CHEM 1030 Cagg Exam 2 Study Guide
CHEM 1030 Cagg Exam 2 Study Guide Chem 1030
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Monday March 7, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 1030 at Auburn University taught by Brett A Cagg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/07/16
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE (CAGG) Chapter 3.5-3.10 Important Concepts • The principle quantum number (n): the main energy level/shell, the higher the “n” is, the further away the level/shell is away from the nucleus. • The angular quantum number (ℓ): this describes the shape of the orbital. 0 and n-1 - If n=2 then ℓ=0 and 1 • The magnetic quantum number (m ): thiℓ describes the orientation. - If n=3 then m =ℓ-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3 • The spin quantum number (m ): t▯is describes the spin, -1/2 or +1/2. Ø SPECIAL INFORMATION - ℓ=0 is an “s” orbital - ℓ=1 is a “p” orbital - ℓ=2 is a “d” orbital - Electron capacity for each shell is 2n ▯ o n=1à 2 o n=2à 8 o n=3à 18 o n=4à 32 Chapter 4 Important Concepts • Atomic radius: the distance between 2 nuclei divided by 2. - Trends on the periodic table for atomic radius o As you go right or up, the atomic radius gets smaller. o As you go left or down, the atomic radius gets bigger. • Shielding: the nucleus attracts the electrons in the outer most shell towards it; however, the electrons in the shells that are in between the nucleus and the outer most shell, push them back. • Ionic radius: the radius of an atom’s cation (+) or an anion (-). - The ionic radius of a cation would be smaller than the ionic radius of an anion, due to an anion having more electrons. - Example: a regular carbon atom has the electron configuration of 1s 2s 2p and ▯ 4 electrons in its valence shell. o A carbon cation (+1 charge) will have the electron configuration of 1s 2s 2p ▯ ▯ and 3 electrons in its valence shell due to having 1 less electron to make it a cation. ▯ ▯ ▯ o A carbon anion (-1 charge) will have the electron configuration of 1s 2s 2p and 5 electrons in its valence shell due to having 1 extra electron to make it an anion. • Ionization energy: the energy it takes to remove an electron (can also be called cationization—since you’re making the atom more positive by removing the electrons). EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE (CAGG) - Trends on the periodic table for ionization energy o As you go right or up, the energy required to remove an electron becomes very hard—more energy required. o As you go left or down, the energy required to remove an electron becomes much easier—less energy required. • Effective nuclear charge: the nuclear energy felt by an electron due to the effect of shielding from the inner shell electrons. Z▯▯▯= proton # (Z) – inner shell electrons (S) - Example: find the effective nuclear charge for magnesium o Protons: 12 o Inner shell electrons: (subtract valence electrons from proton number) 10 o Z ▯▯▯= 12-10, so the effective nuclear charge is 2 - Trends on the periodic table for effective nuclear charge. o As you go right or up, the effective nuclear charge increases. o As you go left or down, the effective nuclear charge decreases. • Electron affinity: the energy that is released from an atom that is in the gas phase, when it accepts an electron. - Trends on the periodic table for electron affinity o As you go right or up, the electron affinity increases. o As you go left or down, the electron affinity decreases. Chapter 5 Important Concepts • Ionic compound: consists of anions and cations that are held together by ionic bonding. - Naming ionic compounds o If the charges are the same, all you have to do is write the first element as is, and then replace the ending with –ide off the second element § Example: Na and F will be “sodium fluoride” o If charges are different, then you first have to balance out the charges, and then proceed with using the same rules as if the charges were the same. § Example: Al and O ▯▯ you will first write the compound as Al O so that ▯ ▯ the charges are balanced, then you will write the first element as is, and add –ide to the ending of the second element, so it will be aluminum oxide o If the compound contains a transition metal, then you will chose the charge of the transition metal to match the charge of the second element. Then, you will write the first element as is, then write the charge of the transition element in roman numerals, and add –ide to the second element. § Example: SnI y▯u will first notice that the subscript for iodine is 2, so that will tell you the charge needed for tin, which is also 2. You will write the compound as tin (II) iodide EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE (CAGG) • Binary compound: consists of a metal and a nonmetal. - Naming binary compounds o You use the same rules as ionic compound naming. • Covalent compound: consists of 2 nonmetals - Naming covalent compounds o When naming covalent compounds you use the subscripts of each element as a prefix, so if the subscript on an element is 2 you would add “di” before the element name, the second element also gets an –ide to replace the ending. § Example: N O▯would be written as dinitrogen monoxide • Polyatomic ions: a compound that has 2 covalently bonded atoms. - Example: BrO à▯bromate, PO à ph▯sphate • Oxoanions: polyatomic ions that have more than one oxygen atom. - Naming Oxoanions o Ions with one more oxygen atom than the –ate ion, has per at the beginning and -ate at the end. § Example: CIO à▯perchlorate ion o Ions with one less oxygen atom than the –ate anion, has –ite at the end. § Example: CIO à▯chlorite ion o Ions with 2 less oxygen atoms than the –ate ion, has hypo at the beginning and –ite at the end. § Example: CIO à Hypochlorite ion • Molecular mass: the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in the elements, which make up a specific molecule. - Example: H O▯ 2(1.008 amu)+16.00 amu=18.02 amu Chapter 6 Important Concepts • The octet rule: atoms will gain or lose electrons to get 8 electrons on their valence shell. They want to achieve the same stability as the noble gasses. • Electronegativity: the ability for an atom to draw shared electrons to itself. - A bond where the electronegativity between the atoms is less than 0.5 is said to be nonpolar. - A bond where the electronegativity between the atoms is between 0.5 and 2.0, is said to be polar covalent. - A bond where the electronegativity between the atoms is more than 2.0 is said to be ionic. EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE (CAGG)
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