Education Psychology Midterm Study Guide
Education Psychology Midterm Study Guide EDUC 21010
Popular in Educational Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Williamson on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDUC 21010 at Ithaca College taught by Kacey Wochna in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology in Education and Teacher Studies at Ithaca College.
Reviews for Education Psychology Midterm Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/07/16
ED PSYCH MIDTERM REVIEW OUTLINE RESEARCH METHODS Be able to describe, identify, provide examples, and apply to novel scenarios. o Theory - A theory is an organized explanation of a phenomenon based on evidence. Psychological theories describe, explain, and predict behavior. A theory can be evaluated based on its explanatory power and its predictive power. o Hypothesis - A hypothesis is a specific prediction about what will happen given a particular set of circumstances. A useful hypothesis is falsifiable, whic h means it is possible to identify evidence that would show it to be wrong o Advantages of Scientific Research o Representation o Control o Objectivity o Publication – peer reviewed and criticized o Replication – more data o Research Methods o Naturalistic observation – Observations of behavior under natural, uncontrolled conditions. The researcher watches and/or listens to the participants, either in person or via a recording , doesn’t always answer all the questions o Structured observation - Observations of behavior unde r conditions set up by the researcher, often in a controlled laboratory setting. The researcher watches and/or listens to the participants, either in person or via a recording. o Unstructured interview - Self-report from participants who are interviewed using a flexible, conversational style. Questions are usually administered by an interviewer and are mostly open-ended. o Structured interview - Self-report from participants who are asked a standardized set of questions in a standardized way. Questions can be administered by an interviewer or through a questionnaire and are often close - ended, although open-ended questions can be used. o Case study - In-depth examination of a single individual or group using a combination of data collection methods o Psychophysiological - Methods that measure the physiological bases of psychological states and behavior. Examples include measures of brain functioning, such as brain waves (EEG, ERP) and neuroimaging (fMRI), cardiovascular functioning (heart rate, blood pressure), skin r esponse, hormone levels, and eye movements o Descriptive Design - A descriptive design describes what exists. A descriptive study provides detailed information about the characteristics of a specific population or phenomenon. Descriptive designs can answer d escriptive questions, such as, “What is your favorite candy like?” o Correlational Design - A correlational design looks for relationships. A correlational study provides measures of whether two or more characteristics, or variables, occur together or change together. Correlational designs can answer relational questions, such as, “Do children eat more candy than adults?” o Experimental Design - An experimental design tests cause and effect. An experimental study provides measures of how deliberately changing o ne or more variables (independent variables) affects one or more outcomes (dependent variables). Experimental designs can answer causal questions, such as, “Does eating candy make people happier?” o Independent Variable – manipulated by experimenter by rando mly assigning participants to different conditions o Dependent Variable – measured to see whether it was influenced by independent variable o Random Sample o Random Assignment gives probabilistic consignment o Reliability – measurement error minimized. o Inter-rater reliability – agreement of raters o Test-retest reliability – stability over time o Validity (test, internal, external) o External validity - results can be generalized § Sampling methods § Sample size § Realism – representative of population o Internal validity – do results demonstrate causality? § Confounding variables § Attrition § Social threats o Test validity – are variables accurately represented o Correlation Coefficient (R) tells direction and strength or correlation , can be used with correlational design and experimen tal design. In an experimental design the coefficient represents causality MOTIVATION Be able to describe, identify, provide examples, and apply to novel scenarios. o Expectancy-Value Theory (expectancies, values) o Expectancies are beliefs and judgments abou t capabilities to perform tasks successfully § Will I be able to do this? • Skills, effort, factors out of control o Perceptions of Self (self -esteem, self-concept, self-efficacy) o Self efficacy – judgment about ability to perform specific tasks, based on past experiences § Emotional arousal, past outcomes, verbal persuasion, vicarious experience o Self-concept – judgments about competence in specific areas, break it down in hierarchy § When you have less choice, expectancies are more important o Self-esteem – judgments about self, active/emotional cloud o Achievement Goal Theory ( Orientations: Mastery or Performance; Focus: Approach or Avoid) o Mastery – success is defined as improvement, mastery, learning • Value is placed on attempting challenges • Reason for effort is persona l meaning of activity • Evaluation is based on set criteria, evidence of progress • Errors are viewed as informational and part of learning § Approach – learn and grow § Avoid – never be wrong • Self oriented perfectionist o Performance – success is defined as best p erformance, winning • Value is placed on avoiding failure • Reason for effort is demonstrating one’s worth • Evaluation is based on norms and social comparisons • Errors are views as evidence of lack of ability/worth § Approach – look the best § Avoid – don’t look bad • Care about other peoples evaluations o Self-Determination Theory (need for competence, autonomy, belonging) o Need for competence – to experience mastery o Need for autonomy – to be in control of one’s life o Need for relatedness – to be connected to others o Theory of Mindset/Ability Beliefs (fixed or growth ) o Dweck’s theory § Fixed – set amount, fixed capacity • Avoid challenges • Give up easily • Low effort • Ignore useful criticism • Threatened by success of others § Growth – can improve with effort • Embrace challenges • Persist in face of setbacks • Effort as necessary • Learn from criticism • Find lessons in success of others § Competition, comparison and failure can mess with mindset § Mindset is malleable but it is shaped in elementary school (when we learn to differentiate between skill and effort) o Attribution Theory (locus, stability, control) - How we explain a success or failure o Locus – internal or external (feelings or self-worth, self-concept) o Stability – stable or unstable (consistency of event) o Control – controllable or uncontrollable (how we respond emotionally like pride or anger or apathy) o Learned Helplessness – consistent, stable uncontrollable attributions are the worst option for motivation o People get used to failure/pain and think there’s no way out or way to change it so they become passive and perceive less possibilities of how to get themselves out o Self-Handicapping – setting low standards and coping with personal failure LEARNING THEORIES Be able to describe the major philosophical differences between the perspectives , explain how learning occurs according to each, and apply to novel scenarios. o Behaviorism o Operant conditioning (Skinner) § Environmental cue à behavioral response à environmental consequence ß and back to environmental cue o Cognitivism o Cognitive information processing – looking at the function or our memory o Constructivism o Individual or cognitive – learning is an active process in which meaning is developed based on experience. Learning results from a personal interpretation of knowledge o Social – learning is a social activity collaborative, meaning negotiated from multiple perspectives o Contextualism or internationalism – knowledge cannot be separated from context. Useful when situated in realistic settings o Schema Theory § Organization of information into scheme s § Adaptation • Assimilation • Accommodation § Equilibrium/disequilibrium (cognitive conflict) o Sociocultural Theory (Vygotsky) § Zone of proximal development – what the learner can achieve with assistance § Above = what the learner cannot yet achieve, anxiety § Below = what learner can achieve independently, boredom o Social Cognitive Theory – learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context. We observe behaviors and then make decisions about them o Situated Learning Theory – what is learned cannot be se parated from how it is learned (context). Try to teach things in the way they’ll be used o Learning is increasing participation in a community of practice through the ability to use its concepts and tool § Learning is strictly social § We could be in the core of the learning community or on the periphery but build up participation GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT Be able to describe, identify, provide examples, and apply to novel scenarios. o Passive Genetic-Environmental Correlation o Passive gene-environment correlation refers to the association between the genotype a child inherits from his or her parents and the environment in which the child is raised o Evocative Genetic-Environmental Correlation o Evocative (or reactive) gene -environment correlation happens when an individual's (heritable) behavior evokes an environmental response o Active Genetic-Environmental Correlation/Niche -Picking o Active gene-environment correlation occurs when an individual possesses a heritable propensity to select environmen tal exposure o Ecological Systems Theory (individual, microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem) o Microsystem § Directly affecting you o Mesosystem § Relationships between microsystems o Exosystem § Communities indirectly affecting you o Macrosystem § Values, ideologies o Chronosystem § Time (sociocultural and lifespan)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'