LAST 170 Midterm Exam Study Guide
LAST 170 Midterm Exam Study Guide LAST 170
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Date Created: 03/07/16
LAST 170 Midterm Exam: Wednesday, March 9 and Friday, March 11, 2016. Wednesday and Friday during usual class time Wednesday: ● Students with last names beginning with AK will take the test in 100 Gregory Hall ● Students with last names beginning with LZ will take the test in 66 Library ● Please bring a #2 pencil ● Please sit everyother desk in exam room Friday: ● Students will go to their scheduled discussion sections and take the second part of the exam. *****NO NOTES/MATERIALS ARE ALLOWED FOR EITHER PART OF THE EXAM****** Format: 3 essay questions; 40 multiple choice questions; 8 fillintheblank questions; and 8 twosentence answers. Essay questions: answer the following questions. Each one is worth a total of 40 points ACTUAL ESSAY QUESTIONS FOR THE EXAM 1.) We have covered four case studies focusing on different topics: land, foreign intervention, race and natural resources. Choose one of the four topics (and countries) and explain how the colonial era established some of the trends of the topic that are visible in a more contemporary period (the past 30 years or so) (10 points). Then identify and explain what other moments in the history of the country were important in addressing issues related to this topic (10 points). Finally, discuss how other case studies that we have covered, demonstrate that this topic has also been a relevant issue in that country, indicating any similarities/differences that exist (15 points). Reference and demonstrate understanding of at least one reading in your answer (5 points). 2.) Explain Trouillot’s concepts of history and silencing and why they are important in our study of Latin America (10 points). Demonstrate how the following materials from this course relate to Trouillot’s concepts of history and silencing (10 points each): the episode of City of Men watched in Lecture 13, the readings by Diaz de Castillo/Cortes/ Elliot from Feb. 3, and the events surrounding the sinking of the USS Maine as explained in Lecture 10 and the Brenner reading. 3.) What was the role of the Catholic Church and Christianity during the colonial period (10 pts)? Using at least two of the following readings (B. de las Casas, Sor Juana and/or Fr. Stroebel), describe the complexity of that role (15 pts). We have discussed the terms persistence, resistance and hybridity in this course. Provide examples of each of these terms in relationship to religion in the colonial period (your answers should demonstrate your understanding of those three terms) (15 pts). Instructions for the Two Sentence Answers: Identify the terms and connect it to other course material. Your first sentence should answer who or what the term refers to. Your second sentence should connect the term to a broader theme discussed in this class. EXAMPLES a) MST: Stands for the Landless Workers Movement, a contemporary movement in Brazil fighting to obtain land titles for farmworkers. The MST is important to our discussion of unequal land distribution in Latin America. b) Potosí: Silver mining city in Bolivia, exploited since the early 1600s by colonial Spain. Potosí is important to our understanding of the exploitation of natural resources during the colonial period. (Or sentence 2 could be: Potosi provides understanding of how the Spanish reintroduced the mita labor draft.) Concepts and Terms organized by week: Week 2: John Chasteen's changing foci of U.S. thinking on Latin America from the early 20th century to the present: 1. Racial/Cultural and Environmental Determinism (Until 1930s) ○ Racial Explanations ■ Afro and Indigenous populations and racial mixture does not create the best kind of population ○ Cultural explanations: ■ Catholic cultural traits inferior to protestant cultural traits ○ Environmental explanations: ■ Weather is bad for economic activity ● Solution: The region needed European immigration 2. Modernization Theory (19401970) ● Developmentalism or Modernization Theory ○ Underdeveloped Countries→ Developed Countries ● Backward mentalities need to be modernized ○ Focus and blame to the elites for maintaining certain systems that were holding LA back into underdeveloped system 3. Dependency Theory (1960s1980s) (PICTURE) ● In a world of winners and losers, Latin America stated losing ○ Semiperiphery and periphery can never escape ○ Dependant system that cannot get out of 4. Social Constructionism (1990stoday) ● Contemporary perspectives on Latin America ● Identity politics: gender, race, class, religion, national and regional identities ○ Model for other places to use because combines many aspect to make LA what it is To understand... ● the world ● human condition (in the way that they have dealt with these situations) ● complex relationship between the US and the countries of LA ● Consider in which contexts LA is useful/not History of the term ‘Latin America’ ○ Chilean sociology Francisco Bilbas (18231865) is claimed to have coined the term ○ Made popular during the mid19th century by the French under Napoleon the II (political and economic region ○ Distinguish the two ● Take into account similarities and difference ● think critically about representations and stereotypes ● avoid thinking in generalizations and assume complexity Reasons why Latin America could be considered a myth and a reality Yes and No: ● Yes stereotypes (skin, hair) ● Yes diversity (skin, hair, music) ● No similarities (patterns connected to colonial power) ● No strategic essentialism (things that have in common, they use to bind together emphasize similarities rather than differences in order to accomplish goals ) ● No historically useful (contemporary, reason why we speak the way we do, talk about it as a group, helpful) Trouillot’s theory of history: History understood as the distinction and overlap of the sociohistorical process (“what happened”) and the narratives about it (“what is said to have happened”). Cycles of silence ● Silencing the Past ○ History and power ○ Competing groups and individuals ○ Arguing that they are much less powerful ■ biased representation about what had happened ■ It's a powerful thing because we cannot always see it (not in the forefront of our mind)> why important to raise issues in this book ○ How does Trouillot comes to understand history ○ There are two parts of history that we we need to proces ● There is a distinction and an overlap between ○ 1. sociohistorical process (what happened) ○ 2. historical narrative (“what is said to have happened”) Understanding Trouillot Through The Battalion de San Patricio What does that mean for us? History is not the truth of what happened in the past” The past is anything that already happened We often cannot know what happened in the past ○ no info remains ○ people have different versions of events Yet, this does not mean that anything goes or the past is irrelevant ○ It’s plausible that this stuff has happened; valid The focus is not so much on what history is, but how it works; the process ○ don’t think about concrete facts/events that happened ■ talk about how history has worked in the way that people came up their story over time and how they came to accept their story History as social process involves people in three distinct capacities: ○ 1. Agentsin“relations” ■ these people have structural positions ● Class: instructor, students ○ 2. Actors “doing” ○ 3. Subjects “experiencing” ■ in regards to what’s going on ● can give voice to their experience based on what something is on Moments where Silence might enter History: ○ 1. fact creation (the making of sources) ■ silencing at the level of making sources ● Sources examples: primary accounts of what happened, eyewitnesses, a letter, newspaper ○ 2. fact assembly (the making of archives) ■ physical: collect historical info (online) ● Other: museum (repository for different artefacts), or a library (a lot of sources, contain sources) ○ 3. fact retrieval (the making of narratives ■ movies, museum exhibits (tell us narrative, shows us a bit, guides us in understanding of what has happened) ○ 4. retrospective significance (the making of history in the final instance)(1995):26) ■ governments gives us an official version of something (not anything less than any other… but it INCREASE SIGNIFICANCE of the source ● EX: memorials (something made public so people will only think that this is the real thing ● EX: movies make us think a certain way and how it is in a textbook across the entire country Understanding Trouillot through example ● Video about how the Irish were considered traitors by the Americans ● St. Patrick's Battalion (Battalion de San Patricio) ○ Story continued in Mexico and Ireland ■ US were ashamed and got rid of history ● Sociohistoric Processthere was a battalion of foreigners, many of whom were originally from Ireland who fought with Mexico during the war between Mexico and the US. A number of these men deserted from the US army. ○ Join Mexico’s side ● Historical Narrativehe interpretation you just watched, the feature film One Man’s Hero about the San Patricio’s, the numerous books about the subject, people’s renditions ● Executing Soldiers = fact creation ● Fact creationexecuting the San PAtricio’seliminating witnesses to tell their story, Destroying letter/ documents that tell of their existence, not reporting on them ○ destorring letters, docs of existence ● Fact assembly: not arching newspapers that report on the SP’s, Not including info about them in a museum about the war, not holding books about them in a library ○ Not include info / artefacts about them in museum (archive), NO FLAG ● Fact retrievalot including the SP’s in a book/ report/ exhibit about the war or history ○ missing in the war stories, found out when visiting mexico ● Retrospective SignificanceAbsence of the SP’s from collective knowledge, minimising contribution in memorials ○ minimizing memorials or celebration, statue (nature of war and desertion, but doesn’t explain why not in history… we could have learned how certain immigrant groups were feeling in the past, more connected to other values, not part of common understanding in that part of history ○ Took on trivialness in US history, not relevant or care about… we should understand that his happened because these things are left out in our history) What is power? ● The relative control by one group/individual over something important to another group/individual When does power come to play in history ● Narrator ● The person or people with the power to tell the sotry/represent other ● Discourse ○ language that is used to tell the story The power in the story: the narrator matters ● Consider who is doing the representing, for whom, why, etc. ● History is told by the victors ● Ex: Sofia Vergara on Modern Family The power in the story: Discourse Matters ● Examples: Discovery, Encounter, Conquest ● Latin America, Hispanic America, America ● LAST 170 as a NonWestern Course Silences in history ● Which are the 4 moments in which silence enters the process of historical production? ○ In the UShttp://www.cnn.com/2015/02/18/us/oklahomaaphistory ○ Silencing because we can have the power to do that ■ Silenced because didn’t include certain speeches ● Inferior People in the situation are going to be voiced because they were not before. ○ EX: Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X had been considered inferior people because AfricanAmericans were discriminated against ○ Fact retrieval because of narratives and how people Caral ● Made earthquake resistant structures that are still e ulated today. ● The oldest town in the New Worlds ● Peru ● Ancient Pyramids = Before Incas Incan Empire (14631532) ● A member of the group of Quechuan peoples of highland Peru who established an e mpire from northern Ecuador to central Chile before the Spanish conquest. b. A ruler or highranking member of the Inca Empire . 2. A member of any of the peoples ruled by the Incas ● Language: Quechua ● Llamas ○ Andes Mountains → raised livestock ● Ayllu ● Smaller community inside of the empire ● Related to kinship, family, and community building ● Origins in 13th Century ● Expansion and Empire ○ Colombia, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, Peru have similarities Key Feature of Andean Civilization ● Incas were the ruling class ● Quechua Language ○ Indigenous, not everyone speaks spanish as main language ● Textiles as main medium of communication khipu ● Adaptation to tropical mountain environment ○ Terraces* ○ Varied use of the potato* ○ Ability to farm or raise livestock (llama / alpacas)* ● Administrative / logistical Unification of Large Areas ○ Roads* ○ Efficient communication (runners) ○ Architecture* ○ “State” managed economy* Inca Terraces (Peru) ● Adaptation to tropical mountain environment Potatoes ● Adaptation to environment / food preservation: freezedried potatoes (chuno) The puna (4,000+) High grasslands of the Andes ● Adaptation to tropical mountain environment; Raising livestock ○ Help with labor work, producing food and wool ● Llamas are still important in highlands today Inca Road Works ● 40,000 km (25,000 mi) of roadway ○ Stones to make paths ● Bridges Monumental Works and Labor ● surplus ○ Many people were available to work ● strong state power ○ Powerful as rulers because they were able to organize people to create monumental works ■ EX: Machu Picchu ● In depth, difficult, still standing Social Organization ● Ayllu:kinship / family groups ○ social unit that existed on the Inca empire ● Mita: reciprocal labor system; under Spanish became a rotational labor tax / draft ○ contributed labor for the betterment of the society Lifestyle of original Inhabitant of the Americas Sedentary (with state organization and imperial projects) ● Mesoamerican peoples (Aztex, Maya ● Andean People (Inca) Semisedentary peoples ● TupiGuarani ● Mapuche Sedentary Peoples ● Arawak ● Chibcha INSERT OTHER GROUP HERE Nonsedentary peoples ● Chichimecas ● People of the Argentine pampas Decline of the Inca Empire ● Internal civil war between brothers Atahualpa and Huascar ○ FAther died so needed to decide rule ○ Internal conflict ● Spanish Invasion under Pizarro 15261533 ● Cajamarca and Emperor Atahualpa’s death in 1533 ● Guaman Poma’s depiction of Sapa Inca Atahualpa surrounded by Spaniards Quipu/Khipu ● Textile form of communication with knots (records) ○ Stringknot that was used to communicate (recorded history for Incas and Caral) mita ● Rotation of Labor system to build the empire spiral symbol ● The spiral is one of the oldest symbols used by humans. It appeared thousands of years ago in southwestern Native American tribal areas on cave walls and on ancient pottery. ● Spirals to the Zunis and Puebloans represent water, wind and creatures associated with water such as snails and serpents. ● It also represents man’s “ journey in search of the center”. ● From Petroglyphs, Keam’s Canyon, Hopi Mesas, Arizona “It is a decoration of great frequency and consisting of single and double spirals. The single spiral is the symbol of Hobobo, the twister who manifests his power by the whirlwind. The myth explains that a stranger came among the people, when a great whirlwind blew all the vegetation from the surface of the earth and all the water from its courses. With a flint, he caught these symbols upon a rock, the etching of which is now in Keam’s Canyon. It is 17 inches long and 8 inches across. He told them he was the keeper of the breath. The whirlwind and the air which men breathe come from this keeper’s mouth.” ● The spiral also symbolized a way of planting, starting at the center and moving out in circles as they planted. In Navajo it was called ha’oolmaaz Tupi Guarani ● Slash and burn agriculture ○ to grow crops there ○ stayed until unable to produce and move to other places ● SemiSedentary ● Almost exterminated by disease and slavery Aztecs ● 10 million subjects ● Height of Empire (13001500 AD) ● Capital: Tenochtitlan ○ Presentday Mexico City Area ○ Find eagle eating a snake → setup civilization at that location ● Speakers of the Nahuatl Language SPANISH CONQUEST OF THE AZTECS ● NOTTTT Cortes says he was welcomes by Moctezuma as the reincarnation of Quetzalcoatl ● IT IS the descendent of a chieftain ● Hernan Cortes seen as chieftain, criticized if the truth ● Quetzalcoatl deity no Hernan ● Moctezuma II ● Cortes was stationed in Cuba (staging ground) ● Permitted to Land expedition to MExico ● Landed in Veracruz ● Wanted to explore more, not obey mandate to stay on shore ● Wants to explore more because made a leader at Mexico ○ A lot of indigenous contact ● Many were Aztecs but not all ○ Meets them ■ Some opposition to spaniards ● Finds out a lot about them ● Some big empire that he is going to come across ○ Tenochtitlan (MExico City) Capital ■ Not suspicious of the Spaniards, maybe if was then he would have not ○ ● Moctezuma Captures ● War Between 15191521 ○ Spanish against Spanish ○ Indians fighting each other ■ Both powerful ■ Not same mentality ■ Diversity ■ ● Disease ○ European diseases that struck the indigenous ■ 2 months outbreak of smallpox that killed half of Azteks. ● Siege of Tenochtitlan (1521) ○ Spaniards cut off because around water ○ August→ Aztec Surrender Mayas (ca 1800 BC) ● Height of civilization in the Classic Period: 250900 AD ● Only PreColombian society to have a written language ● Advanced ideas in mathematics and astrology ○ calenda Taíno ● Indigenous people of the Caribbean ● PreConquest population of Hispaniola: est. 500,000 ,000,000 Chinchorro ● The Chinchorro mummies aremummified remains of individuals from the South American Chinchorro culture, found in what is now northern Chile and southernPeru. They are the oldest examples of artificially mummified human remains, becoming popular by up to two thousand years before theEgyptia mummies Week 3: 1492 (3 major events and their significance) ● Columbus discovered the Americas ● Back in Europe, Conquest of Grenada→ drove conquest in Americas ● Expelled all of the Jews in Spain ○ Church becoming stronger in Spain Catholic Monarchs ● Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand ● Part of two kingdoms ○ United Spain ○ Spanish Inquisition ■ Converted mainly to Catholicism ● Pope was pleased→ Monarchs Christopher Columbus ● Meant to find West route to Asia ● Discovered the Americas (landed in Hispaniola) ● Cuba: Oct. 28, 1492 ○ The Land “the most lovely that the eyes have ever seen.” ○ 1512: Spanish settlement begins ○ Strategic location ■ First European Spanish would arrive to before the new world ● Staging ground for the mainland ○ Explore from there Hernan Cortes ● Invaded Aztec empire ● Montezuma ○ Welcoming, not suspicious ○ Relationships and conquering La Malinche ● 200,000 Indian Allies assisted Cortes ○ Found way to Aztecs before ○ Indigenous interpreter ■ Picked up Spanish easily ■ Became his lover Francisco Pizarro ● Captured Incan Empire ● Incan Empire was divided over civil war and unrest→ easy in La Malinche/Malintzen ● Interpreter between the Spanish and the Aztecs ● Traitor because helped Spanish Bartolome de las Casas ● Friar of the Church (Spanish ● Realized how the Indigenous were mistreated→ wrote many letters complaining to Spain about this ● Granted an encomienda ○ Indigenous slaves assigned→ not fair → advocate of indigenous ● Shows rupture in the Catholic chu ch Atahaulpa ● Civil war between his brother, Huascar, because father died so they were fighting for power ● Unrest in empire, allowed them to come in ● Arrogant about empire so that he brought them in very deep ● No armed men→ slaughter and captured Incan Civil War ● Internal civil war between brothers Atahualpa and Huascar ○ FAther died so needed to decide rule ○ Internal conflict ● Spanish Invasion under Pizarro 15261533 ● Cajamarca and Emperor Atahualpa’s death in 1533 ● Guaman Poma’s depiction of Sapa Inca Atahualpa surrounded by Spaniar s Moctezuma ● Leader of the Azte s Hatuey ● Taino leader ○ Stood up to Spaniards because he didn’t want to convert to the Spaniards ■ About to burn him by the stake ● Tell them that last chance to heaven ○ Heaven when the Christians go? I wanna go to ell Treaty of Tordesillas ● ofEncyclopædia Britannica, Inc.(June 7, 1494), agreement between Spain and Portugal aimed at settling conflicts over lands newly discovered or explored by Christopher Columbus and other late 15thcentury voyagers. ● Pope Alexander VI made a line = more land → Portugal Complained then they got a little more, but not m ch Pedro Alvares Cabral ● was a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil. Cabral conducted the first substantial exploration of the northeast coast of South America and claimed it for Portugal ● Came Later (Treaty was in 1492) encomienda system ● colonial Spanish America, legasystem by which the Spanish crown attempted todefine the status of the Indian population in its American colonies. It was based upon the practice of exacting tribute from Muslims and Jews during the Reconquista (“Reconquest”) of Muslim Spain. ● Priests with more power ● Entrustment with indigenous people to work as slaves for them ● Forced labo Portuguese colonization ● Began by focusing in Africa ● Southeast Asia PORTUGUESE ARRIVAL IN PRESENT DAY BRAZIL ● April 1500, presentday Bahia ● Pedro Alvares Cabral ● Colonization rather than conquest ○ 1. Portugal was very busy, many other colonies ■ Did not know extent of Brazil ● Did not know they had to worry to conquer ○ 2. No obvious wealth in Brazil ■ Major empires, mined valuable emperors NOPE NOT BRAZIL ● Not a necessity to get it from there ○ 3. No Massive Empires ■ Hadn’t seen a dominant group to overcome ● Protect indigenous in order to convert them Week 4: Plantation Societies Where? ● Brazil, Cuba, West Indies, Central America What? ● Tendency toward monocrop farming (sugar, coffee, bananas) Why? ● Constraints by climate, efficient ○ Focused on one crop that grew well Social Structure ● Controlled by small agrarian elite of criollo landowners ● Large labor force: Africans, Indians, mestizos / ladinos Outcomes: ● Dependency ○ Import of other foods and manufactured products ● Not Sustainable ○ Boom and bust cycles ■ One crop (not diversifying) ■ If problem→ disaster because cannot rely on something else ● Vast Inequities ○ Landowning elite get rich, everyone else is poor Legacy of Plantation Societies Legacies of colonial plantation societies are still strongly felt throughout Latin America (and the world) ● Vast inequalities ● Dependence on monocrop production for export ● Financial power largely in foreign interest ● Dependence on importation of food and manufactured goods ● Cultural Production Extraction Economies Where? ● Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Mexico What? ● Mining of metals (silver & gold especially) Social Structure ● Controlled by nobles in the Americas ● Relied on indigenous labor and some African slaves Outcome ● Pillaging of natural resources ● High Inequalities Silver Mines ● 15031660 more than 7 million pounds of silver reached Sevilla ● Production of silver in Americas 10 times more than in Europe ● 3 Phases: ○ 15501630 staggering production* ■ Big boom, mined all out ○ 16301700stagnation* ○ 17001810another big boom** *Production led by Bolivia; **Production led by Mexico viceroyalty Colonial Viceroyalties ● Mexico/Central America: Viceroyalty of New Spain (1522, Mexico City) ○ Caribbean: iceroyalty of New Spain ● Peru/Andes Region:iceroyalty of Peru1942, Lima) ● BrazilViceroyalty of Braz (1773, Rio de Janeiro) ● Panama/Colombia/Venezuela/Ecuador: iceroyalty of New Granada(1717, Bogotá) ● Argentina/Paraguay/Uruguay:Viceroyalty of the Rio de la P(1776, Buenos Aires) Mercantilism Colonial Economic System: Mercantilism (1500searly 1800s) 1. National Wealth measured by bullion (gold, silver) 2. Favorable balance of trade a. Greater exports than imports b. If someone benefits, someone else loses (not everyone wins) i. BE THE WINNER 3. Sea power a. Merchant fleets and military power i. To achieve favorable trade balance→ have strong merchant fleet ships 4. Colonies a. Important because it helped them maintain the system b. Colonies provided raw materials for export c. Provided large labor force 5. Active role of the state State Control: ● Prohibited colonial trade with other European powers ● Limited trade routes ○ Use of few colonial ports and one peninsular port (Seville) until 1720; then Cadiz US was not the richest colony during colonial times (Atlantic) Triangular Slave Trade ● European finished goods to Africa ● American Raw Materials to Europe ○ EXAMPLES: Guns, copper, cloth, rum to Africa Enslaved Africans to the Americas Sugar, cacao, molasses, hemp to Europe ● Enslaved Africans to the Americans Emancipation ● 1838 British territories ● 1848 French territories ● 1863 United States ● 1876 Puerto Rico ● 1886 Cuba ● 1888 Brazil Potosí, Bolivia ● Potosi mountain, “Cerro Rico” ● 16,000 ft. above sea level ● filled with silver (ore contains 4050% silver) ● city founded to mine silver ● Mita Labor Draft (1573) ○ Promised pope they wouldn’t use as slaves, teach religion ■ Once discovered so much silver→ draft ○ 1/7 of 1850 yr. old males ○ 13,000 men/year ○ 1 week on / 2 off ○ wages less than expenses ■ Because they needed to relocate ● Minimal wages ○ arduous and dangerous ■ Disease was common ○ Purpose of mita was to enrich colonial government and spanish colonies Mitayos’ revenge: ● snuch ore out via wives ● worked for keep on days off ● used lowquality ore to fulfill quotas; kept high quality ore ○ Sold lowquality to spanish; High quality for work of own Legacy of Extraction Societies Legacies of colonial extraction societies are still strongly felt throughout Latin America (and the world) ● Vast inequalities ● Exploitation of nonrenewable natural resources ○ Went through the renaissance ● Control of natural resources still in foreign hands mita ● Mit'a (Quechua pronunciation: mɪ ˌtʼa]) was mandatory public service in the society of the Inca Empire. Historians use the hispanicizedmita to differentiate the system as it was modified and intensified by the Spanish colonial government. Sugar Early Sugar Plantations ● 1400s ○ Canary Island (Spain) ○ Sao Tome (Portugal) ● Caribbean: 11516 first shipment back to Spain ● Brazil: 1526 supplying Portugal Sugarcane ● 1626 Brazil Supplied most of Europe’s Sugar ● Haiti and then Cuba become import producers ● Today Brazil is still the largest producer of sugarcane Sugar and Slavery ● Sugar Cane requires much land and manpower ● Owners got rich ● Huge wealth disparity ● Slave life expectancy: 715 years ● 3.5 years to recover cost of slave; so still profitable ● Other industries remain undeveloped Beyond Misery ● Enslaved persons created spaces for religion, music, dance, rituals, etc. ○ African beliefs ○ Music traditions from Africa ■ Exposure to European instruments ○ Dance ■ Traditional practices combined with how to manipulate in slave system ● Runaways quilombos Haitian Independence The Haitian Revolution (17911804) ● Extremely wealthy colony ○ Sugar ● Influenced by French Revolution (1789) ● Second independent country in the Americas ○ Inspired them to do the same as the french ● First Black Republic ● Slave revolution turned independant country ● Haiti’s revolution Also fueled further independence movements On the Eve of Independence ● Napoleon’s control of Europe, 18081814 ○ King Ferdinand VII ○ Relocation of Portuguese Monarchy ○ Queen Maria I Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz Sor Juana’s Complaint: ● Men push women to submit to their desires, but then shame them for doing so ● If they don’t submit then they are seen as cold and men feel offended Racial/Gender Hierarchies in colonial period Colonial Hierarchies ● Peninsulares People born in the Iberian Peninsula ● Criolles Americanborn offspring of Peninsulares ● Mestizo/Mulato/Coyote/Lobo/Zambos/Cholos/etx mixed race ● Indios/Negros Amerindians or Africans/African descendants Hierarchies: Culture of Rank & Control Honorable Men ● Dominant, forceful, unquestioned ruler of household Honorable Women ● Saved for marriage ● lineage; marry well ● strong sense of shame; submissive to husband/father; faithful While this culture exists for people regardless of class; class did not influence the degree to which these norms were followed Examples: ● Wealthy woman had more to lose ● Indian/African women bore heaviest burden as the bottom Casta Paintings ● The interest of theSpanish Enlightenment in organizing knowledge and scientific description, resulted in the commission of many series of pictures that document the racial combinations that existed in the exotic lands that Spain possessed on the other side of the world. Quilombo ● Quilombo de Palmares in Alagoas, Brazil, 16051694 Tupac Amaru ● Tupac Amaru II and Micaela Bastida rebirth of Inca Kings Revolt; 17801781 Religious Syncretism Catholicism in the Colonies ● Maledominated ● Jesuitsone order of clergy ○ By 1700’s father strobelt→ spaniards have more control. ○ Violent, not humble (like indigenous) (Jesuits tried to be more of the people) ● Religious syncretism ○ to convert ○ form of resistance/persistence ■ On part of indigenous people because they already have traditions ● Going to incorporate Religious Syncretism ● Blending of religious beliefs from 2 or more distinct traditions, hybridity ○ MéxicoVirgin of Guadalupe and Dia de los muertos (Day of the Dead) ■ Looks more like the indigenous people, traditional clothing ● Combo of both ■ Day of the dead create alter, offer food with expectation that they will come back, not catholic (blending) ○ CubaSanteria ■ Osune: maps onto the Virgin Mary (Our lady of cherry) ● Darker skin version of mary ■ Yamaya ○ BrazilCandomble Which of following are forms of resistance, persistence, or hybridity? ● Mapuche Textiles ○ By hand, continue throughout history Hybridity ● Blending of religious beliefs from 2 or more distinct traditions, hybridity Week 5: Mercantilism Mercantilism (1500searly 1800s) 1. National Wealth measured by bullion (gold, silver) 2. Favorable balance of trade 3. Sea power 4. Colonies a. Manpower b. Raw materials 5. Active role of the state a. Did not permit a lot of other places to have control→ easier independence Liberalism Liberalism (1800s1930) ● Notions of “Liberty” and “Progress” ○ “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” (1789 French Revolution ○ “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness” (1776 U.S. Independence) ● 1) Free Market Economy/Laissez faire ○ State not involved ● 2) Exportoriented strategies ○ Not relying on other places, all came from one country ● 3) Reason over faith ○ Part of idea that science was more important than religion ○ Separation of church and state ● 4) Equal Citizenship ○ Representative democracy ○ Just overcame colonial system ■ Did not feel that had role ○ Progress of independence ● 5) Progress over Tradition ○ Referring to the necessity to modernize ○ Always want to look ahead Limits of Latin American Liberalism ● Minimal growth ● Continued elite control ● Dependency ○ Foreign investors for money ○ Controlled land ● Final Blow: WWI and 192930 Great Depression Need to reconstruct What needed to be done? ● Produce what the rich countries prodndustria goods ● Create a dynamic urban sector with educated population ImportSubstitution Industrialization (1930s1980s) ● Raul Prebisch (19011985) ● Director of Economic Commission of Latin America 1930s ● Early Advocates of Dependency Thesis ○ World economy systematically disadvantages exporters of primary products ○ No one's gonna pay more for raw than industrial good ● Governments need to start protecting national industry ● Economic Independence ○ Substitute imports with domestic products ● Create jobs for the working class ● Increased role of state in regulating market ○ Protectionism for national companies ■ Nationalizing industries ● State controls an industry ○ EX: Electricity is not private owned ■ Tariff barriers ● Harder for things produced internationally are harder to purchase than the national products ● Incentive ■ Quotas ● Can tell what can be imported by other countries ■ Direct subsidies ● Paying for certain industries so that they keep prices down ● Competitive to foreign made/owned products Side Consequences of ISIS ● Populism ○ Candidate that relies on masses backing their ideas ■ Through attractive, not realistic means ● Welfare states: ● State provided Healthcare ● State provided Education ● Increased social expenditures ● Strong social safety needs Problems with ISI ● Continued reliance on foreign capital goods ● Limited domestic markets ● Lowquality products Neoliberalism (1980s1990s) ● Milton Friedman (19122006) ● Economic freedom is the means for political freedom, not the other way around ● 19461976 ○ University of Chicago ○ Relationship to Latin American economists known as the “Chicago Boys” ● 1976 ○ Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences ● 1988 ○ National Medal of Science Presidential Medal of Freedom ● Free trade/ Deregulation ○ Opening national economies to foreign trade and investment ○ Reduction / removal of tariffs on imports ○ Deregulation of capital flows / Free trade agreements ● Privatization ○ The sale of formerly staterun corporations and public services ● Restructuring/Reduction of the state ○ “downsizing” the state ○ Decentralization of decisionmaking Friedman's main arguments: The Proper Role of the Government ● National defence of citizenry and property rights ○ Army ○ Police ● As “umpire” and “rulemaker” ● Regulating the monetary framework Consequences of Neoliberalism ● Individual emerges as primary unit ○ ISI=Collective ● Collective is disempowered (EX: Labor unions) ○ Working class is disempowered ■ Extreme wealth disparities ● Reality is not the same as theory Distinguish between theory and the practice (David HarveyImportant critic) New Left (2000sToday) ○ Characterized by leaders such as Lula (Brazil); ○ Hugo Chávez (Venezuela); Evo Morales (Bolivia); ○ Kirchners (Argentina); ○ Michelle Bachelet (Chile); ○ Rafael Correa (Ecuador) ● Response to failed neoliberal policies ● Varying degrees of state intervention combined with free market principles Dependency Theory ● Milton Friedman Porfiriato Porfirio Diaz ● 18761911 ● “PORFIRIATO” ○ Time in office ○ Tried to Modernize Mexico ■ Progress important ● Reason over faith ○ Invested in science ● Foreign investment ○ Economic approach ○ Railway ● Extreme Inequalities ○ Disparities squeezed people out ○ Not fair elections ■ Pushed out professional class ○ 1908 will not run in 1910 ■ Just kidding, not real intention Mexican Revolution (19101920) ● Francisco Madero • Victoriano Huerta ● Three Factions ● Venustiano Carranza—1917 Constitution ● Pancho Villa ● Emiliano Zapata—Plan of Ayala ● Land issues in the Mexican Revolution Francisco Madero ○ Diaz has him arrested ○ Called from jail cell for people to revolt ■ May 1911→ Diaz defeated→ flee ● 19111913 ○ President ● In Favor of Political Change ○ Agitated people because they wanted more to be done ● Calls for Revolution Victoriano Huerta ● 19131914 (led coo to run) ● Amy General ● Unpopular as Leader ● 3 Faction Emerge Venustiano Carranza ● 19171920 ● Leader of Constitutionalists Faction ○ Mexico for Mexicans ○ Urban ○ Nationalize foreign owned land ○ Caused him to step down ● Constitution of 1917 Pancho Villa ● Leader of Northern Faction of the Revolution ○ Against Huerta too ● Assassinated, 1923 ○ A wanted man, constantly on the move ■ Survived mexican revolution ■ Part to cease fire in 1920 ■ Assassinated because not trusted Emiliano Zapata ○ Needed redistribution of land ● Leader of Southern Faction of the Revolution ○ Zapatistas in 1910 ○ Sided with Madero ■ Did not make reforms ● Turned against him drastically ● Plan of Ayala ● Assassinated, 1919 Lazaro Cardenas Land Policies Under Lazaro Cardenas ● President 19341940 ● National Revolutionary PartRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) ● Populists/Nationalist tendencies ○ Agrarian Reform ■ Land to peasants ■ More than anyone before or after him ○ Nationalization of the Petroleum Industry Background ● Neoliberalism ○ Mexican Debt Crisis ○ Structural Adjustment Programs ■ Getting rid of quotas ● NAFTA ● President Carlos Salinas (19881994) ○ Gets rid of ejido land protection Nationalization of Petroleum ● under Lazaro Cardenas Constitution of 1917 ● Venustiano Carranza ● Article 27: returned half of the ejido land to the villages ● All natural things in the soil and seas belongs to Mexico ○ Satisfied desire of Constitutionalists for Mexico for Mexicans Southern Faction = land ref rm Article 27 ● Part of the Constitution of 1917 ● returned half of the ejido land to the villages Plan of Ayala ● Emiliano Zapata ● Plan of Ayala, 1911 ○ Necessity to give land to peasant pt 6 ○ Enhido Point 7 part of land designated as communal land ■ Inheritance to pass on land, but do not own it as private property Venustiano Carranza ● Constitution of 1917 Populism ● Supports masses over the elites ● often uses unorthodox solutions ○ Cut his own Salary in half to be one of the people ○ Moved out of presidential home (save money for government, and to be one of the people) ● relationship to Nationalism ○ Land policies Francisco Madero ○ Diaz has him arrested ○ Called from jail cell for people to revolt ■ May 1911→ Diaz defeated→ flee ● 19111913 ○ President ● In Favor of Political Change ○ Agitated people because they wanted more to be done ● Calls for Revolution Zapatistas/EZLN ○ Zapatistas in 1910 ○ Sided with Madero ■ Did not make reforms ● Turned against him drastically Ezlin Achievements ● Autonomy and Indigenous rights ● Ceasefire and and negotiations ● Social projects: education, healthcare and collective development Agrarian Reform ○ Land to peasants ○ More than anyone before or after him NAFTA ejido ● Ejidos are Mexican farms or ranches under the collective control of groups that work them ● President Carlos Salinas (19881994) ○ Gets rid of ejido land protection ● Ejido reform The Mexican government has begun to pursue significant land reforms that have directly affected the ejido program. For example, last November, President Carlos Salinas de Gortari presented to Mexico's Chamber of Deputies an initiative for changes to the Mexican Constitution's Article 27, which covers agricultural land tenure. Noting Mexico's "insufficient output, low productivity;' and "unacceptable living standards" in the agricultural sector, President Salinas proposed to open land ownership to greater market discipline by better defining property rights. Under the new rules, members of an ejido collective can rent land to nonejido members, and can obtain full rights to the landincluding the right to sell to other parties. Moreover, to protect those rights, the constitutional right to new ejido land has been eliminated, reducing the threat that newly private lands would be appropriated by the government for new communally held ejidos. Limitations on ownership are greatly reduced. Corporations now can own ejido land, for example. Moreover, foreign investment now is encouraged and foreign corporations can own Mexican agricultural land. Week 6: Platt Amendment (19031934) ● US had right to intervene in Cuban affairs when interests were threatened ● US Territory on Guantanamo Bay Triumph of the Revolution Rebel Movement 1956 ● Guerilla warfare ● attracting peasant support ● Victory at Santa Clara, Dec. 31, 1958 ○ Decisive victory ● Batista flees, Jan. 1, 1959 The Triumph of the Revolution January, 1 1959→ continue Fidel Castro ● Son of a sugar farmer ● Lawyer ● Led movement to overthrow Batista January , 1959 ● Poverty ● Fidel Castro ○ Tired of foreign control ■ TIme of expectation Interview with Fidel Castro, Ed Sullivan Show, 1959 ● Ed Sullivan is saying that FC is admired because he’s like a George Washington ● FC likes how people in the US that people are hard working ○ Belongs everywhere in world because people from all countries live there ● We like you and we want you to like us ○ Suspicion that bad things might happen ● Soon after revolution Raul Castro ● Once Fidel assumed powe,aubecame head of the armed forces and served as Cuba's defense minisaulbecame president in 2008. ● Pushing cubans to have own businesses ● Freedom to cell phones and internet Che Guevara ● Ernesto "Che" Guevara, commonly known as el Che or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, di lomat, and military theorist. Sugar industry Cuba and Spain, 19th Century ● One of Spain’s Last Colonies in Western Hemisphere ● Sugar ● 1846: 36% of population enslaved; 17% free blacks ○ Afrocuban→ fear of spanish crown ● Fear of another Haiti ● Elevation of agricultural class ○ White elites on the island at the time were given more power and status ● Direct trade to US Haiti’s Revolution fueled the rise of big sugar in Cuba ● Cuba Dependent on Sugar ● 1780s: 10,000 tons (3.2% of Caribbean production) ● 1894: 1,000,000 tons, world record at the time US Economic Influence on Cuba ● Controlled sugar industry in Cuba ● Primary importer of Cuban sugar ● Continued monocrop dependence on sugar José Martí (18531895) ● W
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