms more and more - Cognitive Views • propose that this disorders are a form of communication, providing meaning for people to express, difficult emotions - hold that emotions are being converted into physical symptoms • this conversion is not to defend against anxiety but to communicate extreme feelings - Multicultural View • some theorists believe that Western clinicians hold a bias that sees somatic symptoms as an inferior way of dealing with emotions - How are conversion and somatic symptoms disorders treated? • individuals with preoccupation disorders typically receive the kinds of treatments applied to anxiety disorders - antidepressant medication - exposure and response prevention - cognitive-behavioral therapies - Insight—often psychdynamicaly oriented - exposure—client thinks about traumatic event(s) that triggered the physical symptoms • the physical symptoms of these disorders, applying techniques such as - suggestion—usually an offering of emotional support that may include hypnosis - reinforcement—a behavioral attempt to change regard structures - confrontation—an overt attempt to force patients our of the sick role - Illness Anxiety Disorder • they interpret bodily symptoms as signs of a serious illness • although some patients recognize that their concerns are excessive, many do not • people who are aware of their bodily symptoms are more likely to develop this • headache=brain tumor • it is pretty equal between men and woman - Eating Disorders • there has been a rise in eating disorders in the last 3 decades • Two main diagnoses - Anorexia Nervosa - Bulimia Nervosa - Anorexia Nervosa • main symptoms - a refusal to maintain more than 85% of the normal body weight - intense fears of being overweight - distorted view of weight and shape - amenorrhea • There are two main subtypes - restricting type • lose weight by cutting out sweets or fattening snacks, eventually eliminating nearly all food • show almost no variety in their diet - Binge-eating/purging type • lose weight by forcing themselves to vomit after meals or by abusing laxatives • like those with bulimia people with this subtype may engage in eating binges • The “typical” case - a normal to slightly overweight female has been on a diet Page 7 of 12 Exam #2 Information - escalation toward anorexia may follow a stressful event • separation of parents • move away from home • experience a personal failure • The Clinical Picture - the driving motivation is fear • of becoming obese • of giving into the desire to eat • of losing control of body size and shape - people with anorexia are often preoccupied with food • this would include thinking about and reading about food and planning for their meals • the relationship is not causal - think in distorted ways • usually have low opinion for their body shape • tend to over estimate their actual proportions - hold maladaptive attitudes and misperceptions - also display certain psychological problems • depression • anxiety • low self esteem • insomnia - or other sleep disturbances • substance abuse • obsessive compulsive problems • perfectionism • Medical Problems - Caused by starvations • amenorrhea • low body temperature • low BP • body swelling • reduced bone density • slow heart rate • metabolic and electrolyte imbalances • dry skin and brittle nails • poor circulation • languo - Bulimia • known as binge-ourge syndrome - bouts of uncontrolled overeating during a limited period of time • the “typical case” - a normal to slightly overweight female has been on an intense diet - research suggests that even among normal participants, binging often occurs after strict dieting • 90-95% of the cases occur in females • peak is between 15 and 21 • symptoms might last for many years • this disorder is characterized by inappropriate compensatory behaviors - purging-type bulimia type • forced vomiting • misusing laxatives - non-purging-type • fasting • exercising frantically • patients generally of normal weight - experience marked weight fluctuations - some also qualify for an anorexia diagnosis • compensatory behaviors - most common compensatory behaviors • vomiting - fails to prevent the absorption of half the calories consumed at the point of binging - repeated vomiting affects the ability to feel satisfied—greater hunger and binging • laxatives - also largely reduces the number of calories consumed • over time however, a cycle develops in which purging—> bingeing —> purging - Similarities between anorexia and bulimia Page 8 of 12 Exam #2 Information begin after a period of dieting fear of becoming obese drive to become thin preoccupation with food, weight, feelings of anxiety, depression, heightened risk of suicide attempts appearance obsessiveness and perfectionism substance abuse distorted body perception disturbed attitudes toward eating - Differences between anorexia and bulimia people with bulimia are more people with bulimia tend to be more people with bulimia are more likely to concerned about pleasing others, being sexually experienced and active have histories of mood swings, low attractive to others, and having frustration tolerance, and poor coping intimate relationships more than one-third of people with different medical complications bulimia display characteristics of a • only half of women with bulimia personality disorder, particularly experience amenorrhea vs almost all borderline personality disorder women with anorexia • people with bulimia suffer damage caused by purging, especially from vomiting and laxatives - Binge Eating Disorder • repeated eating binges during which they feel no control over eating • these individuals do not perform inappropriate compensatory behavior - What causes eating disorders • many people use a multidimensional risk perspective to explain eating disorders - several factors place individuals at risk - more factors=a greater likelihood of developing a disorder - leading factors • psychological problems - ego - cognitive - and mood disturbances • biological factors • sociocultural factors - societal - family - multicultural pressures - Psychodynamic Factors • eating disorders are the result of disturbed mother-child interactions, which lead to serious ego deficiencies int eh child and to severe perceptual disturbances • parents may respond to their children either effectively or ineffectively - effective parents accurately attend to a child’s biological and emotional needs - ineffective parents fail to attend to child’s needs;they feed when the child is anxious, comfort when the child is tired etc - Cognitive Factors • these deficiencies contribute to a broad cognitive distortion that lies that the center of disordered eating - Biological Factors • genes may leave some people particularly susceptible to eating disorders - identical with anorexia—70% - fraternal with anorexia—20% - identical with bulimia—23% - fraternal with bulimia-9% - the findings might be related to low serotonin • researcher have identified two separate areas that control eating - lateral hypothalamus (LH) - ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) - Societal Pressures • believe current Western standards on female attractiveness are partly responsible for the emergence of eating disorders - changed toward at thinner ideal • members of certain subcultures are at greater risk from some of these pressures - models, actors, dancers, and certain athletes Page 9 of 12 Exam #2 Information - Family Environment • they may play and important role in the development of eating disorders - mothers of those with eating disorders are more likely to be dieters and perfectionists themselves • abnormal interactions and forms of communication within a family may also set the stage for an eating disorder - Multicultural Factors • eating behaviors and attitudes of young African American women were more positive than those of young white American women - Young hispanic women are about equal to white Americans - Eating disorders also appear to be an increase in Asian American women and young women in many Asian countries • males only acorn for 5-10% of the cases of eating disorders - reasons • western society’s double standard for attractiveness • different methods of weight loss are favored - men are more likely to exercise - women are more likely to diet - men develop eating disorders when linked to requirements and pressures of jobs and sports • highest rates of male eating disorders have been found in - jockeys - wrestlers - distance runners - body builders - swimmers - some men seem to be caught up in this new eating disorder—reverse anorexia nervosa or muscle dysmorphobia - How are eating disorders treated? • two main goals - correct the dangerous eating patterns - address broader psychological and situational factors that have led to, and are maintaining the eating problem • Anorexia - the immediate aims • reagin the lost weight - most popular kind • the combination of supportive nursing care, nutritional counseling, and high-calorie diets • recover from malnourishment • eat normally again - in life threatening cases, clinicians nay need to force tube feed and IV feed the patients • this may breed mistrust in the patient and create a power struggle - a combination of behavioral and cognitive interventions are included • behavioral—clients are required to monitor feelings, hunger levels, and food intake and the ties among the variables • cognitive—they are taught to identify their “core pathology” - therapists help patients recognize their need for independence and control • recognize and trust their internal feelings • is helping clients change their attitudes about eating and weight - family therapy is also important - combined treatment is also something that is popular in anorexia - positives of treatment • weight gain is often quickly restored • menstruation often returns with return to normal weight • the death rate from anorexia is declining - negatives of treatment • as many as 25% remain troubled for years • even when it occurs, recovery is not always permanent • lingering emotional problems are common • Bulimia - immediate aims • eliminate binge-purge patterns • establish good eating habits • eliminate the underlying cause of bulimia patterns - Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is helpful • behavioral techniques - diaries are often a useful component of treatment - exposure and response prevention (ERP) is used to break the binge-purge cycle • cognitive techniques - help clients recognize and change their maladaptive attitudes toward food, energy, eating, weight, and shape - typically teach individuals to identify and challenge the negative thoughts that precede the urge to binge - other forms of psychotherapy Page 10 of 12 Exam #2 Information • if clients do not respond to cognitive-behavioral therapy then other approaches are made • a common alternative is interpersonal therapy • psychodynamic therapy can also be used • various forms of psychotherapy are often supplemented by family therapy and may be offered in either individual and group therapy format - antidepressant medications • during the past 15 years, all groups of antidepressant drugs have been used in bulimia treatment • medications are best used when in combination with other forms of therapy - if left untreated it can last for years - treatment improves immediate, significant improvement in about 40% of the cases - research suggests that 75% of cases have partially recovered after 10 years - relapse is a significant problem even, among those who respond successfully to treatment • relapses are usually triggered by stress • relapses are more likely among people who - had a longer history of symptoms - vomited frequently - had histories of substance use - have lingering interpersonal problems - CBT and other forms, like medication are providing help reduce or eliminate, the binge-purge patterns and change disturbed thinking such as being overly concerned with weight and shape - Facts about sexual assault • psychological effects - suicidal thoughts (4x more likely) - attempted suicide - vulnerability to develop psychological disorders - feeling of self blame and betrayal - flashbacks - panic attacks - sleep problems - memory problems - 3x more likely to suffer from depression - 6x more likely to suffer PTSD - 12x more likely to abuse alcohol - 26x more likely to abuse drugs • Who are the victims - 18% women - 3% men - 19-30: 36% - 12-18: 29% - over 30: 20% • Who commits rape - relative-7% - stranger-26% - a friend or acquaintance-38% - intimate partner or spouse-28% • Crisis on college campuses - 20% of women are sexually assaulted in college - 95% of college rapes estimated to be unreported - 47% of college rape victims also sustain bodily injuries • Factors aiding in recovery - positive self esteem - social support - previous success coping with stress - economic security - accurate information about rape and rape trauma syndrome - constructive decision making • factors delaying recovery - prior victimization - chronic life stress - lack of social support - low self-esteem - degree of violence during the attack - Sleep and Sleep Disorders (more on page 334) • tips for a good might sleep - go to bed at the same time each night and wake up at the same time in the morning - avoid large meals before sleeping Page 11 of 12 Exam #2 Information - do not drink caffeine or alcohol before bedtime - do not smoke before bed - read or listen to soothing music before bedtime - avoid viewing electronic media before bedtime - create a cool, dark and quiet bedroom atmosphere - if you cannot sleep, perform an interesting or productive activity until you feel sleepy • sleep-awake disorders - insomnia disorders—sever difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep at least 3 nights per week (10%) - hyper somnolence disorder—need for extra sleep or excessive sleep (2%) - narcolepsy—repeated sudden or irrepressible need to sleep during waking hours (0.03%) - sleep-apnea disorder—frequent awakenings each night due to periodic deprivation or oxygen to the brain during sleep (9%) - circadian rhythm disorder—mismatch between a person’s sleep-wake pattern and the sleep-wake schedule of most other people (3%) - parasomnias—disorders featuring frequent sleepwalking episodes, sleep terrors,, and nightmares (4%) - Body Dissatisfaction • page 357 Page 12 of 12


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