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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Tuesday September 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Robert Short in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/15/15
Psychology Study Guide Exam 1 o What is Psychology and what are its goals The study of mind and behavior It is an academic discipline and an applied science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases Goals To learn more about the subject to understand more about the subject 0 Know all of the properties of a research correlation C0rrelati0n the extent to which two or more variables are associated with one another C0rrelati0n coe icient a mathematical expression of the relationship between two variables 0 What does it mean to be randomly assigned Random assignment of subjects occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study This then allows the groups to be fairly similar in most ways 0 What does it mean to be debriefed Debriefing is a discussion of procedures hypothesis and subjects reactions at the completion of the study 0 Explain what a correlation is and its mathematical representation A correlation is the extent to which two or more variables are associated with one another The correlation coefficient is a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables A positive correlation indicates two variables change in the same direction and negative correlation indicates two variables change in opposite directions Coefficient ranges between 0 amp1 if positive and between 0 amp 1 if negative 0 1 Be very clear about the difference between correlation and causation Although a high correlation allows us to predict one variable it does not tell us whether a causeeffect relationship exists between two variables Variables can be highly correlated even though they are not causally related Ex Ice cream and drowning As the amount of ice cream sold increases the amount of drowning are likely to increase while as the amount of drowning increase the amount of ice cream sold is likely to increase Although they correlate together they are not causally related Correlation is NOT equivalent to causation The causation of drown and ice cream could both be the heat 0 What is responsible for carrying information from the central nervous system to tissue A network or neurons carry information from the nervous system to the tissues through action potentials These are electric impulses carried down the neuron that cause the neuron to release neurotransmitters into the synapse a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron or nerve cell to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron The neurotransmitters then cause the next neuron to generate an action potential starting at its dendrite then to the cell body and then carried down its axon Neurotransmitters released into synapseljaction potential in dendritesljap carried to cell bodyap carried down axons to axon terminalrelease of neurotransmitters into next synapse causing next neuron cycle 0 What is an independent and dependent variable independent condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable dependent variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable 0 What do we know about Alzheimer s disease schizophrenia and neurotransmitters An inadequate amount of neurotransmitter has been linked to Alzheimer s disease An excess amount of the neurotransmitter dopamine has been linked to schizophrenia 0 What is an agonistantagonist and how do they work Agonist Chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter Antagonist chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter 0 Know all of the various schools of psychology and their arguments Structuralism Wundt 1879 Liepzig Germany Argument Subject matter of psychology was immediate experience Goals 0 Analyze conscious processes into their basic elements sensations images feelings 0 Discover how these elements are connected 0 Specify the laws of connection Method 0 Self observation 0 Study all the little parts not the whole picture 0 Before selfreports were considered data Functionalism William James 1890 USA Argument Psychologythe study of the mind as it functions in adapting the organism to its environment Ie how do people adapt to their environments Methods Introspection questionnaires and mental tests to provide objectivity Gestalt Psychology Max Wertheimer Kurt Kof lta Wolfgang Kohler Germany Revolt against Wundt structuralism PsychologyStudy of immediate experience of the whole organism Ie the whole is different from the sum of its parts Perception and how it s organized received the most attention from this school Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud 1900 Austrian physician Focused on origin development and treatment of abnormal behavior Argument Unconscious processes direct our everyday behavior Method Free association and dream analysis used to explore the unconscious Awareness of the unconscious forces leads to more rational and satisfying lives Behaviorism John Watson 1913 USA Trained as a functionalist but shifted focus from Mind to Behavior PsychologyThat which is observable and measurable NOTHING else Focus on how behavior is learned and modified BF Skinner Died in 1990 Operant conditioningYour behavior is a product of external in uences Behaviorism has its limitations leading to greater focus on mental processes Today psychologythe science of behavior and mental processes 0 What is research replication and why do they do it Replication is the attempt to reproduce results obtained in a specific experiment or study in order to help validate results 0 Know policies described on syllabus 6 department research credits needed to pass the course No more than 3 can be taken online 300 possible points 4 total exams worth 100 points each lowest score will be dropped Extra credit available by filling out 10 weekly exercises turned in by Nov 24 Tu rning in the research department sheet in by April 23 by 2 0 Know the key points and messages of all video presentations mm amp We learned some portions of the brain function differently specifically when dealing with language and speech Those who learned English at a young age used different portions of the brain than those who learned later in life Adults were observed using mostly portions in the left side of the brain Infants and young children used locations all over the brain We also saw a dear individual who had elevated visionusing portions of the brain otherwise used for hearing mm Ramachandran presented theories on phantom limb pain Using mirrors to replicate a whole limb he believes that tricking the brain into thinking the body is whole again can neutralize pain He also talked to us about mirror neurons and how neurons will fire off when someone sees someone else being touched or others perform action imitationemulation mm Taylor Her brother had schizophrenia and he had a hemorrhage making her feel like an infant in a woman s body She talked about the Corpus Calosum how each side of brain talks The right hemisphere deals with the now while the left hemisphere is all about the past and future The morning of her stroke she felt a pounding pain behind her IIIIII left eye She switches between first person perspective and 3rd person perspective and can t define where she ends and begins Her right arm goes numb which is due to the hemorrhage being on the left hemisphere of the brain She can t read or talk matches squiggly numbers on business card to squiggly numbers on phone in order to dial When she wakes up she has complete nirvana amp pain from all of her senses 0 Know all of the research methods along with their strengths and weaknesses Descriptive methods involve attempts to measure or record behaviors thoughts or feelings in their natural state Useful in determining correlation Naturalistic observations watch studies intensive examination of person group Archives public record of social behaviors Survey ask questions about beliefs and behaviors Psvchological tests involve attempts to asses an individual s abilities cognitions motivations or behaviors EXperimental methods involve attempts to manipulate social processes by varying some aspect of the situation Frankenstein amp manipulation Ethical Issues 0 What is the amygdala responsible for Primary function in the processing and memory of emotional reactions Believed to regulate human emotions Aggression and fear 0 What comprises the limbic system endocrine system sympathetic nervous system peripheral nervous system amp central nervous system Limbic System Hippocampus Memory learning Amygdala Aggression Fear Hypothalamus Homeostasis Pituitary Gland Hormones Not part of brain but regulated by hypothalamus Endocrine System consists of gland that secrete hormones into bloodstream Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Parathyroid glands Thyroid gland Thymus Liver Adrenal gland Pancreas Kidney Placenta in female during pregnancy Ovary female Testis male Sympathetic Nervous System branch of autonomic nervous system that mobilizes body s resources for emergencies Peripheral Nervous System made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord Extends to the periphery outside of the body Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord 0 How do neurons communicate Through electrical charge dendrites receive signalsomaaction potentialterminal 0 What is the placebo effect A control group The beneficial effect in a patient following a particular treatment that arises from the patient s expectations concerning the treatment rather than from the treatment itself EX being given a sugar pill while being told it is medication The placebo effect is seen if the patient begins to show signs of recovery or actions otherwise associated with medication 0 In order to measure either a physical or mental construct what criteria must the measure meet Reliable consistency Valid true measuring what s supposed to be measured Somethin must be reliable in order to be valid 0 Know all about a neuron and its responsibilities 0 Know the ethical guidelines given by the America Psychological Association 0 Know all of the discussed neurotransmitters and their primary responsibilities 0 What does plasticity refer to when talking about the brain NOT IN STUDY GUIDE 0 According to ancient Greek Civilizations what is psychology PsycheGreek for soul LogosGreek for the study of a subject ThalesWater 0 Know all of your brain lobes their location and their responsibilities Frontal lobe in the front controls muscle movement Parietal lobe forward of the occipital lobe senses touch monitors the body s position in space Occipital lobe back of head visual processing Temporal lobe below parietal lobe auditory processing 0 Why is drug withdrawal a painful experience for addicts Drug withdrawal is a painful experience because during the use the brain adjusts to the large amounts of drug being put into the system Because of the large amounts the brain stops producing the neurotransmitters that the drug causes to be released into the system When the drug stops being taken the body lacks those neurotransmitters causing pain nausea and other effects These effects end when the brain readjusts and starts producing the neurotransmitters again 0 Broca s area and Wernicke s are in the brain and their responsibilities Brocas Left side of frontal lobe Loss of language aphasia Responsible for speech and language production hesitant agrammatic speech can still understand others can often sing quite well Wernicke s Temporal lobe of the left hemisphere Responsible for speech and language comprehensioncognition Word salad uid but unintelligible 0 What were the Greek philosophers interested in discovering If the mind and soul were connected If sensations should be avoided sensations are apart of mind or soul If truth is subjective Sensations critical to knowledge Socrates believed that truth is subjective but also promoted introspection detailed mental examination of your own feelings thoughts amp motives 1 Plato believed that ideas are independent of subjectivity sensation is ignorance 2 Aristotle believed that sensation is critical to knowledge PsycheSoul
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