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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: kylie1993

Exam 1 Study Guide CHEM 122

GPA 3.0
General Chemistry II
Denley Jacobson

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About this Document

This has information that regards to exam #1 in the class. Also has some questions and some compiled notes together.
General Chemistry II
Denley Jacobson
Study Guide
#chemistry #dipoledipole #phasechanges #exam1
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by kylie1993 on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 122 at North Dakota State University taught by Denley Jacobson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at North Dakota State University.

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Date Created: 09/15/15
CHEM 122 General Chemistry 2 Study Guide for Exam 1 Sept 15 2015 Chapter 11 Compiled Notes Three tvoes of phvsical states of matter 1 Gases 2 Liquids 3 Solids Gases Expand to ll the volume of a container have a low density are compressible diffuse rapidly Liguids Have a de nite volume and take the shape of a container Diffuse very slow and have uidity Solids Have a de nite volume and shape They have a high density and diffuse very slowly They also don39t ow Whv doesn39t a liquid expand to ll the volume of a container like a gas Molecules are very closely packed together and touch eachother This means that the molecules want to stay close together and contain forces of attraction between molecules What is the orioin of weak intermolecular forces Electrostatic is the origin of weak intermolecular forces This is because of Coulumb39s law How far do these intermolecular forces 00 These forces extend to the distance of one bond length a very short range To experience these forces the molecules must be very close to eachother There are three types of intermolecular Van Der Waals forces 1 London Disoersion all molecules contain this force of attraction This results when electrons are in constant motion and the instantaneous dipoles are constantly changing They change together because of an electrostatic attraction This is directly proportional to the polarizabitlity of a molecule The more electrons the more polarizable the molecule is 2 DipoleDipolepolar molecules usually have these forces These are much weaker than dispersion forces Occur between the positive end of one molecule and the negative end of another 3 Hvdrooen Bondino results between two molecules from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one atom and a electronegative part of an atom in another The hydrogen atom has a large positive partial charge usually Only occurs for the hydrides of Nitrogen Oxygen and Fluoride This bond is stronger than dispersion and dipoledipole intermolecular forces IonDipole Forces not intermolecular forces Cations or anions that are attracted to the oppositely charged pole of a polar molecule Cation positive Anion negative The IonDipole Forces depend on 1 Size of ion 2 Magnitude of the dipole movement of the polar molecule 3 Magnitude of the ion charge Whv are iondipole forces important They help to dissolve ionic compounds in water Viscosity the resistance that a liquid has to ow A resistance to a change in form In order to ow the molecules must ow past one another If a low viscosity then the liquid will ow readily If a high viscosity then the liquid will not ow readily Smaller molecules ow faster than large ones EXAMPLE Water ows readily therefore has a low viscosity How does temperature affect viscosity With the temperature increase the molecules slide past eachother more easily resulting in lower viscosity Surface Tension The energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount The increase in potential energy due to an increase in the surface area as the needle pushes down on the surface the surface pushes back Adhesive Forces Force of attraction between a liquid substance and a solid surface Cohesive Forces Intermolecular forces that bind similar molecules together in a liquid NOTE if the adhesive forces are larger than the cohesive forces then the liquid would end up spreading out on that surface wetting the surface NOTE if the cohesive forces are larger than the adhesive forces then the liquid would tend to bead up on the surface ex water on a waxed surface Whv does a steel needle oat on water Because the cohesive forces of water are greater than the adhesive forces of the liquid for the needle Energy is required to convert a liquid to a gas Energy is released when a gas is converted to a liquid Evaporation is considered an endothermic reaction it results in cooling Condensation is considered an exothermic reaction it results in heating Molar heat of fusion the heat energy required to melt one mole of a solid endothermic process Molar heat of vaporization the heat energy required to vaporize one mole of a liquid exothermic process What factors effect the rate of evaporation 1 Surface area 2 Temperature 3 Strength of intermolecular forces As temperature increases vapor pressure also increases Equilibrium Vapor Pressure the vapor pressure of the liquid at that temperature Vapor Pressure the pressure exerted by the vapor when the liquid and vapor phases are in dynamic equilibrium Questions How does water get sucked up into a glass capillary tube Cohesive and Adhesive Forces Silicon Dioxide in crystalline form is called what quartz This is not a covalent network solid methane How many particles are in a simple primitive cubic unit cell 1 What is the coordination number of Cs ions in crystalline CsCl 6 What is the strongest intermolecular force of attraction in liquid HBr London Dispersion Forces Endothermic Processes Freezing and Condensation Why do liquids have a tendency to minimize their surface area Surface Tension What types of crystalline solids typically have the lowest melting point temperatures CovalentNetwork Not a property of solids very compressible


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