BZ 101 Exam 2 Study Guide
BZ 101 Exam 2 Study Guide BZ 101
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlliSlaten on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BZ 101 at Colorado State University taught by Karen M Raines in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Humans and Other Animals (GT-SC2) in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 BZ 101 Exam 2 will cover chapters 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15. Exam material will NOT be limited to the contents of this guide. Resources to help you prepare for the exam include: the TILT STUDY GROUP, connect assignments, companion website (www.mhhe.com/ maderinquiry14), questions at the ends of chapters, quiz 2 and the immune system concept map. Also, your professor is available to answer questions. CHAPTER 11 1. Deﬁne or describe: tissue, gland. Tissue- composed of similarly specialized cells that perform a common function in the body Gland- An organ in the body that 2. List and describe the 4 types of tissues found in the human body and describe the location and major features of each. Also, describe the functions of each tissue type, including the roles of speciﬁc cell types and cellular modiﬁcations within each tissue. Epithelial- covers the body surfaces and lines cavities Connective- supports and binds body parts Muscular- moves the body and its parts Nervous- receives stimuli, processes that information, and conducts impulses 3. How is epithelial tissue classiﬁed? Consists of tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer Functions- protection, gland secretion, absorption, excretion, ﬁltration 4. Describe the different types of connective tissues. Matrix- noncellular material: solid, semisolid, or liquid Non- ﬂuid matrix- contains ﬁbers: collagen, elastic, reticular Blood- unlike other types of connective tissue in that the matrix (plasma) is not made by the cells 5. Describe the different types of muscle tissues. Skeletal- occurs in muscles attached to the skeleton. Functions in voluntary movement of body. Cells have multiple nuclei. Smooth(visceral)- Cells have a single nucleus. Occurs in blood vessel walls and walls of digestive tract. Functions in movement of substances in lumens of body. Is involuntary. Cardiac- Branching cells with a single nuclei. Occurs in the wall of the heart. Functions in the pumping of blood. Is involuntary. 6. Describe functions of tight, gap and adhesion junctions. Adhesion Junctions- intercellular ﬁlaments between cells Tight junctions- form impermeable barriers between cells Gap Junctions- plasma membrane channels are joined (allows communication) 7. Deﬁne or describe: intercalated disks, neuroglia, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells. Intercalated Disks-connects adjacent cells Neuroglia- support and nourish neurons Astrocytes- provide nutrients Oligodendrocytes- form myelin sheaths Ependymal Cells- line ﬂuid-ﬁlled spaces of brain and spinal cord 8. Describe the structure of a neuron and describe the function of each part. Cell body- contains a major portion of the cytoplasm and the nucleus of the neuron Dendrite- receives the signal and conducts it toward the cell body Axon- conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body onto other neurons Myelin Sheath- speeds up the communication process between neurons 9. What two main cavities divide the human body? How are these cavities subdivided? Ventral Cavity- becomes the thoracic(contains left and right lung and the heart), abdominal(horizontal muscle called the diaphragm), and pelvic cavity(contains rectum, urinary bladder, and internal reproductive organs) Dorsal Cavity- has the cranial cavity(within the skull contains the brain) and the vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord) 10. Deﬁne or describe: mucous membranes, serous membranes, synovial membranes, meninges. Also, know where these membranes are found in the human body....(i.e. pericardium serous membrane surrounding the heart). Serous Membranes- line thoracic and abdominal cavities, epithelium overlies loose ﬁbrous connective tissue, secrete watery ﬂuid for lubrication. Includes the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum and mesentery. Mucous Membranes- lines tubes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems, epithelium overlies loose ﬁbrous connective tissue. Goblet cells produce mucus which is the protective function. Synovial Membranes- loose connective tissue, line freely movable joints, and secrete synovial ﬂuid Meninges- line the dorsal cavity, protects the brain and the spinal cord, and connective tissue 11. Deﬁne or describe: homeostasis, negative feedback, positive feedback, disease, systemic disease, acute disease, chronic disease, carcinoma. Homeostasis- maintenance of relatively constant internal environment by an organism, or even by a single cell Negative Feedback- primary mechanism that keeps a variable close to a set point Positive Feedback- a change brings about a greater change in the same direction, involved in processes with a deﬁnite cut off point Disease- abnormality in the body’s normal process that signiﬁcantly impairs homeostasis Systemic Disease- Disease that affects the entire body Acute Disease- an illness that develops quickly is intense but is short lived Chronic Disease- Disease that persists over a long period of time Carcinoma- A type of cancer. A new growth of epithelial cells that inﬁltrate the surrounding tissues 12. List components and functions of the integumentary system. Protects underlying tissues from trauma, pathogen invasion, and water loss Helps to regulate body temperature Synthesizes vitamin D Contains sensory receptors – awareness of surroundings CHAPTER 12 13. Deﬁne or describe: arteries, veins, capillaries, varicose veins, pulmonary circuit, systemic circuit, coronary arteries, hepatic portal system. Arteries- carry blood away from the heart Veins- carry blood toward the heart Capillaries- permit exchange of materials with tissues Varicose veins- a vein that is enlarged and twisted Pulmonary circuit-blood from the body collects in the right atrium Systemic circuit- blood that leaves the left ventricle, travels the body and is returned to the heart Coronary arteries- serve the heart muscle itself, CAs are ﬁrst branches off the aorta, and cardiac veins empty into right atrium Hepatic portal system- 14. Trace the path of blood through the human heart to the lungs, back to the heart and to the body. See notes or p. 219. Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava carry O2 poor blood that is high in carbon dioxide enter the right atrium The right atrium sends blood through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle The right ventricle sends blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk and through the two pulmonary arteries to the lungs 4 pulmonary veins carry O2 rich blood and enter the left atrium The left ventricle sends blood through the bicuspid (mitral) valve to the left ventricle 15. What part of the heart is called the “pacemaker?” Where is it located? See p. 220 in your book SA node (sinoatrial)- located in the upper dorsal wall of the right atrium 16. How many chambers are found in the mammalian heart? Which arteries carry oxygen poor blood? Right Atrium Left Atrium Right Ventricle Left Ventricle The right atrium carries oxygen poor blood 17. List the components of blood and describe the functions of the components. Make sure you can identify functions of various blood cells. Plasma- liquid portion of the blood Serum- plasma minus ﬁbrinogen Tissue Fluid-plasma minus most proteins Lymph-Tissue ﬂuid within lymphatic vessels 18. Where does plasma come from? What does plasma consist of? Plasma consists of a variety of organic and inorganic substances dissolved or suspended in water. Plasma comes from the upper layer of the blood. 19. What mechanisms regulate the movement of water out of and into capillaries? See ﬁgure 12.8 The osmotic pressure regulates the water in and out of the blood stream. From the end of the capillary the blood pressure is higher so water leaves At the venous end the pressure is lower so water enters the bloodstream. 20. Deﬁne or describe: hemoglobin, anemia, ﬁbrin, ﬁbrinogen, hemophilia, atherosclerosis, angina, embolus, thrombus, hypertension, stroke, erythropoietin. Hemoglobin- the respiratory pigment that attaches to oxygen to move it through the body Anemia- the body has an insufﬁcient number of red blood cells or the red blood cells do not contain enough hemoglobin, and that individual suffers from anemia Fibrin- the activated fragments then join end to end, forming long threads Fibrinogen- clotting in the liver Hemophilia- to a group of inherited clotting disorders caused by a deﬁciency in a clotting factor Atherosclerosis- an accumulation of plaque (soft masses of fat and cholesterol) beneath inner lining of arteries. Interferes with blood ﬂow, plaques can cause clots is thrombus. Angina- chest pain from partially blocked coronary artery. Embolus- a blood clot, air bubble, piece of fatty deposits, or other object that is carried into the bloodstream and lodged in a blood vessel that cause and embolism Hypertension- (High blood pressure) affects 20% of all Americans, usually caused by narrowing of the arteries. Stroke- cerebrovascular accident, arteriole in the brain bursts or is blocked by an embolus, lack of oxygen can cause paralysis or death. Erythropoietin- 21. Which vitamin, if deﬁcient, can lead to clotting disorders? See p. 214 Vitamin K 22. List 3 causes of anemia. See p 212 decreased production of red blood cells loss of red blood cells from the body destruction of red blood cells within the body 23. Where do blood cells originate? Formation is in the red bone marrow 24. List non-invasive and invasive procedures used to treat cardiovascular disorders. See your notes or pp 226-227. Non-invasive Treatments Medications Invasive Treatments Angioplasty Coronary bypass operation Heart transplant and artiﬁcial hearts CHAPTER 13 25. List components of the lymphatic system. List and describe functions of the lymphatic system. Lymphatic Vessels- ﬂuid inside called lymph Lymphatic Capillaries- extend through most areas of the body and merge into larger vessels Blood ﬂow- oxygen is diffusing so the color the blood goes from red to blue Primary Lymphatic organs: Red bone marrow- site of blood cell production and this is where B cells mature Thymus- site of T cell maturation Secondary Lymphatic organs: Spleen- mostly red pulp that ﬁlters blood and removes old RBCs. White pulp is lymphoid tissue (contains a lot of lymphocytes known as B and T cells) Lymph nodes-cleanse lymph. Packed with B and T cells. Macrophages- contains large numbers of white blood cells known as lymphocytes that develop and mature in the primary lymphatic organs 26. Deﬁne or describe: lymph, edema, lymph nodes, pathogens. Lymph- the ﬂuid inside of the lymphatic vessel Edema- by an excess of watery ﬂuid collecting in the cavities or tissues of the body. Lymph nodes-are small, ovoid structures occurring along lymphatic vessels, through which they lymph must pass Pathogens- are disease-causing agents such as viruses and bacteria, as well as any debris present in the lymph 27. List the primary and secondary lymphoid organs. Primary Lymphoid organs: -red bone marrow- site of blood cell production from stem cells & B cells mature in the bone marrow -thymus- site of T cells maturation Secondary lymphoid organs: - spleen- most red pulp that ﬁlters blood removes old red blood cells & white pulp is lymphoid tissue contains lots of lymphocyte -lymph node- cleanse lymph & packed with B & T cells & macrophages residing in nodes engulf pathogens 28. Deﬁne or describe: immunity, innate(non-speciﬁc) immunity, adaptive (speciﬁc) immunity, antigen. Immunity- is the body’s capability of removing foreign substances, killing pathogens, and cancer cells. Innate (non-speciﬁc) immunity- mechanisms are fully functional without previous exposure to an unwanted substance. Adaptive (speciﬁc) immunity- dependent upon exposure of antigens Antigen- any molecules that stimulates an immune response 29. List and describe mechanisms of innate immunity. If there are multiple components of a mechanism-be familiar with those components. Physical and chemical barriers: skin and mucous membranes from barriers, secretions contain lysozymes & stomach acid kills/inhibits bacteria. Inﬂammation: inﬂammatory reaction caused by physical or chemical damage to tissue Phagocytes (neutrophils & macrophages) and natural killer cells (NKCs): phagocytes engulf pathogens by endocytosis & NKCs seeks out and kill the lack “self” molecules Protective proteins: complement system protein & interferons 30. Describe the clonal selection theory as it applies to B cells. Each B cells have B-cell receptor (BCR) that will combine with a speciﬁc antigen Selected B cell (with the help of a helper T cell) undergoes clonal expansion (B cell is going to the body and divine) à plasma cells & memory cells This type if immunity is called humoral immunity or antibody-mediated immunity 31. Deﬁne or describe: antibody-mediated immunity, B-cell receptor, immunoglobulin, antibody, plasma cells, memory B cells. Antibody-mediated immunity- the defense by the B cells B- Cell receptor- part of the B cell that combines with a speciﬁc antigen Immunoglobulin- another name for an antibody Antibody- secreted form of the BCR of the B cell that was activated Plasma cells- specialized cells for the secretion of antibodies Memory B Cells- Cells that remember a certain bacteria and can produce the antibody that will ﬁght the infection 32. What is the typical shape of an antibody? List and brieﬂy describe the 5 antibody classes. The typical shape of antibody looks like IgG: main antibody in circulation. Main function binds to pathogens, activates complement, and enhances phagocytosis. IgM: antibody type found in circulation; largest antibody. Main function activates complement; clumps cell IgA: main antibody type in secretions such as saliva and milk. Main functions prevent pathogens from attaching to epithelial cells in digestive and respiratory tract. IgD: antibody type found on surface of immature B cells. Main function presence signiﬁes readiness of B cells to respond to antigens. IgE: antibody type found as antigen receptors on eosinophils in blood and on mast cells in tissue. Main function responsible for immediate allergic response and protection against parasitic worms. 33. How do antibodies cause destruction of viruses or bacteria? See your notes Antibodies are like the key to the antigen’s lock 34. Describe the clonal selection theory as it applies to T cells. Antigen presenting cell binds antigen/MHC protein T cells only recognize/bind antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells T cell clonal à helper T cells & cytotoxic T cells & memory T cells This type of immunity is called cell-mediated immunity 35. Deﬁne or describe: helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, memory T cells, antigen- presenting cells, cell- mediated immunity. Helper T cells-respond to antigens presented by MHC class II proteins Cytotoxic T cells- seek out and destroy foreign cells in the body Memory T cells- recognize a virus your body has already fought so the antibodies are all ready. Most activated T cells undergo apoptosis and only a few cells remain as memory T cells Antigen-presenting cells- as dendritic cells or macrophages Cell-mediated immunity- T cells are responsible 36. How does active immunity differ from passive immunity? Active Immunity- individual alone produces an immune response against antigen, dependent upon the presence of memory B and memory T cells, active immunity can be induced artiﬁcially by immunization Passive Immunity- individual is given antibodies either naturally or artiﬁcially by injection, antibodies are cross placenta which are found in breast milk. Temporary because there are no memory cells and may be used to treat immunodeﬁciencies or prevent illness in an exposed individual. 37. Deﬁne or describe: immunization, vaccine. Immunization- The action of making someone immune to someone Vaccine- A substance to stimulate the production of antibodies 38. How is gamma globulin used to treat immunodeﬁciencies? Bites from venomous animals? It can be used as an anti venom and anti rabies 39. How and why does an allergic reaction occur? What is an allergen? What is anaphylaxis? Allergies are hypersensitivities to substances that ordinarily do no harm to the body Allergen- the substance that causes the allergic reaction (pollen, animal fur) Anaphylaxis- immediate allergic reaction because the allergen has entered the blood stream 40. Describe possible complications associated with a person with type B blood receiving a transfusion of type A blood? Type B blood has antigens in the plasma that are anti- A type 41. If an Rh- woman conceives a child with an Rh+ man, what is the potential problem? What is hemolytic disease of the newborn? Hemolytic Disease- when the baby is Rh positive and the mother can create antibodies that ﬁght the baby’s blood cells 42. What is an autoimmune disease? List those discussed in class or presented in your book. Myasthenia gravis- muscle weakness due to attack of neuromuscular junctions Multiple sclerosis (MS)- neuromuscular disorder due to attack of myelin sheaths of nerve ﬁbers Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) - kidney damage due to disposition of antigen antibody complexes Rheumatoid arthritis- joints affected 43. List immunodeﬁciency diseases discussed in class and your book. Brieﬂy describe these diseases. Which ones are congenital (present at birth) and which ones are acquired? Severe combined immunodeﬁciency (SCID)- unable to produce their own antibodies and cell- mediated immunity AIDS can be inherited CHAPTER 14 44. Deﬁne or describe: digestion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion. Digestion- involves both chemical and mechanical digestion. Mechanical digestion- starts with chewing and then continues with the churning and mixing of the food in the stomach Chemical digestion- Enzymes break down macromolecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed. 45. Beginning with the mouth, trace the path of food through the human digestive tract. List all structures/organs and their function. Be familiar with any structural modiﬁcations, processes and/or secretions associated with speciﬁc organs. Mouth- food enters the mouth where there are teeth, salivary glands, and your tongue. Starts digestion of starch. Pharynx- A passageway that receives air from the nasal cavities and food from the mouth. Swallowing occurs and this is a reﬂex action Esophagus- A passageway that is a muscular tube that extends from the stomach. Peristalsis moves food, this is relaxation of the sphincter (circular muscle) that allows passage of food into stomach. The stomach- Storage of food. Acidity kills bacteria and start digestion of protein. Small Intestine- Duodenum (ﬁrst 25 centimeters) receives bile from the liver and pancreatic juice from the pancreas. Digestion of all foods. Absorption of nutrients. Large intestine- Absorption of water. Storage of indigestible remains. 46. List the layers found in the walls of the digestive tract. What type of tissue is associated with each layer? Mucosa- epithelium supported by connective tissue Submucosa- loose connective tissue that contains blood vessels Muscularis- Two layers of smooth muscle tissue Serosa- Very thin, outermost layer made of squamous epithelium 47. What hormones are secreted by the digestive tract? Where speciﬁcally are these hormones produced, and what are the functions of these hormones? See ﬁgure 14.7 Blue- Gastrin, Green- Secretin, Purple- CCK 48. List and describe digestive functions of the liver, pancreas and gallbladder. Liver- Produces bile Pancreas- Endocrine (associated with hormones) and exocrine function Gallbladder- Concentrates and stores bile 49. Describe why we need carbohydrates, lipids and proteins in our diets. Why do we need water? Carbohydrates- primary energy source Lipids- energy source, necessary for synthesis of plasma membranes and some hormones Proteins- growth and development 50. What are vitamins? Which vitamins are fat soluble? Water soluble? Vitamins- organic compounds needed for metabolic purposes but the body is unable to produce Fat soluble- A,D,E,K Water soluble- vitamins not stored in the body, the remaining 9 (B complex and vitamin C) 51. What is rickets? Pellagra? Scurvy? Rickets- Due to vitamin d deﬁciency. Forces the knees outward and the feet to be inward Pellagra- Due to niacin (vitamin B3) deﬁciency. Causes the skin to look charred. Scurvy- Due to vitamin C deﬁciency. Causes bleeding of the gums. 52. Why do we need calcium, sodium, potassium, iron and iodine? Calcium- needed for strong bones and teeth. Also nerve conduction and muscle contraction Sodium- Nerve conduction, pH and water balance Potassium- nerve conduction and muscle contraction Iron- Hemoglobin synthesis Iodine- Thyroid hormone synthesis 53. Deﬁne or describe: pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, colon polyps, colon cancer, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, jaundice Pancreatitis- inﬂammation of the pancreas Pancreatic Cancer- almost always fatal because its resistance to drug treatment Colon polyps- small growths arising from the epithelial lining of the colon colon cancer- starts with a polyp that then develops into cancer infecting all the layers of the colon Gastric ulcer- an erosion of the stomach lining. Duodenal ulcer- Occurs in the duodenal (small intestine) resulting from eroded areas of the stomach lining Helicobacter pylori- a bacteria that most of us have in our bodies that attacks the lining of the stomach Hepatitis- inﬂammation of the liver Cirrhosis of the liver- liver tissue is replaced with ﬁbrous scar tissue Jaundice- symptom of hepatitis and cirrhosis- the whites of the eyes yellow and so does the skin. This is caused because the liver cannot metabolize bilirubin. 54. What are the functions of the following digestive enzymes? pancreatic amylase, maltase, trypsin, peptidase, lipase........see ﬁgure 14.12 Where are these enzymes produced? See pp 261- 262. Pancreatic amylase- carbohydrate digestion, secreted by the surface cells of small intestinal villi Maltase- carbohydrate digestion, secreted by the surface cells of small intestinal villi Trypsin- protein digestion, produced by the pancreas Peptidase- protein digestion, produced in the small intestine Lipase- fat digestion, produced in the pancreas CHAPTER 15 55. Deﬁne or describe: internal respiration, external respiration, inspiration, expiration, ventilation, red blood cells, capillaries, hemoglobin, alveoli, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, pharynx, larynx, epiglottis, pleura, diaphragm, surfactant, infant respiratory distress syndrome, pharyngitis, strep throat, Streptococcus pyogenes, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, tuberculosis, emphysema, pulmonary ﬁbrosis, lung cancer, COPD. Internal respiration- exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) between blood and the tissue ﬂuid External respiration- exchange of gases (O2 and CO2) between ari and the blood, transport gases to and from the lungs and the tissues. Inspiration- Active phase. Diaphragm contracts (becomes ﬂattened) and intercostals contract(rise rib cage up and out). Increases volume of thoracic cavity. Lowers air pressure inside alveoli. Air rushes in due to negative pressure. Expiration- Passive phase. Diaphragm and intercostals relax. Decreases volume of thoracic cavity. Raises air pressure inside alveoli. Air rushes out. Ventilation- Continuous column of air from pharynx to alveoli. The lungs lie in the sealed off thoracic cavity. The lungs adhere to the thoracic wall by way of the pleurae Red blood cells- small biconcave, disk shaped cells without nuclei Capillaries- the ﬁne branching blood vessels that form a network between arterioles and venules Hemoglobin- protein found in blood that attaches to oxygen to transport it through the blood Alveoli- Thin walled microscopic air sacs in the lungs. Passage of air to the bronchi. Bronchi- Paired tubes inferior to the trachea that enter the lungs. Passage of air to t he lungs. Bronchioles- Branched tubes that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli. Passage of air to each alveolus. Trachea- Flexible tube that connects the larynx and the bronchi. Passage of air for the bronchi. Pharynx- connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx (voice box) Larynx- passageway for air between pharynx and trachea. Includes vocal cords that vibrate to make noise Epiglottis- prevents food from entering the respiratory tract. It moves over so that food and water don’t go down the “wrong pipe” Pleura- each pair of serous membranes lining the thorax and enveloping the lungs Diaphragm- The muscle that separates the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity Surfactant- a ﬁlm of lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension and prevents the alveoli from closing Infant respiratory distress syndrome- makes it hard for infants to breathe Pharyngitis- inﬂammation of the throat usually caused by an infection Strep throat- a sore throat with fever caused by streptococcal infection Streptococcus pyogenes- a bacterium of genus that includes the agents of souring of milk, and hemolytic pathogens causing various infections like scarlet fever and pneumonia Bronchitis- inﬂammation of the primary and secondary bronchi or the airways are ﬁlled with mucus Asthma- Disease of the bronchi and the bronchioles that is marked by wheezing, breathlessness, and sometimes coughing Pneumonia- infection of the lungs when the bronchi or the alvavi are ﬁlled with a thick ﬂuid Tuberculosis- an infectious bacterial disease by the growth of tubercles in the tissues, and especially in the lungs Emphysema- the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness Pulmonary ﬁbrosis- common lung diseases caused by ﬁbrous connective tissue build up in the lungs causing a loss in elasticity Lung Cancer- more prevalent in men than in women but is the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD)- is a condition that makes it hard to breathe and worsens over time 56. Exposure to carbon monoxide can be life-threatening. Why? This colorless, odorless gas is the incomplete burning of gases. It can be deadly because carboxyhemoglobin takes up the connections between the hemoglobin that generally carries oxygen through the blood. 57. Trace the path of air beginning with the nostrils and/or mouth through the airways to the alveoli. Gas exchange occurs between air in the alveoli and blood within a capillary network that surrounds the alveoli Pulmonary arteriole carries O2 poor blood away from the heart to the alveoli. Carbon dioxide leaves the blood and oxygen enters The pulmonary venule carries O2 rich blood from the alveoli toward the heart 58. Carbon dioxide dissociates and travels through the plasma back to the lungs as__? It is reformed in the lungs. - 59. Describe the functions of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm in ventilation. 60. Why are humans called negative-pressure breathers? See p 284 notice that air comes into the lungs because they have already opened up. Air does not force the lungs open. This is why it is sometimes said that humans inhale by negative pressure. while inspiration is the active phase of breathing, the actual ﬂow of air into the alveoli is passive. 61. Where is the respiratory center located? Information from the respiratory center is sent to the __________ and _______________by way of the __________and ___________. See ﬁgure 15.8 The respiratory center is directly sensitive to levels of ___________ and _________ions in the blood. See p 285. Respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata of the brain Sent to the respiratory center by the way of the vagus nerve. Sensitive to levels of CO2 and H(hydrogen?) Chapter 11 Clicker questions Question: _______ epithelial tissue consists of multiple layers of ﬂattened cells. Answer: Stratiﬁed squamous The primary mechanism that keeps a variable close to a set point is____. Answer: Negative feedback - Chapter 12 Clicker Questions Question: ____ are the most numerous type of vessel in the human body. Answer: Capillaries Question: Blood low in oxygen, returning from the body, ﬁrst enters the heart at ____ Answer: Right Atrium Question: _____ fragments Answer: Plantents Chapter 13 Clicker Questions Question: Which of the following is a primary lymphoid organ? Answer: Thymus gland Question: Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system Answer: produce clotting factors Question: Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets arise from stem cells located in the ______ Answer: red bone marrow Question: Which of the following is classiﬁed as “innate” immunity? Answer: all of the above- physical barriers like the skin and mucous membranes, inﬂammation, phagocytes, complement proteins Chapter 14 Clicker Questions Question- Secretin, gastrin, and CCK in humans are____ Answer- all hormones that control digestive secretions Which organ is the major site for chemical digestion and absorption Answer- small intestine NEED TO KNOW THE CHART AND WHAT EACH PART IS/ DOES/ LOCATED Which of the following associations is not true? Answer- Vitamin E is necessary for blood clotting
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